Скачать презентацию Ch 17 The West Western Frontier Скачать презентацию Ch 17 The West Western Frontier

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Ch 17 The West Ch 17 The West

Western Frontier • Stretched from Mississippi R. to Pacific • Prairies, mts. , forests Western Frontier • Stretched from Mississippi R. to Pacific • Prairies, mts. , forests • Great Plains • “Unsettled”

The Gold Rush • Near Sacramento, CA, 1849 • Led miners to head west The Gold Rush • Near Sacramento, CA, 1849 • Led miners to head west

The Comstock Lode • 1859, 2 miners found gold in the Sierra Nevada • The Comstock Lode • 1859, 2 miners found gold in the Sierra Nevada • Land claimed by Henry Comstock • Lode: rich vein of ore • Surrounded by bluetinted sand which turned out to full of silver

Mining in the West • Prospectors (those looking for mines) spread west • Found Mining in the West • Prospectors (those looking for mines) spread west • Found ore in MT, ID, CO, & gold in the Black Hills (SD) and Alaska • Few got rich – Ore deep underground – Expensive to extract

Mining Dangers • • Explosions (worked w/ TNT) Flooding Little Oxygen Poor lighting Cave-ins Mining Dangers • • Explosions (worked w/ TNT) Flooding Little Oxygen Poor lighting Cave-ins Extreme temperatures Other injuries

Life in Boomtowns • Boomtown: place where tent city built up quickly when a Life in Boomtowns • Boomtown: place where tent city built up quickly when a mine was discovered • What is a ghost town? • Merchants sold needed supplies for high prices • Women opened restaurants, washed clothes, took in boarders • ½ foreign born: Irish & other Eur. , Chinese – Often treated with hostility

Frontier Justice • No organized law enforcement at first • Formed vigilantes (self-appointed law Frontier Justice • No organized law enforcement at first • Formed vigilantes (self-appointed law keepers) • Imposed own type of justice • Eventually, sheriffs, marshals, & judges replaced vigilantes as territories organized

Railroad Boom • Federal gov’t offered subsidies (grants of land or $) to dev. Railroad Boom • Federal gov’t offered subsidies (grants of land or $) to dev. RR in the West • For every mi. of track, the gov’t gave the RR 10 square mi. of land next to the track

Transcontinental RR • RR that crossed the continent • 2 companies: Central Pacific (owned Transcontinental RR • RR that crossed the continent • 2 companies: Central Pacific (owned by Leland Stanford) & Union Pacific • Central Pacific built E. from Sacramento • Union Pacific built W. from Omaha, NE • Built by many Americans & immigrants • Central Pacific hired many Chinese – Intended to save $ & return to China – $ earned was less than others but still more than they would have made at home – Immigrants faced much discrimination

Problems Workers Faced • • • Low Pay Dangerous work Severe weather Blasted through Problems Workers Faced • • • Low Pay Dangerous work Severe weather Blasted through mts Progress slow

Completion • Railroad completed May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, UT • Gold spike Completion • Railroad completed May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, UT • Gold spike driven in by Leland Stanford

Effects of the RR Positive • Increased population • Led to dev. of towns Effects of the RR Positive • Increased population • Led to dev. of towns • New states: NV, CO, ND, SD, MT, WA, ID, WY, OR • Growth in other industries (iron, steel, rubber, etc) • Economic growth Negative • Took Native American land • Killed the buffalo (which Native Americans depended on)

Section 2 Section 2

Great Plains • Stretched from Canada in the North to Texas in the South Great Plains • Stretched from Canada in the North to Texas in the South • Stretched from Mississippi River in East to Rocky Mountains in West • Much flat, prairie • East Plains good for farming • West Plains unsuitable for farming • Extreme temperatures

People of the Plains • Gathered wild foods, hunted, fished • Introduced to horses People of the Plains • Gathered wild foods, hunted, fished • Introduced to horses (Sp) & guns (Br. & Fr. ) which they used while hunting • Could kill more game & travel faster & farther

Importance of the Buffalo • Survival of many Plains Indians depended on it • Importance of the Buffalo • Survival of many Plains Indians depended on it • Used meat as food, hide for teepees & clothing, fur, bones for tools & weapons, tendons as thread • Followed buffalo herds

Roles of Men & Women Plains men • Hunters • Warriors • led religious Roles of Men & Women Plains men • Hunters • Warriors • led religious life Plains women • managed village life • Farmed • cared for children • prepared food • carved tools, made clothing & teepees (cone-shaped tents made of buffalo skins)

Broken Treaties • Ft Laramie (1851): US promised to protect lands of Plains nations Broken Treaties • Ft Laramie (1851): US promised to protect lands of Plains nations if they stopped following the buffalo • Settlers moved onto land as soon as treaty signed

Sand Creek Massacre (1864) • Gold was discovered near Pikes Peak, CO, & Native Sand Creek Massacre (1864) • Gold was discovered near Pikes Peak, CO, & Native Americans there were forced to give up homes • Some protested by attacking supply trains & settlers’ homes • In response, Col Chivington & 700 volunteers attacked friendly Cheyenne under army protection @ Sand Creek, CO, even though Cheyenne waved white flag • Over 200 Cheyenne killed • Beginning of the Indian Wars— 25 year period of fighting between US army & Nat. Am

Little Big Horn • June 1876, Col. • Many Native Custer attacked Sioux Americans Little Big Horn • June 1876, Col. • Many Native Custer attacked Sioux Americans forced (led by Sitting Bull & onto reservations Crazy Horse) & (land set aside for Nat. Cheyenne to force Am. to live on) them onto reservations • Farming difficult • Custer & men were • If gold was killed “Custer’s last discovered, like the stand” Black Hills, SD, miners would invade • Eventually, Nat. Am. land forced onto reservations

Other Resistance Attempts • Nez Perces: led by Chief Joseph • Tried to flee Other Resistance Attempts • Nez Perces: led by Chief Joseph • Tried to flee to Canada to avoid moving onto reservations but army caught up with them— “I shall fight no more forever” • Apaches: led by Geronimo • Fought until forced onto a reservation in OK

Ghost Dance • Performed in 1880 s, led by Nat. Am. called Wovoka • Ghost Dance • Performed in 1880 s, led by Nat. Am. called Wovoka • Performed by Sioux & others • Believed ancestors & buffalo would return & white settlers would leave • Soldiers thought it was resistance effort • 1890 Sitting Bull killed when police tried to stop dance • Sioux fled but were pursued and many killed near Wounded Knee • Battle of Wounded Knee ended Indian Wars

Failure of Reform • Susette La Flesche: daughter of Omaha chief told stories in Failure of Reform • Susette La Flesche: daughter of Omaha chief told stories in speeches & articles of treatment Nat. Am. received • Helen Hunt Jackson: A Century of Dishonor: told of broken treaties btwn US gov’t & Nat. Amer.

Dawes Act, 1887 • Congress tried to turn Nat. Am. into farmers & make Dawes Act, 1887 • Congress tried to turn Nat. Am. into farmers & make them like other Amer. • Set up schools & gave ea. man 160 acres of land to farm • Few took to farming • Didn’t want to give up traditional ways • Remained very poor • Nat. Am. didn’t believe in land ownership • Didn’t become citizens until 1920 s

Section 3 The Cattle Kingdom Section 3 The Cattle Kingdom

The Cattle Kingdom • area of the Great Plains where cattle were bred • The Cattle Kingdom • area of the Great Plains where cattle were bred • Stretched from Canada to Texas • Dominated by cattle industries, ranches, trails, and cow towns

Rise of the Cattle Industry • open range: unfenced land • Texas longhorn: cattle Rise of the Cattle Industry • open range: unfenced land • Texas longhorn: cattle with broad horns that was easy to care for • Survived on prairie grass & watering holes • Demand for beef was high • RR meant beef could be shipped E

Cattle Drives • Ranchers hired cowhands to bring cattle to rail lines • cattle Cattle Drives • Ranchers hired cowhands to bring cattle to rail lines • cattle drives: herding & moving of cattle over long distances – Began in spring – Lasted 2 -3 mos. – Followed trails like Chisholm (San Antonio, TX, to Abilene, KS)

Life on the Trail • Hard & dangerous • Risks: – Lightning would send Life on the Trail • Hard & dangerous • Risks: – Lightning would send cattle on stampede – Swift river currents could carry away cattle – Grass fires – Swamps – thieves • Paid less than $1/day • Spent 18 hrs/day on trail

Spanish Roots • Vaqueros: Sp. word for cowhand (cowboy) – – Ride, rope, brand Spanish Roots • Vaqueros: Sp. word for cowhand (cowboy) – – Ride, rope, brand Spurs, chaps Cowboy hat Lariat/lasso • 1/3 cowboys were Mex. • Rest were Afr. Am. & Civil War vets.

Wild West • Cow town: dev. by Joseph Mc. Coy— settlement @ end of Wild West • Cow town: dev. by Joseph Mc. Coy— settlement @ end of cattle trail • Cattle could be penned in while awaiting shipment • Where trail met RR lines • Cowboys could relax – Dance halls, saloons, hotels, restaurants

Myth of the West • Idea that W. was place of violence, adventure, & Myth of the West • Idea that W. was place of violence, adventure, & opportunity • Spread by William “Buffalo Bill” Cody • Created traveling Wild West Show • Some truth, but W was changing

Cattle Boom • Ranchers could buy a calf for $15 & sell a steer Cattle Boom • Ranchers could buy a calf for $15 & sell a steer for $60 • High profits • New breeds caught fewer diseases and had more meat than longhorn

Decline of Cattle Kingdom • 1886 -1887: scorching summers & terrible winters killed millions Decline of Cattle Kingdom • 1886 -1887: scorching summers & terrible winters killed millions of cattle • Competition w/ sheep over prairie grass & water rights (access to water) • Farmers fenced in open range (which meant ranchers had to buy land for cattle) • RR lines expanded & were closer to ranches—no need for roundup & cattle drives

Section 4 Farming on the Plains Section 4 Farming on the Plains

Homestead Act • Passed by Congress 1862 • Gave 160 acres to anyone who Homestead Act • Passed by Congress 1862 • Gave 160 acres to anyone who lived on it for 5 yrs • Gave poor a chance to own farms • homesteaders: settlers who acquired free land from the gov’t • Problem: most land dry & only 1/3 homesteaders were successful

RR Influence on Farming • Promoted farming • More farms more crops more shipping RR Influence on Farming • Promoted farming • More farms more crops more shipping • Gave away some land received from gov’t • Recruited ppl from E. US & N. Eur.

Life on the Plains • Water scarce & soil dry • Crops hard to Life on the Plains • Water scarce & soil dry • Crops hard to grow • Soil was fertile • Covered w/ thick sod that hardened w/rain • Sod bricks used to build walls for homes • Cool in summer & warm in winter • Sodbusters: Plains farmers that broke up sod • Everyone worked in farm families from dawn to dusk • Children tended animals & helped w/ chores • Women: kept house, planted, harvested, educated kids, nursed sick, preserved food, made candles & soap

New Farming Methods • Used plows to break through sod • John Deere 1877—steel New Farming Methods • Used plows to break through sod • John Deere 1877—steel plow—was stronger & lighter than others • Drills used to bury seeds • Cyrus Mc. Cormick—Reapers—harvested crops • Threshers—beat off grain coverings • Windmills—pumped H 2 O out of ground • Barbed wire—twisted metal wire used as fencing

Farming Tools Thresher Barbed Wire Steel Plow Reaper Farming Tools Thresher Barbed Wire Steel Plow Reaper

Exodusters • Afr. Am. (esp. former slaves) who moved onto the Plains • By Exodusters • Afr. Am. (esp. former slaves) who moved onto the Plains • By 1880 s, 70, 000 in KS • Believed they were like the Jews who fled slavery in Egypt • Fleeing segregation in the S.

Settling OK • Apr. 1889—OK open for settlement • “Sooners”—ppl who sneaked onto land Settling OK • Apr. 1889—OK open for settlement • “Sooners”—ppl who sneaked onto land b/4 they could claim it • “Sooner State” • 1890 Census— frontier closed

Farmers Organize • As farmers brought more grain to market, prices dropped • Surplus Farmers Organize • As farmers brought more grain to market, prices dropped • Surplus of crops • Had borrowed $ for land & machines • Couldn’t repay loans

Granges • Grps of farmers who met for lectures, sewing bees, & other events Granges • Grps of farmers who met for lectures, sewing bees, & other events • 1867 formed Nat’l Grange • Demanded same low rates from RR & warehouses that big farmers received • Elected officials who lowered rates

Farmers’ Alliance • Formed in late 1870 s • Made cooperatives: grps of farmers Farmers’ Alliance • Formed in late 1870 s • Made cooperatives: grps of farmers who pool $ to make large purchases of tools, seed, & other supplies @ a discount

Populist Party • 1892—supported by farmers & labor unions Wanted • Public ownership of Populist Party • 1892—supported by farmers & labor unions Wanted • Public ownership of RR & warehouses to ctrl rates • Income tax • 8/hr workday • Back $ w/ silver & gold (free coinage) • Inflation: general increase in prices • Wanted to pay off debt Election of 1896 • Supported William Jennings Bryan, Dem candidate • Banks & businesses backed Mc. Kinley (Rep) • Most Am. saw no link to their lives & farmers • Mc. Kinley won • Major 2 parties adopted Populist ideas

Importance of Third Parties • Form to bring attention to an issue that major Importance of Third Parties • Form to bring attention to an issue that major two parties aren’t addressing • Can have major impact on an election (Ie 1992—Independent Party) • Tend to dissolve when a major party (Rep or Dem) takes on their issue