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Ch 2 The channel participant 谁动了我的奶酪？ p 作为广告商的林先生回忆起他的“第一桶金”时，愉快之余又 似乎感到有些偶然。那是三年前，他接到为一家著名家电 企业制作直营店、加盟店店招的订单，起初合约中的数量 并不多，区域也仅是一个城市；谁知，订单一个接着一个， 后来忙的时候，对方的电话就成了订单，那一年，林先生 几乎跑遍了全省所有的地市县，甚至一些乡镇。他觉得自 己赶上一个好时候：那家家电企业正如火如荼地进行着“决 胜终端”的“渠道革命”…… p 然而，当时和林先生一样忙得热火朝天的那家家电公司的 经理们，现在的心情已经大不一样了：那些辛辛苦苦开垦 出的网点，三年下来，大都消失了！
p p p 面对一下子萎缩下来的业务，林先生实在是一筹莫展、有 苦难言。四处碰壁的他，眼下正象没头苍蝇一般，实在弄 不明白这一切怎么发生得这么突然。痛定思痛，林先生不 由得扪心自问：究竟是谁动了我的渠道？ 笔者的不少朋友是经销商。有时候他们也会感慨一下他们 的地位改变。有个做化妆品的经销商是这样说的：当年在 卖永芳F珍珠膏的时候，货一到，商店就来排队抢，还要 来拍我的马屁。那个时候，要跑什么店，做什么市场啊， 哪有卖不出去的东西。后来，商店的人就来的少了，只是 电话联系联系要货。现在，我们是又要雇业务员跑市场， 又要去讨好那些商店的采购了，新产品要进他们那里，是 要先付一大笔的进场费再说了…… 从坐等来客到主动逢迎，从昔日的呼风唤雨到今天的“摇 尾乞怜”，反差如此巨大。这一切，真是“成也渠道，败也 渠道”。那么，到底是谁动了自己的渠道呢？
一 The channel participant overview 1. Definition: It refers to all organizations and institutions related to distribution.
2. Classification: creterion：price negotiation and ownership transfer Marketing channel participant Membership participant Non-membership participant manufacturer middleman（wholesaler and retailer ） consumer Storage and transport organization market research organization advertisement agent bank insurance organization
二 Producer or manufacturer 1. Definition and type 2. play a part in: p Channel source p the main organizers p the main innovator. 3. Advantages and disadvantages case: TCL Lenovo Wahaha
三、Wholesalers 1. Wholesale and wholesalers Wholesale refers to the marketing activities that provide all goods and services to those operating for resale or other commercial use. p Wholesalers are those organizations and individuals primarily engaged in the wholesale business. p
Decision process: should intermediaries be used? Use intermediaries ? no sell directly yes what type of intermediaries? how much? create channel structure
2. The classification and characteristics wholesaler Merchant wholesaler Business scope Agent wholesaler Service function Generalline wholesaler Maincategory wholesaler Specialized wholesaler subject Manufacturer owned organization power manufacturer Agent broker Entire Sale agent service Purchasing wholesaler agent Auction Limited house im/export service agent wholesaler Single & multiple General agent & sub-agent Commission agent & buyout agent
The difference between agent and the deal mainly manifests in the following three points: p Both sides of the deal have trade relationship; Both sides of the agent have agent relationship. p Dealers stand for their own merchandise , and agents on behalf of manufacturers in sales and contract. p Dealers' income is from of the price gap between purchase and sale, but agents' income is Commission.
3、 wholesalers’ role upstream Market coverage Sale contact inventory Deal with order Market information Customer support Marketing task for wholesaler result More effective channel and profit of wholesaler downstream Provide products Customer service financing Classification convenience Bulk purchase Suggestion and technology support
discussion： Wholesalers' present situation and outlet?
四、retailing What do you have already known?
1、retail merchant's concept p Retailing provides the commodities for the consumer uses. But these commodities are not used in the productive consumption either the resale. p Ultimate consumers are mainly individual or family; p Retail sales include not only products retail sales, but also service; Is not only the store retail sales, but also non-store; Is not only the retail merchant, but also the manufacturer、the importer、wholesaler's retail business.
2. Retailer significance Macro-economic significance p Intermediate perspective p Micro- significance p
3. Retailer classification According to property rights : Independent store、chain store、franchising p According to retailing mix: store & non-store According to the relationship of Store: Isolated shops, commercial Street, Shopping mall.
New perspectives 1. channels service output & retailing p 2. the target customers and customer behavior of different retail formats p 3. the operation modes of Retailing p
Customers’ channel needs ( service outputs) 1. bulk-breaking 2. spatial convenience 3. waiting or delivery time 4. assortment and variety 5. Service Backup How do you dig Customer needs?
2、Retail service outputs P 404 batch convenie nce time variety（ category（ breadth） depth） Department Gross profit store yes middle short broad middle/shall ow Franchised shop Gross profit yes middle short narrow deep Convenient shop Gross yes high short broad shallow Category killer turnover yes low short narrow deep supermark turnover et yes low short broad moderate no low middle/lo ng broad shallow form storage Gross profit/turnov er turnover
case 1 channel market segmentation----taking beverage as an example P 32 Channel need Family description Office clerk description batch I buy beverage every week. I have only ten minutes and I can only buy a tin beverage. “ convenienc I drive to nearby supermarket to buy. e “in ten minutes, I can only buy which I can get easily. ” time I have much beverage at home. I didn’t get If I can’t can in ten what I want and I will come next time. minutes, I have to give up. variety We two love cola, but children can’t have. I can’t to be very picky. It good to get it.
v v Try ：How do you arrange the channels？ case 2：reasons and characteristics of shopping online Purchase step Plan what to buy Go to bookshop search store purchaser online purchaser dangdang Select one by one pay pack Take home Open package purchaser purchaser dangdang purchaser
Considering: the causes and Purchasers’ Characteristics p Inspiration: It is not to change the product but to change the way of product’s selling! Some cases : Entrepreneurship in marketing channel
五、Non-members of the participants Transport enterprises p Storage enterprises p Market research agencies p Insurance Companies p bank p Advertisement Agents p