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CAPT REVIEW 1 CAPT REVIEW 1

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WHAT ARE THE BIG IDEAS IN EARTH/PHYSICAL SCIENCE? • • Matter Energy How they WHAT ARE THE BIG IDEAS IN EARTH/PHYSICAL SCIENCE? • • Matter Energy How they interact How do we use them? 3

HOW DO WE OBSERVE MATTER? • Senses • Tools 4 HOW DO WE OBSERVE MATTER? • Senses • Tools 4

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHYSICAL CHANGE and a CHEMICAL CHANGE? • Physical Change is WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHYSICAL CHANGE and a CHEMICAL CHANGE? • Physical Change is the same substance • Chemical Change new substance (compound) 5

WHAT MAKES UP MATTER? • Molecules, atoms, elements, mixtures, etc… 6 WHAT MAKES UP MATTER? • Molecules, atoms, elements, mixtures, etc… 6

PUT THESE IN ORDER OF SIZE: Cell atom molecule grain of sand • Atoms PUT THESE IN ORDER OF SIZE: Cell atom molecule grain of sand • Atoms make up molecules which are in cells which are smaller than a grain of sand 7

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WHAT'S AN ATOM? • Smallest part of an element that is still an element. WHAT'S AN ATOM? • Smallest part of an element that is still an element. 9

WHERE DID YOUR ATOMS COME FROM? • The atom of oxygen inside the molecules WHERE DID YOUR ATOMS COME FROM? • The atom of oxygen inside the molecules of water in the cells in your body…. • …have been traveling around the earth since it was formed 10

Does anything ever go away? • No!, just recycled around 11 Does anything ever go away? • No!, just recycled around 11

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Where do we get our resources? • We use minerals, metals, compounds from the Where do we get our resources? • We use minerals, metals, compounds from the ground (mostly). • We change/refine them. • Everything we use is a chemical. 14

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Where does our waste go? • Some items get decomposed. • Some items get Where does our waste go? • Some items get decomposed. • Some items get burned, atoms in the air. • Some items get dumped, landfills forever. 16

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WHAT MAKES UP AN ATOM? • Protons and neutrons in the center (nucleus) • WHAT MAKES UP AN ATOM? • Protons and neutrons in the center (nucleus) • Electrons orbiting around 20

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HOW ARE ELEMENTS DIFFERENT? • Elements…. Different number of protons 22 HOW ARE ELEMENTS DIFFERENT? • Elements…. Different number of protons 22

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HOW IS THE PERIODIC TABLE PERIODIC? • Arranged by similar properties that repeat. • HOW IS THE PERIODIC TABLE PERIODIC? • Arranged by similar properties that repeat. • Elements in the same columns (groups) are alike, because the same number of outside electrons 24

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WHAT'S A COMPOUND? • 2 or more atoms joined together. • Like H 2 WHAT'S A COMPOUND? • 2 or more atoms joined together. • Like H 2 O, water (di hydrogen monoxide), or O 2 (oxygen gas) 28

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WHY DO ATOMS JOIN? • Atoms join to exchange or share outer electrons 30 WHY DO ATOMS JOIN? • Atoms join to exchange or share outer electrons 30

RULE OF EIGHT • Lose an electron is POSITIVE (metals) Gain an electron is RULE OF EIGHT • Lose an electron is POSITIVE (metals) Gain an electron is NEGATIVE (non metals) • OPPOSITES ATTRACT: Form Compounds IONIC (Give/Get) 31

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COVALENT (Share) • Organic compounds, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, share outer electrons. 35 COVALENT (Share) • Organic compounds, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, share outer electrons. 35

What’s the structure of plastic? • Chains of Sharing carbons 36 What’s the structure of plastic? • Chains of Sharing carbons 36

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What are plastics used for? • Come from petroleum, used for strength, flexibility, lightness. What are plastics used for? • Come from petroleum, used for strength, flexibility, lightness. • Tough to decompose! 39

WHAT'S A CHEMICAL EQUATION MEAN? • Combining elements and compounds, rearranging their electrons to WHAT'S A CHEMICAL EQUATION MEAN? • Combining elements and compounds, rearranging their electrons to make a new substance. 40

State this in words: HCl + Na. OH ---> H 2 O + Na. State this in words: HCl + Na. OH ---> H 2 O + Na. Cl • Acid + Base make Water and a Salt • Same number of atoms on left as right. 41

WHAT ARE THE STATES (PHASES) OF MATTER? • SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES 42 WHAT ARE THE STATES (PHASES) OF MATTER? • SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES 42

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What are the differences in the phases? • Gases: like preschoolers in a gym! What are the differences in the phases? • Gases: like preschoolers in a gym! • Liquids: like middleschoolers at a dance! • Solids: like elderly at a Bingo dinner! 44

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HOW DO THEY CHANGE FROM ONE TO THE OTHER? • Solid --> Liquid --> HOW DO THEY CHANGE FROM ONE TO THE OTHER? • Solid --> Liquid --> Gas Take In heat to break bonds • Gas --> Liquid --> Solid Give Off heat to form bonds (you could say take in cold) 46

WHAT's THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HEAT AND TEMPERATURE? • Temperature is the AVERAGE movement energy WHAT's THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HEAT AND TEMPERATURE? • Temperature is the AVERAGE movement energy of each molecule. • Heat is the TOTAL energy transferred. • Campfire and Wood Match, same temperature, different heat 47

WHAT ARE THE WAYS IN WHICH HEAT CAN BE TRANSFERRED? • Conduction: molecules touch WHAT ARE THE WAYS IN WHICH HEAT CAN BE TRANSFERRED? • Conduction: molecules touch like dominos • Convection: hot molecules spread apart from each other and rise, or cool and fall. • Radiation: Light/Heat travel to move molecules 48

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WHAT HAPPENS TO THE TEMPERATURE OF ICE AS IT MELTS? • It stays the WHAT HAPPENS TO THE TEMPERATURE OF ICE AS IT MELTS? • It stays the same ( 0° C ) while melting… it takes in heat from the air to break the bonds NOT to make molecules move faster 51

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WHY DO YOU FEEL HOTTER ON A HUMID DAY? • You cool yourself by WHY DO YOU FEEL HOTTER ON A HUMID DAY? • You cool yourself by sweat evaporating (Liquid to Gas) and taking in heat from… • Your skin! • If the sweat can’t evaporate (air is “full”) you stay HOT! 53

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WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF ENERGY? • • Types NOT sources Heat (movement of WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF ENERGY? • • Types NOT sources Heat (movement of molecules) Kinetic (movement) Chemical (electrons) Light/Radiation Electrical Nuclear And each kind can have POTENTIAL 55

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HOW CAN ENERGY BE TRANSFORMED FROM ONE KIND TO ANOTHER? • Devices/Things change energy HOW CAN ENERGY BE TRANSFORMED FROM ONE KIND TO ANOTHER? • Devices/Things change energy from one kind to another 57

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What are the energy transformations for a TOASTER? • Coal is burned at plant What are the energy transformations for a TOASTER? • Coal is burned at plant (chemical) • Heats up water (heat) to make steam • Steam turns a turbine (mechanical), which turns wire near a magnet • Makes electricity, travels to your house • Toaster changes electricity to heat. 59

WHAT IS ELECTRICITY? • Electrons moving (pushing) each other 60 WHAT IS ELECTRICITY? • Electrons moving (pushing) each other 60

WHAT CAUSES STATIC ELECTRICITY? • Extra electrons on the surface 61 WHAT CAUSES STATIC ELECTRICITY? • Extra electrons on the surface 61

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WHAT CAUSES CURRENT ELECTRICITY? • Electrons moving… • Completing a circuit 63 WHAT CAUSES CURRENT ELECTRICITY? • Electrons moving… • Completing a circuit 63

WHAT'S A CIRCUIT? • • A complete electrical path Has a source (battery) to WHAT'S A CIRCUIT? • • A complete electrical path Has a source (battery) to push the electrons (voltage) Has a conductor (wire) (current) Has resistance (light bulb) 64

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HOW DO THEY GENERATE ELECTRICITY? • Move a magnet near a wire • (or HOW DO THEY GENERATE ELECTRICITY? • Move a magnet near a wire • (or a wire near a magnet). • Generator is the opposite of a Motor 66

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WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY? • RENEWABLE, NON RENEWABLE • Most are Generating WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY? • RENEWABLE, NON RENEWABLE • Most are Generating HEAT to make steam turn the turbine/wire/magnet: § Nuclear (using heat from fission) § Burning Fuels: Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Wood, Ethanol, etc. . • Wind, Water turn the turbine directly • Solar: causes photochemical reaction 70

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HOW DOES CARBON CYCLE THROUGH THE EARTH? • Normally: Carbon from Animals to Air HOW DOES CARBON CYCLE THROUGH THE EARTH? • Normally: Carbon from Animals to Air To Plants, to Ground to Animals. • Burning Fossil Fuels or Plants causes more carbon to be added 74

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WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS DUE TO BURNING FOSSIL FUELS? (releasing carbon) • • Non WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS DUE TO BURNING FOSSIL FUELS? (releasing carbon) • • Non Renewable Resource Pollution Acid Rain Global Warming (Carbon Dioxide in the air traps in heat) 79

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GLOBAL WARMING, OZONE DEPLETION, AND ACID RAIN? • Ozone WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GLOBAL WARMING, OZONE DEPLETION, AND ACID RAIN? • Ozone Depletion: NOT caused by burning fuels, by CFC’s combining with ozone which protects us from cancer causing UV rays 80

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Global Watming • Global Warming caused by: CO 2 from burning , water, and Global Watming • Global Warming caused by: CO 2 from burning , water, and methane from rice/cows, • temperature of earth rises 82

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What are the effects? • Rise in temperature • Unstable climate (wet places wetter, What are the effects? • Rise in temperature • Unstable climate (wet places wetter, dry places dryer) • Rise in sea level 85

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How is acid rain caused? • Something burns (combines with oxygen). Like Sulfur… to How is acid rain caused? • Something burns (combines with oxygen). Like Sulfur… to make SO 3 • Goes into air, combines with water SO 3 and H 2 O make H 2 SO 4, an acid! • Comes down in the rain • Acid Rain caused by burning fuels. 89

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What are the effects of acid rain? • Acid rain reacts with the metals What are the effects of acid rain? • Acid rain reacts with the metals and nutrients (limestone, magnesium, etc. . ) • Causes damage, hurts plants, fish, etc. . 92

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Last Hints…. . • • Think what you already know! Draw diagrams! Write so Last Hints…. . • • Think what you already know! Draw diagrams! Write so it makes sense! Do well! 94