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Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications edited by David Capuzzi and Mark Stauffer Chapter Four Career Counseling Without Borders: Moving Beyond Traditional Career Practices of Helping Manivong J. Ratts Kristi. Anna Santos
Introduction § Demographic trend toward greater diversity § Counselors prepare for multicultural and advocacy needs
Definitions § § Multiculturalism has historically been used to refer to racial and ethnic individual and group differences. Diversity refers to individual and group differences based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, economic class, religion, spiritual orientation, age, and disability status, to list a few.
Definitions § § Race is a social construct that categorizes individuals based on skin pigmentation and other physical attributes. Ethnicity has to do with an individual’s identification with a cultural group based on factors such as country of origin, language, sociopolitical history, and religion.
Definitions Individual, group, universal dimensions of existence (Sue & Sue, 2008) § § § Individual – uniqueness of a person Group – commonalities of experiences individuals have as a result of being a member cultural group Universal – all human beings have regardless of individual or group needs
Definitions Oppression exists when one social group exploits another social group for its own benefit. Oppression is distinct from a situation of simple brute force or control. It is first and foremost a systematic phenomenon that involves ideological domination, institutional control, and the promulgation of the dominant group's ideology of domination and culture on the oppressed. Oppression is simply not an ideology or set of beliefs that asserts one group's superiority over another. Nor is it random acts of discrimination or harassment toward members of the subordinate group. It is a system of domination with many interlocking parts. (Hardiman & Jackson, 1982, p. 2)
Definitions • Fouad, Gerstein, and Toporek (2006) define social justice as “the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within a society” (p. 1). • Social justice counseling is both a goal and a process.
Definitions Multicultural counseling is “a helping process that relies on both universal and culture-specific techniques to meet goals that are consistent with client values; recognizes individual, group and universal dimensions of client identity; and integrates client worldview into the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of client’s and client systems” (Rubel & Ratts, 2007, p. 50).
Multicultural Competencies in Counseling Multicultural Competencies (MCCs) 1. Own cultural values and biases 2. Client’s worldview 3. Culturally appropriate intervention strategies
Limitations of Traditional Career Theories Traditional career development theories often § § § Emphasizes “person variables” and dimensions over context and culture Theories are often in direct conflict to cultural values (e. g. , self-determination, centrality of work, masculinity). Does not adequately account for external barriers related to oppression
Limitations of Traditional Career Theories Traditional career development theories often overlook barriers § § § Racial discrimination Sexual discrimination Limited financial resources Parental influence Low grades Difficulty entering first job
Systems Approach A systems approach to career counseling was important because it emphasized “both the parts within a whole system and view the whole system as greater than the sum of its parts” (Arthur & Mc. Mahon, 2005, p. 209).
Advocacy • Advocacy is the process of taking action to empower clients. The ACA Advocacy competencies provide a framework for career counselors to enact advocacy strategies.
Advocacy Competency Domains Acting With Client/ Student Client/Student Empowerment Client/Student Advocacy School/ Community Collaboration Systems Advocacy Public Arena Public Information Social/Political Advocacy Acting On Behalf Microlevel (Lewis, Arnold, House & Toporek, 2002, p. 1) Macrolevel
Working With Clients 1. View clients within the context of their environment 2. Explore whether client problems are connected to oppressive social, political and economic conditions 3. Move beyond traditional models of helping when working with culturally diverse clients
Understanding Clients 1. Through a sociopolitical framework 2. Through Identity development 3. Through worldview
Example Model Swanson and Fouad’s (1990) model on culturally appropriate career counseling 1. Culturally appropriate relationship 2. Identify career issues
Example Model Swanson and Fouad’s (1990) model (Cont. ) 3. Assess the impact of cultural variables on career issues 4. Set culturally appropriate processes and goals
Example Model Swanson and Fouad’s (1990) model (Cont. ) 5. Implement culturally appropriate interventions 6. Decision making 7. Implementation
References Arthur, N. , & Mc. Mahon, M. (2005). Multicultural career counseling: Theoretical applications of the systems theory framework. The Career Development Quarterly, 53, 208 -222. Fouad, N. A. , Gerstein, L. H. , & Toporek, R. L. (2006). Social justice and counseling psychology in context. In R. L. Toporek, L. H. Gerstein, N. A. Fouad, G. Roysircar & T. Israel (Eds. ), Handbook for social justice in counseling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action (pp. 1 -16). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Hardiman, R. , & Jackson, B. (1982). Oppression: Conceptual and developmental analysis. In M. Adams, P. Brigham, P. Dalpes & L. Marchesani (Eds. ), Social diversity and social justice- Diversity and oppression: Conceptual frameworks (pp. 1 -6). Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt. Lewis, J. A. , Arnold, M. S. , House, R. & Toporek, R. L. (2002). Advocacy competencies: Task force on advocacy competencies. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Rubel, D. , & Ratts, M. (2007). Diversity and social justice issues in counseling and psychotherapy. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds. ), Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions (4 th ed. , pp. 47 -67). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education. Sue, D. W. , & Sue, D. (2008). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (5 th ed. ). New York: John Wiley and Sons. Swanson, J. A. , & Fouad, N. A. (1999). Career theory and practice: Learning through case studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.