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Case Study: Disinfection byproducts in a recently constructed public water supply Maria O’Connell, P. Case Study: Disinfection byproducts in a recently constructed public water supply Maria O’Connell, P. E. Kristine Wheeler, P. E. New York State Department of Health Glens Falls District Office

Service Area Intake Wilton Burnt Hills/ Ballston Lake & CPWA Global Foundries Stillwater V/T Service Area Intake Wilton Burnt Hills/ Ballston Lake & CPWA Global Foundries Stillwater V/T Saratoga Hills

SCWA Water System • Hudson River • Low Lift Pumps • Raw Water Transmission SCWA Water System • Hudson River • Low Lift Pumps • Raw Water Transmission Main • Chemical Injection: Permanganate, Coagulant (PACL) and Powder Activated Carbon (PAC) • Mixing Basin • Filter Pumps • Membrane Filter Racks (14 MGD) • Chemical Injection: Chlorine and Caustic Soda (p. H adjustment) • Clearwell for chlorine contact time (1 MG) • High Lift Pumps • Finished Water Transmission Main (≈30 miles) • Finished Water Storage at Global Foundries (5 MG)

Purchase Customers • Wilton • Burnt-Hills-Ballston Lake • Clifton Park Water Authority • State Purchase Customers • Wilton • Burnt-Hills-Ballston Lake • Clifton Park Water Authority • State Farm Insurance (via CPWA) • Round Lake (via Clifton Park) • Stillwater Village • Stillwater Town • Global Foundries • Moreau (emergency connection pending 2013) • Mechanicville (possible emergency connection)

Global Foundries Global Foundries

Source: Hudson River • Turbidity • Color • Natural Organic Matter (NOM) • Total Source: Hudson River • Turbidity • Color • Natural Organic Matter (NOM) • Total Organic Carbon (TOC) • Algae

Low Lift Pump Station Low Lift Pump Station

Chemical Injection • Sodium Permanganate • Polyaluminum Chloride (PACL) • Powder Activated Carbon (PAC) Chemical Injection • Sodium Permanganate • Polyaluminum Chloride (PACL) • Powder Activated Carbon (PAC) ◦Taste & Odor ◦DBP Precursors • Sodium Hypochlorite • Caustic Soda

Mixing Basin • Pre-filter Chemical Mixing • Short Detention Time • No Significant Pretreatment Mixing Basin • Pre-filter Chemical Mixing • Short Detention Time • No Significant Pretreatment • Enhanced Coagulation BAT for DBPs

Membrane Filters • Pall Aria Membrane Microfiltration • LT 2 ESWTR Giardia & Crypto Membrane Filters • Pall Aria Membrane Microfiltration • LT 2 ESWTR Giardia & Crypto Removal • Dissolved Matter, DBP Precursor Removal • Membrane Fouling

Lagoons • No Discharge, no SPDES permit • Increased filter cleaning frequencies caused increased Lagoons • No Discharge, no SPDES permit • Increased filter cleaning frequencies caused increased recycle rates • Increased DBP Precursor Loading

Clearwell & CT Clearwell & CT

Finished Water Transmission Main • About 30 miles • 36” then 30” diameter • Finished Water Transmission Main • About 30 miles • 36” then 30” diameter • Detention time • Two smaller diameter pipes ◦Back up ◦Lower detention time

Finished Water Storage • Located at Luther Forest Technology Campus • 5 Million Gallons Finished Water Storage • Located at Luther Forest Technology Campus • 5 Million Gallons • Booster Chlorination • Recirculation • Dedicated to Global Foundries

Total Trihalomethanes 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Public Water Supply Name Q 1 Q Total Trihalomethanes 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Public Water Supply Name Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Burnt Hills Ballston Lake WD 55. 0 64. 3 82. 5 68. 8 Clifton Park Water Authority 42. 6 37. 2 34. 3 43. 6 Round Lake Village 79. 9 85. 0 97. 8 118. 5 Saratoga County Water Authority 50. 5 52. 9 52. 2 54. 6 Saratoga Hills Park (Stillwater) 55. 0 77. 3 99. 5 111. 8 State Farm Insurance (Bldg 2) 87. 0 107. 8 120. 2 144. 5 Stillwater Village 36. 0 55. 7 74. 7 86. 8 Stillwater WD #1 41. 3 51. 0 85. 8 104. 3 Wilton Water & Sewer Authority 29. 6 31. 6 34. 2 50. 0 Moreau Town (Queensbury) 49. 8 61. 5 57. 2 53. 5

Total Trihalomethanes - CPWA 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Sample Site Q 1 Q Total Trihalomethanes - CPWA 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Sample Site Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 56. 8 51. 5 56. 0 70. 3 Boyack Rd. 0. 0 4. 0 3. 2 Bruno Rd. Storage Tank 7. 3 7. 5 12. 7 Grooms Tavern 23. 3 21. 8 25. 3 25. 6 Jonesville Fire Dept. * 33. 0 25. 5 39. 7 49. 5 Riverview Rd. * 25. 5 21. 0 23. 5 22. 5 Round Lake Rd. Metering* 21. 0 43. 5 56. 0 60. 8 State Farm Regional Office (Bldg 1) 82. 0 68. 0 50. 3 69. 0 Blue Spruce Water Storage Tank *Sites only have 1 year of data

Haloacetic Acids 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Public Water Supply Name Q 1 Q Haloacetic Acids 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Public Water Supply Name Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Burnt Hills Ballston Lake WD 18. 5 22. 9 38. 3 Clifton Park Water Authority 34. 3 24. 4 19. 3 25. 8 Round Lake Village 52. 4 43. 1 44. 4 45. 7 Saratoga County Water Authority 61. 5 48. 5 35. 2 32. 2 Saratoga Hills Park (Stillwater) 35. 3 49. 8 55. 0 55. 3 State Farm Insurance 36. 3 36. 0 39. 0 Stillwater Village 35. 0 53. 7 57. 3 60. 5 Stillwater WD #1 20. 5 25. 5 31. 3 32. 8 Wilton Water & Sewer Authority 25. 0 20. 1 27. 4 40. 5 Moreau Town (Queensbury) 18. 8 22. 5 24. 5

Haloacetic Acids - CPWA 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Sample Site Q 1 Q Haloacetic Acids - CPWA 2012 Running Annual Average (ug/l) Sample Site Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 46. 8 32. 3 31. 5 44. 0 Boyack Rd. 0. 0 0. 6 0. 4 1. 5 Bruno Rd. Storage Tank 4. 3 4. 0 3. 7 6. 2 Grooms Tavern 13. 3 12. 9 13. 6 14. 6 Jonesville Fire Dept. * 30. 0 20. 0 19. 6 29. 0 Riverview Rd. * 13. 8 11. 5 Round Lake Rd. Metering* 30. 0 26. 5 34. 7 41. 0 State Farm Regional Office 29. 3 34. 8 36. 3 52. 0 Blue Spruce Water Storage Tank *Sites only have 1 year of data

Factors for Evaluation • Groundwater vs Surface Water • Stage 1 vs Stage 2 Factors for Evaluation • Groundwater vs Surface Water • Stage 1 vs Stage 2 DBP Rule • Conventional vs Membrane • Finished TOC Comparable • NOM Species Reactivity Varies • Detention Time

Challenges • Round Lake is on SNC List • Stillwater Pending SNC List • Challenges • Round Lake is on SNC List • Stillwater Pending SNC List • Stage 1 vs. Stage 2 DBP Rule • Public Notification

Looking Forward • Permanganate has been added • PAC trial at Raw Water PS Looking Forward • Permanganate has been added • PAC trial at Raw Water PS • Evaluate other oxidants and disinfectants • Tank Aeration • Increased Flows • Distribution System Management • Operator Training • Carbon Filtration? • Pretreatment?

Thank you! Thank you!