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Capacity Building for Improvement of Vehicle Fuel Quality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sreten Lekić Capacity Building for Improvement of Vehicle Fuel Quality in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sreten Lekić Faculty of Sciences Department of Physics Banja Luka [email protected] net 1

Introduction n The aim of this paper is preview of actual situation in traffic Introduction n The aim of this paper is preview of actual situation in traffic monitoring in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main part of this presentation is particularly based on report from group on Faculty of Traffic and Communications University of Sarajevo under the leadership Dr Osman Lindov. For improvement the capabilities for monitoring and statistical analyses of traffic, a pilot data base in access program was developed in Banja Luka 2

n n n Project was supported by Ministry of traffic Republic of Srpska as n n n Project was supported by Ministry of traffic Republic of Srpska as a part of Spanish international project. More then 26 000 vehicles with register number as personal ID are constituents of this base. Numerous relation between the attributes of vehicles will improved and accelerated monitoring and analyzes great number of parameters. Our intention to make a serious steps in fuel quality control is immobilized by many factor. We hope that is efficient way for further steps. 3

Specific Data for Bi. H Area (km 2) 51, 209 Population (million) 3, 832 Specific Data for Bi. H Area (km 2) 51, 209 Population (million) 3, 832 GDP ($ per capita) 1, 845 Total consumption of crude oil (in barrels)** Percentage sulphur content of 7 342 974 crude oil 0, 05 Energy consumption by transport (tones of oil equivalent) n/a **Reporting data under Council Regulation 2964/95 4

Air Quality Institutional framework of air quality legislation Institution name Departments Legal acts 1 Air Quality Institutional framework of air quality legislation Institution name Departments Legal acts 1 Federal Ministry of Urban Planning & Environmental Protection 2. RS Ministry of Spatial Planning Civil Engineering and Ecology 3. The Ministries of planning area and environment on Cantonal level The law states that the air quality measurement will be entrusted to an expert institution without defining to which one The act of air quality 5

Steps towards EU approximation: air quality legislation n Problems: Insufficient instruments for monitoring and Steps towards EU approximation: air quality legislation n Problems: Insufficient instruments for monitoring and qualified people for implementation of legislation Procurement of the equipment for monitoring and for personnel training 6

Received technical assistance for EU approximation: air quality legislation n n Phare program – Received technical assistance for EU approximation: air quality legislation n n Phare program – The funded and expert assistance for Act of environment FBi. H and RS. This project is funded by the European Union and is implemented by Umweltbundesamt Gmb. H (Federal Environment Agency Ltd), Vienna, Austria, as the leading partner in consortium with CEEN Economic Project & Policy Consulting Gmb. H, Vienna, Austria; Environmental Management and Law Association of Hungary, The Institute for European Environmental Policy, UK; and in subcontractual relation to TMC Asser Institute, The Hague, Netherlands and SNEDE, Portugal. The project refers to financial and expert assistance within the development of environmental protection laws (six laws). 7

The project refers to financial and expert assistance within the development of environmental protection The project refers to financial and expert assistance within the development of environmental protection laws (six laws). n n n n Law on water protection Law on waste Law on nature protection Law on air protection Law on environmental protection Law on fund for environmental protection This set of laws has been adopted by Parliaments of the FB-H and the RS during 2003, although a significant part of regulations hasn’t been adopted yet. 8

Air quality legislation EU legislation National Old Directives*: 80/779/EEC (SO 2, PM) 82/884/EEC (Pb) Air quality legislation EU legislation National Old Directives*: 80/779/EEC (SO 2, PM) 82/884/EEC (Pb) 85/203/EEC (NOx) 92/72/EEC (Ozone) 93/389/EEC (GHG) Air Quality Framework Directive 96/62/EC 97/101/EC (Information exchange) Daughter Directives: 1999/30/EC (NOx, SO 2, Pb and PM 10) 2000/69/EC (Benzene, CO) 2002/3/EC (Ozone) Fourth Daughter Directive (Proposal for As, Cd, Hg, Ni, PAH) The legality Partial (low) of air transposition quality (entities legislation Correspondence to EU legislation** 9

EU legislation Emissions into air National legislation Entity laws on air Correspondence to EU EU legislation Emissions into air National legislation Entity laws on air Correspondence to EU legislation** Partial transposition quality 94/63/EC (VOCs from petrol) 1999/13/EC (VOCs from solvents) 1999/32/EC (Sulphur content in liquid fuels) N/A 0, 05 Partial transposition * Repealed by Directive 96/62/EC and its daughter directives **Full transposition/Partial transposition/No transposition 10

Primary air pollutant criteria standards Pollutant standard Carbon monoxide (CO) 8 -hour average Nitrogen Primary air pollutant criteria standards Pollutant standard Carbon monoxide (CO) 8 -hour average Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) 1 -hour mean Annual arithmetic mean Nitrogen oxide (NOx) Annual arithmetic mean Ozone (O 3) 1 -hour mean 8 -hour mean Particulate (PM 10) 24 -hour average Annual arithmetic mean National EU Target * Deadline 10 mg/m 3 Target * 10 mg/m 3 Deadli ne N/A 01. 2005 N/A 200 mg/m 3 (18) 01. 2010 300 mg/m 3 40 mg/m 3 01. 2010 60 mg/m 3 30 μg/m 3 180 μg/m 3 120 μg/m 3 (25) 19. 07. 2001 01. 01. 2010 N/A 30 μg/m 3 N/A 180 μg/m 3 120 μg/m 3 (25) 01. 01. 2005 N/A 50 μg/m 3 11

Primary air pollutant criteria standards (continued) Pollutant standard Sulphur dioxide (SO 2) Annual arithmetic Primary air pollutant criteria standards (continued) Pollutant standard Sulphur dioxide (SO 2) Annual arithmetic mean 24 -hour average National EU Target 20 μg/m 3 125 μg/m 3 (3) 350 μg/m 3 (24) Deadline 19. 07. 2001 01. 01. 2005 1 -hour average Benzene Annual arithmetic mean Lead Annual arithmetic mean Target Deadl ine N/A 50 μg/m 3 125 μg/m 3 350 μg/m 3 N/A 5 μg/m 3 4 μg/m 3 13. 12. 200. 01. 2006. N/A N/A 0. 5 μg/m 3 01. 2006. 1. 0 μg/m 3 24 -hour averag 12

Annual emissions of pollutants* in ambient air (2003**) Source SO 2 CO 2 PM Annual emissions of pollutants* in ambient air (2003**) Source SO 2 CO 2 PM 10 NO 2 NOx VOC CH 4 [ktons] [ktons] Road transport 0. 58 2926. 7 1. 8 0. 22 16. 3 10. 1 0. 67 % of total n/a n/a Total*** n/a n/a Source NH 3 CO Hg Cd Pb PAH [ktons] [tons] Dioxins and furans [g] n/a Road transport 0. 143 76. 2 n/a 0. 009 47. 9 % of total n/a n/a Total*** n/a n/a 13

Comment (footnotes) *The table includes pollutant measurements according to the requirements of EU legislation. Comment (footnotes) *The table includes pollutant measurements according to the requirements of EU legislation. In some countries, pollutants such as PM 10, NO 2, NOx, etc. are measured in other forms (TSP, Total N). **If data for 2003 is not available, older data inserted ***Anthropogenic emissions only 14

Fuel Quality Institutional framework of fuel quality control Institution name Institution Responsibi Frequency type* Fuel Quality Institutional framework of fuel quality control Institution name Institution Responsibi Frequency type* lity of fuel testing Number of authorize d testing labs 1. Ministry of Energy, Mineralogy and Industry Government Private company The decisions Bi. H of the fuel quality - The programme monitoring for implementa tions of the decisions of the fuel quality. According to needs and by the method of accidental sample 2 1000/year 4 2. Ministry of Trade 3. Inspekt RGH, Sarajevo 15

Fuel quality control Steps towards EU approximation n Problems: The decision on fluid oil Fuel quality control Steps towards EU approximation n Problems: The decision on fluid oil combustions’ quality doesn’t correspond to the Instruction on the way of realization of the Decision on fluid oil combustions’ quality (Official Register B-H no. 27/02). In conformity with the Decision, the energy inspection is competent for the monitoring and the quality, while according to the Instruction, the federal trade inspections is competent for the verification of the harmonization of quality and release of the quality certificate (Official Register FB-H 2/95). The other problem is an inadequate equipment in the existing laboratories. 16

n Steps: Urgent solution of the problem, related to the adoption of the final n Steps: Urgent solution of the problem, related to the adoption of the final solution of the way to realize the Decision on fluid oil combustions’ quality, the adoption of regulations of the Law on the supervision of quality of determined imported and exported products (Official Register 13/03), as also the procurement of the equipment. 17

Fuel quality legislation EU legislation National legislation Correspondence to EU legislation* Council Regulation No Fuel quality legislation EU legislation National legislation Correspondence to EU legislation* Council Regulation No Partial 2964/95 (registration transposition of crude oil imports and deliveries) BAS EN 228 (petrol) 98/70/EC (quality of petrol and diesel BAS EN 590 (diesel) fuels) 2003/17/EC (amending 98/70/EC) *Full transposition/ /No transposition 18

Market fuels used in vehicles with spark ignition engines (petrol)*(1) (only data for sulphur Market fuels used in vehicles with spark ignition engines (petrol)*(1) (only data for sulphur content and lead content are separated) Parameter unit Analytical and statistical results Limiting value Numb er of sampl es Taken where Min. Max Mean Stan dard devia tion Min imu m Maxim um Mini mu m Maxim um N/A 150 Sulphur content mg /k g N/A N/A N/A N/ A 150 Lead content g/l N/A N/A N/A N/ A 0, 005 *According to the common format for submission of summary of national fuel quality data (Directive 98/70/EC) (1) The data are from 01. 2005 - 30. 06. 2005. Are there any other additives in the fuel? If so, what are they and what quantity? Around 97 % of oil in B-H is imported from Croatia (64%), 19 Hungary (18%) and from Serbia and Montenegro (11%).

Market fuels used in vehicles with compression ignition engines (diesel)* Parameter unit Analytical and Market fuels used in vehicles with compression ignition engines (diesel)* Parameter unit Analytical and statistical results Limiting value Num ber of samp les Sulphur content mg /kg Taken where Min. Max Mean Stan dard devia tion Min imu m Maxim um Mini mu m Maxim um N/A 150 320 N/A N/ A 350 N/A 350 20

Vehicle fleet structure Year 2003 Total Passenger number Cars of Petrol Diesel vehicles 731. Vehicle fleet structure Year 2003 Total Passenger number Cars of Petrol Diesel vehicles 731. 800 % 305. 838 333453 100 41. 8 LDV HDV Buses Petrol Diesel 8. 282 24. 846 0 22. 085 0 5010 1. 13 3. 39 3. 0 0. 68 *If data for 2003 is not available, older data was inserted 21

Vehicle aging Year: 2003* Passenger 0 -5 years 18. 9 6 -10 years 17. Vehicle aging Year: 2003* Passenger 0 -5 years 18. 9 6 -10 years 17. 6 11 -15 years 20. 7 16 -20 years 31. 3 >20 years 11. 4 cars (%) LDV (%) 21. 4 18. 6 24. 8 25. 8 9. 4 HDV (%) 21. 4 18, 5 24. 7 27. 2 8. 0 Buses (%) 23. 3 19. 9 20. 6 23. 9 12. 2 Total (%) 21. 3 19. 8 22. 7 27. 0 10. 3 22

Conclusion n n Although there are numerous old and new legislatives at cantonal and Conclusion n n Although there are numerous old and new legislatives at cantonal and Entity level, the greatest problem in B-H is represented by the lack of implementation of the approved regulations, there is by the inexistence of instruments, persons and desire to implement the approved legislation. In several areas, the regulation is old, while some of them are even 10 years old. Moreover, a great problem is represented by the unavailability of data, there is the irresponsibility of determined institutions and persons to implement determined legislatives. The data, presented in the upper tables, were collected by the responsible person with great difficulty. 23

Literature n “Management of air quality in Bi. H; CBA on transportation project in Literature n “Management of air quality in Bi. H; CBA on transportation project in Banja. Luka; preliminary study” Dr. Victor Platon (PM); victor. [email protected] ro Prof. dr. Lazo Roljic; [email protected] et Prof. Dr. Petar Gvero; [email protected] bl. ac. yu 24