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Carbon-Smart Farming Negative Carbon-Negative an introduction Confronting Climate Change PARADIGM SHIFT 20 th Century Carbon-Smart Farming Negative Carbon-Negative an introduction Confronting Climate Change PARADIGM SHIFT 20 th Century How to Sequester Carbon high low carbon Regenerate Soil 21 st Century Global Warming low carbon Unstable Economics Nutrient-Dense Food antibiotic Biological Degeneration probiotic Produce Biofuels Fossil Fuel Addiction

Carbon-Smart Farming a DEFINItion Confronting Climate Change 1. Soil Tests 2. Mineral Ratios program Carbon-Smart Farming a DEFINItion Confronting Climate Change 1. Soil Tests 2. Mineral Ratios program to adjust major minerals & trace elements 3. Biochars minimum annual application: initial 1000 lbs. /acre 4. Composts organic matter digestion & feeding program 5. microbe inoculation & feeding for The Soil Food Web 6. Inoculants Cover Crops continuous ground cover & minimum tillage 7. Rotations long-term, rapid rotations of crops & livestock 8. Marketing low carbon, eco-local distribution & sale annual increase in measured carbon, up to 9%

Confronting National Conference on Cover Crops & Soil Health Carbon-Smart Farming Cover Crops continuous Confronting National Conference on Cover Crops & Soil Health Carbon-Smart Farming Cover Crops continuous ground cover & minimum tillage Soil health is a new initiative of Climate Change USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) February 18, 2014 Summer : industrial-scale agriculture Four Practiceskicks off this major effort Identical to farms from Ohio to Nebraska Forum on Cover Crops and Soil Health: set Brandt apart from other farmers – vast fields of corn & soybeans Harvesting the Potential First: dedication to off-season cover crops Winter : no-till, cover crop agriculture webinar broadcast live from Omaha Currently used on 1% of US farmland yearly 200 free meetings and soil health demonstrations Neighbors’ fields lie fallow – bare & brown Howard Brandt’s fields are green with cover crops Second: hostility to tilling Buffett IL farmer, conservationist, philanthropist Fall plantings with up to 14 plant species – Sold his tillage equipment in 1971 Tom Vilsack – blanket soil in winter Considers tillage a disruptive practice USDA Secretary of Agriculture – protect soil from extreme weather Disassembles soil food web infrastructures The Big Picture: – feed sugar to soil microbes Third: fondness for earthworms Conservation, Cover Crops & Soil Health – support biological diversity & complexity Fourth: adds wheat to corn-soy rotation Four Midwest cash crop – rot in place in spring farmers Dan 28 -minute youtube video De. Sutter, IN - Dave Brandt, Corn-soy favored all over Corn Belt OH www. youtube. com/watch? v=n. WXCLVCJWTU Clay Mitchell, IA - Gabe Brown, ND Third crop disrupts weed & pest patterns Half Brandt’s corn & soy flourish without fertilizer, “Try to mimic Mother Nature. noted for focus on soil health, cover crops Three farmers in Stanley County, NC 2012 Iowa State University study: and no herbicides; and farm profitability Cover crops work together conservation tillage, on how they use multi-species cover crops 3 rd crop cuts herbicide & agrichemical use will describe benefits of their soil management Other half gets less than consultants recommend like a community Cover crop use ranges from cereal rye& ryegrass to realize economic returns on their investment – you have many people helping Promise of no-till, cover-crop Farming to crimson clover, hairy vetch & oilseed radishes USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service the first year instead of one. ” Reduce agrichemical use Advocates Soil Stewardship After the webinar: video produced in partnership by Regenerate soil food web biology David Brandt Trains agents to teach farmers about cover crops local discussion groups Dr. Robin 'Buz' Kloot, Earth Sciences & Resources Institute plan Grower Discussion meetings. Carolina field Adapt to extreme weather & climate days Brandt’s farm is a site used to train NRCS agents 1, 200 acre farm University of South & summer Info & assistance for Technology Support National Conference on Cover Crops & Soil Health Keep heartland churning out food Center USDA NRCS East Nationalsoil health management Carroll, central Ohio (pop. 524) Under Cover Farmers

Carbon-Smart Farming Confronting Climate Change a DEFINItion 1. Soil Tests 2. Mineral Ratios fertility Carbon-Smart Farming Confronting Climate Change a DEFINItion 1. Soil Tests 2. Mineral Ratios fertility program to adjust element levels 3. Biochars minimum annual application: initial 500 lbs. /acre 4. Composts soil digestive system & feeding program 5. microbial inoculation & feeding program 6. Inoculants Cover Crops 7. Rotations long-term, rapid rotations of crops & livestock 8. Marketing Low carbon, eco-local distribution annual increase in measured carbon, up tp 9% continuous ground cover & minimum tillage

Confronting Carbon-Smart Farming Rotations long-term, rapid rotations of crops & livestock Climate Change Soil Confronting Carbon-Smart Farming Rotations long-term, rapid rotations of crops & livestock Climate Change Soil Carbon Coalition www. soilcarboncoalition. org put the carbon back where it belongs To advance the practice and engage people in opportunities to turn atmospheric carbon into soil organic matter Livestock : land improvement by grazing UK National Trust Dr. Allan Savory Holistic Management Grass-fed beef is better for people and land. Carbon Farmers of America Abe Collins Feeding cattle grass throughout their life is Joel Salatin Mob grazing & Chicken tractor the most sustainable way to raise beef. Grass-fed beef Greg Judy This is contrary to belief livestock farming Gary Zimmer Biological Agriculture www. ted. com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_green_the_world_s_deserts_and_reve rse_climate_change Crops : carbon storage by plant biomass plant successions & services biodiversity & polycultures plant & insect communities weed & pest control home-grown fertility must intensify to feed increasing population. Debate on climate change & food often calls for reduced meat eating and plant-based diet, but overlooks the fact many grasslands are unsuitable for continuous cropping. Grasslands support many ecosystem services: watersheds, wildlife, biodiversity, carbon capture, weather, etc. Grazing livestock can contribute to grassland maintenance to turn grass into human food.

Carbon-Smart Farming Rotations Confronting Climate Change long-term, rapid rotations of crops & livestock Karoo Carbon-Smart Farming Rotations Confronting Climate Change long-term, rapid rotations of crops & livestock Karoo Region of South Africa average rainfall: 23 cm/year Holistic Planned Grazing Conventional Continuous Grazing higher stocking densities tightly packed herds frequent movements well-planned rotations no technology, irrigation, or fertilizer mimic behavior of natural herds with predators quickens desertification Reversing desertification is a global warming mitigation strategy because carbon is stored in stable, long-lasting organic matter in soil Conversion of semi-desert to healthy savanna = carbon capture of 25 to 60 t C/ha Improvement in soil and vegetation restores water tables Vegetation cover contributes to evaporative cooling PHOTO: Kroon Family

Confronting Carbon-Smart Farming Rotations Zimbabwe Climate Change long-term, rapid rotations average rainfall: 60 cm/year Confronting Carbon-Smart Farming Rotations Zimbabwe Climate Change long-term, rapid rotations average rainfall: 60 cm/year of crops & livestock Barren land eroding for decades transformed to healthy grassland savanna Karoo Region of South Africa average rainfall: 23 cm/year Holistic Planned Grazing Conventional In one year, fast-growing, short-rooted Continuous Grazing annuals start to grow (white stringy plants) heavy concentration of 500 cattle higher stocking densities corralled on site 7 to 10 evenings Land is put in a monitored grazing plan tightly packed herds quickens desertification left excess dung & plant litter frequent movements Eventually, as grazing plan continues, site will be covered in perennials well-planned rotations If grazing stops, plants oxidize, and likely returns to desert no technology, irrigation, or fertilizer After full recovery in 25− 30 years, SOC density will increase to 25− 60 tons C/ha mimic behavior of natural herds with predators Dense annuals provide ground cover to retain moisture & build biodiversity in soil Annuals are first-phase in restoration, but soil carbon capture is minimal After 8 years, perennials appear (taller pinkish-beige plants) Deep roots accelerate soil carbon capture PHOTO: Kroon Family Photos: ACHM, Seth Itzkan

Confronting Carbon-Smart Farming Climate Change Rotations long-term, rapid rotations Las Pilas Ranch, Coahuila, Mexico Confronting Carbon-Smart Farming Climate Change Rotations long-term, rapid rotations Las Pilas Ranch, Coahuila, Mexico of crops & livestock average rainfall: 50 cm/year Karoo Region of South Africa In 25 years, barren land completely revived average rainfall: 23 cm/year Holistic Planned Grazing Conventional Continuous Grazing Pond is grown over and no longer needed, higher stocking densities Looks to be more water in 1963, as dried-up springs flow year-round again tightly packed herds quickens desertification but runoff was captured by a man-made pond; even a 6 -inch rain is all absorbed, a 1 -inch rain filled the pond frequent movements with no standing water in the pond well-planned rotations no technology, irrigation, or fertilizer mimic behavior of natural herds with predators PHOTOS: Guillermo Osuna Restoration with Holistic Planned Grazing started in 1978 Livestock doubled; grazing by a plan to give close attention to grass health In 2003, restored land holds six times more water than depleted terrain Water is held in soil and vegetation in a state called “green water” PHOTO: Kroon Family