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CASARA NATIONAL NAVIGATOR COURSE Weather for the CASARA Navigator Casara CASARA NATIONAL NAVIGATOR COURSE Weather for the CASARA Navigator Casara

Weather Review Contents: u METARs u u Upper winds (FD) u NOTAMS u PIREPS Weather Review Contents: u METARs u u Upper winds (FD) u NOTAMS u PIREPS u Casara TAFs SIGMETs

Weather Review u Casara Nav Canada Web Site Weather Review u Casara Nav Canada Web Site

METAR u u Taken at airports (FSS/ATC or Auto) u Standard reports hourly, top METAR u u Taken at airports (FSS/ATC or Auto) u Standard reports hourly, top of the hour u Casara Station actual weather report Special reports for significant changes

METAR’s Four letter identification of aerodrome u CYYT - St. John’s u u CYQB METAR’s Four letter identification of aerodrome u CYYT - St. John’s u u CYQB - Ville de Québec u Casara CYFC - Fredericton CYYZ - Toronto

METAR’s u u CYWG - Winnipeg u CYED - Edmonton u Casara CYYZ - METAR’s u u CYWG - Winnipeg u CYED - Edmonton u Casara CYYZ - Toronto CYVR - Vancouver

METAR’s u u Casara Date/Time Group in six figures Day/Hour Time is in UTC, METAR’s u u Casara Date/Time Group in six figures Day/Hour Time is in UTC, universal time coordinated or commonly called Zulu

METAR’s Wind u the nearest 10 degrees. u u Casara Speed to the nearest METAR’s Wind u the nearest 10 degrees. u u Casara Speed to the nearest knot. Gusts are noted only if they are five knots or more above the mean.

METAR CYWG 182300 Z 26004 KT 10 SM -SHRA OVC 038 07/02 A 3002 METAR CYWG 182300 Z 26004 KT 10 SM -SHRA OVC 038 07/02 A 3002 RMK SC 8 SLP 169= Winnipeg Airport at 2300 UTC wind is 260 at 4 kts METAR CYYT 190000 Z 36020 KT 12 SM BKN 038 05/04 A 3003 RMK SC 7 SLP 170= St John’s Airport at 0000 UTC wind is 360 at 20 kts METAR CYED 190100 Z 00000 KT 15 SM SCT 038 BKN 080 02/02 A 3002 RMK SC 3 AC 2 SLP 168 Edmonton Airport at 0100 UTC wind is calm Note the location, the time and the wind in italics Casara

Decoding METARs Type Station Date/Time Wind METAR CYND 182300 Z 26004 KT Vis Weather Decoding METARs Type Station Date/Time Wind METAR CYND 182300 Z 26004 KT Vis Weather Sky Cond. Temp Altimeter 10 SM -SHRA OVC 038 07/02 A 3002 Remarks RMK SC 8 SLP 169 Casara

TAF’s Terminal Area Forecasts (TAF) give: u Station identification. u u Valid time ( TAF’s Terminal Area Forecasts (TAF) give: u Station identification. u u Valid time ( usually 12 - 24 hours ). u Casara Time of issue ( day and time ). Valid time may change due to uncertainty of the weather.

TAF’s u WIND - same as in METAR’s. (TRUE) u VRB - if wind TAF’s u WIND - same as in METAR’s. (TRUE) u VRB - if wind less than 3 kts. u WS 012/17050 KT - low level wind shear by giving the wind direction and speed at height AGL (above ground level). u WS 012/17050 KT Wind Shear: wind at 1200 feet AGL is 170 T at 50 kts. u Casara

TAF's TAFs also give changes in conditions and winds u TEMPO 1801 - temporary TAF's TAFs also give changes in conditions and winds u TEMPO 1801 - temporary between 18 & 01 Z u u FM 0130 Z - from 0130 Z onward u Casara PROB 30 2022 - probability 30% - 40% between 20 & 22 Z BECMG 0608 - becoming between 06 & 08 Z

Decoding TAFs Type Station Issued Valid Wind Vis Sky TAF CYND 181958 Z 182002 Decoding TAFs Type Station Issued Valid Wind Vis Sky TAF CYND 181958 Z 182002 21008 KT P 6 SM BKN 040 Temporary condition Wind Vis. Weather Sky TEMPO 2024 35020 KT P 6 SM -SHRA BKN 030 From Time Wind Vis. Sky FM 0000 Z 16008 KT P 6 SM SCT 020 BKN 030 TEMPO 0002 P 6 SM -SHRA BKN 020 RMK NXT FCST WILL BE ISSUED AT 191145 Z= Casara

FDs and GFDs u u GFDs: Graphical depiction of the winds for a specific FDs and GFDs u u GFDs: Graphical depiction of the winds for a specific altitude over a large area. u All winds are True. u Based on twice daily observations. u Casara FDs: Forecast upper winds at various altitudes over major reporting sites. Valid for the periods indicated.

FDs and GFDs u u Six numbers: wind direction / speed and temperature. u FDs and GFDs u u Six numbers: wind direction / speed and temperature. u Casara Temperatures are indicated for levels above 3000’ (Temperature below 3000’ is too variable). Eg: 2533 -10 means wind is 250 T at 33 Kts, temperature at this altitude is – 10 C.

Example FD OTTAWA. ONT for use 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 FDCN 01 CWAO Example FD OTTAWA. ONT for use 3000 6000 9000 12000 18000 FDCN 01 CWAO FCST BASED ON 190000 DATA VALID 190600 05 -09 1911 222503 243008 253814 266823 FDCN 02 CWAO FCST BASED ON 190000 DATA VALID 191200 09 -18 2041 2438 +00 2438 -04 2547 -09 247021 FDCN 03 CWAO FCST BASED ON 190000 DATA VALID 200000 18 -05 2735 293102 283008 274213 275426 STN YOW - Casara

Example GFD (Graphic Forecast upper winds) Casara Example GFD (Graphic Forecast upper winds) Casara

NOTAMS u u Casara A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change NOTAMS u u Casara A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard. Distributed on the AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network.

NOTAMS NOTAM decode: CG CYZZNYOW (priority & address) 141736 CYNDYFYX (originator time and address) NOTAMS NOTAM decode: CG CYZZNYOW (priority & address) 141736 CYNDYFYX (originator time and address) 05007 NOTAM CYOW OTTAWA / (number) (new NOTAM) (originator) (name of aerodrome or facility) MACDONALD CARTIER INTNL CYOW (name of aerodrome or facility) ILS 07 U/S (Type of facility) (condition) Casara (identifier) TIL 0501191200 (until approximately)

PIREPS u u Casara A pilot weather report pertaining to current weather conditions encountered PIREPS u u Casara A pilot weather report pertaining to current weather conditions encountered in flight. They are codified by FIR and FSS allowing easy retrieval by flight crews.

PIREPS UACN 10 CYXU 032133 (Msg Type “urgent”, office & time) YZ (FIR) UA/OV PIREPS UACN 10 CYXU 032133 (Msg Type “urgent”, office & time) YZ (FIR) UA/OV YXU 090010 / TM 2120 / FL 080 / (United airlines / over London VOR radial 090/10 nm / at Time 2120 / altitude 8, 000 ft) TP PA 31 / SK 020 BKNO 40 / TA-12 / (type is Piper Navajo / smoke at 2000 ft topped at 4000 ft / temp -12 / WV 030045 (wind is 030 deg true at 45 kts) Casara

SIGMETS u u Casara Short term warning of certain potentially hazardous weather phenomena. Issued SIGMETS u u Casara Short term warning of certain potentially hazardous weather phenomena. Issued for active thunderstorms, hail, severe turbulence or icing, marked wind shear and a number of other threats.

SIGMETS Decode: WSCN 33 CWTO 171805 Issued by Toronto Forecast Centre for Graphic area SIGMETS Decode: WSCN 33 CWTO 171805 Issued by Toronto Forecast Centre for Graphic area 33 at 171805 UTC SIGMET A 5 VALID 171805/172205 CWTO SIGMET A 5 (superceded A 4) is valid from 171805 UTC to 172205 UTC WTN 30 NM OF LN / 4622 N/07925 W NORTHBAY/ 4458 N/07918 W/MUSKOKA /4302 N/08109 W/LONDON Weather radar observed thunderstorms within 30 nm of a line from North Bay to Muskoka to London TS MAX TOPS 3000 OBSD ON RADAR. LN MOVG EWD AT 20 KTS. LTL CHG IN INTSTY. Maximum tops of the line is 30, 000 ft. The line is moving eastward at 20 kts. Little change in intensity is expected during the period Casara

Nav Canada WEB Site u The Aviation Weather WEB site can be accessed at Nav Canada WEB Site u The Aviation Weather WEB site can be accessed at www. flightplanning. navcanada. ca It provides: u AIRMETs, SIGMETs, METARs, TAFs, Upper Winds and NOTAMs as well as the whole catalogue of graphical products Casara

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