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Ch. 14 Sec. 5 Wars & the Growth of Nations 1 Ch. 14 Sec. 5 Wars & the Growth of Nations 1

England • In 1328 the last male member of France’s Capetian dynasty died • England • In 1328 the last male member of France’s Capetian dynasty died • Edward III of England claimed the French throne, but the French assembly chose Philip VI of Flanders as king instead • Edward started the Hundred Years’ War between France & England; England won many battles but lost the war 2

 • The Hundred Years’ War saw the use of new weapons • English • The Hundred Years’ War saw the use of new weapons • English longbows could kill knights on horseback 200 yds. away • Both sides used gunpowder & cannons • The war also increased the power of the English House of Commons • Its members won the right to advise the king & consider all new taxes 3

 • After the Hundred Years’ War, two royal families fought for England’s throne • After the Hundred Years’ War, two royal families fought for England’s throne • The War of the Roses was between the House of York, whose emblem was the white rose, & the House of Lancaster, whose emblem was the red rose • Henry Tudor of Lancaster defeated Richard III of York • As King Henry VII he set up a strong monarchy in England 4

 • • France suffered during the Hundred Years’ War English soldiers robbed the • • France suffered during the Hundred Years’ War English soldiers robbed the people, destroyed land, & many French starved An internal fight broke out in the French royal family bcuz the House of Burgundy sided w/ the English against the House of Orleans Finally, Charles VII (House of Orleans) became king w/ the help of Joan of Arc 5

 • Joan of Arc believed God had spoken to her, she left home • Joan of Arc believed God had spoken to her, she left home at age fourteen to aid the French king • In 1428 she led French troops to victory against the English • She was captured by the English, accused of heresy, & burned at the stake 6

 • During the war, the Estates General, controlled finances & passed laws, but • During the war, the Estates General, controlled finances & passed laws, but after the war, it lost power to Louis XI • Louis XI strengthened the monarchy & set up a harsh but efficient gov’t w/ high taxes • He seized the lands of the House of Burgundy & united the country, reducing the power of French lords 7

Spain • Spain became a united nation under Ferdinand & Isabella 8 Spain • Spain became a united nation under Ferdinand & Isabella 8

 • In 1492 their army captured Grenada, the last stronghold of the Moors • In 1492 their army captured Grenada, the last stronghold of the Moors • Ferdinand & Isabella took power away from church courts & from the nobles • In 1492 they ordered all Jews to become Christians or leave Spain • Later they gave Moors the same choice & most Jews & Moors left, robbing Spain of leaders of industry & trade 9

The Holy Roman Empire • The Holy Roman Empire remained divided into independent states The Holy Roman Empire • The Holy Roman Empire remained divided into independent states • The emperors had given up much of their power in return for military support • In 1273, a member of the Habsburg family became emperor • The Habsburgs ruled a state in what is now Switzerland 10

 • They gained power through marriages & careful strategies of armed conquest • • They gained power through marriages & careful strategies of armed conquest • The Habsburgs became the most powerful family in Europe, but they could not unite the Holy Roman Empire • German princes refused to surrender power • In Italy, the Papal States, ruled by the pope, stretched across the middle of the peninsula, blocking efforts to bring all of Italy under centralized control 11