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Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM) Bojana Milašinović bojana@rti 7020. etf. bg. ac. yu Miodrag Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM) Bojana Milašinović [email protected] 7020. etf. bg. ac. yu Miodrag Ivanović [email protected] com Veljko Milutinović [email protected] bg. ac. yu Capability Maturity Model Integration 1

Part 1 Introduction Capability Maturity Model Integration 2 Part 1 Introduction Capability Maturity Model Integration 2

History of CMMI 1987 1991 First CMM Published 1993 1995 1997 2002 CMMI-SE/SW Version History of CMMI 1987 1991 First CMM Published 1993 1995 1997 2002 CMMI-SE/SW Version 1. 0 Published SW-CMM v 1. 1 Published Model Refined and Published as SW-CMM v 1. 0 2000 CMMI Initiative Launched CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/A Version 1. 1 Published Software Acquisition (SA-CMM), Systems Engineering (SE-CMM), Integrated Product Development (IPD-CMM), Organizational Workforce Capability Development (People CMM) Developed Buchholtz & Cordes Capability Maturity Model Integration 3

Part 1 About CMMI Models 4 Part 1 About CMMI Models 4

Part 1 Why should we care? Capability Maturity Model Integration 5 Part 1 Why should we care? Capability Maturity Model Integration 5

Part 1 About CMMI Models o Purpose: “The purpose of CMM Integration is to Part 1 About CMMI Models o Purpose: “The purpose of CMM Integration is to provide guidance for improving organization’s processes and your ability to manage the development, acquisition, and maintenance of products or services. ” Capability Maturity Model Integration 6

Part 1 Selecting a CMMI Model o Multiple models available o Choosing the model Part 1 Selecting a CMMI Model o Multiple models available o Choosing the model that best fits your organization's needs o Representations: n Continuous n Staged Capability Maturity Model Integration 7

Part 1 CMMI Model Representations Capability Maturity Model Integration 8 Part 1 CMMI Model Representations Capability Maturity Model Integration 8

Part 1 Continuous Representations o Select the order of improvement that best meets the Part 1 Continuous Representations o Select the order of improvement that best meets the organization’s business objectives o Comparison across and among organization on a process area o Easy migration from electronic industries alliance interim standard (EIA/IS) 731 to CMMI o Easy comparison of process improvement to international organization for standardization and international Electrotechnical commission (ISO/IEC) 15504 Capability Maturity Model Integration 9

Part 1 Staged Representation o Providing sequence of improvements o Permit comparisons across and Part 1 Staged Representation o Providing sequence of improvements o Permit comparisons across and among organizations o Easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI o Single rating that summarizes appraisal results Capability Maturity Model Integration 10

Part 1 Which Integrated Model To Choose? o Four bodies of knowledge for selecting Part 1 Which Integrated Model To Choose? o Four bodies of knowledge for selecting a CMMI model: n Systems engineering n Software engineering n Integrated product and process development n Supplier sourcing Capability Maturity Model Integration 11

Part 1 Systems Engineering o Development of total systems o Focus on transforming customers Part 1 Systems Engineering o Development of total systems o Focus on transforming customers needs into product solutions o Supporting these product solutions throughout the life of the product o Models of systems engineering: n n Process management Project management Support Engineering process areas Capability Maturity Model Integration 12

Part 1 Software Engineering o Covers the development of software systems o Focus on: Part 1 Software Engineering o Covers the development of software systems o Focus on: Applying systematic, disciplined, and quantifiable approaches to development n Operation n Maintenance of software n o Models of software engineering: n n Process management Project management Support Engineering process areas Capability Maturity Model Integration 13

Part 1 Integrated Product and Process Development o Systematic approach to better satisfy customer Part 1 Integrated Product and Process Development o Systematic approach to better satisfy customer needs o Processes to support the IPPD approach are integrated with the other processes in the organization o Models of IPPD: n n Process management Project management Support Engineering process areas Capability Maturity Model Integration 14

Part 1 Supplier Sourcing o Use suppliers needed by the project when work efforts Part 1 Supplier Sourcing o Use suppliers needed by the project when work efforts become more complex o Models of supplier sourcing: n n Process management Project management Support Engineering process areas Capability Maturity Model Integration 15

Part 1 A Recommendation o Select both systems and software engineering o Based on Part 1 A Recommendation o Select both systems and software engineering o Based on the fact that only distinction between the models is the type of discipline amplifications included o Otherwise models are exactly the same Capability Maturity Model Integration 16

Part 1 Maturity Levels Capability Maturity Model Integration 17 Part 1 Maturity Levels Capability Maturity Model Integration 17

Part 1 Capability Levels Capability Maturity Model Integration 18 Part 1 Capability Levels Capability Maturity Model Integration 18

Part 1 Comparison of Representations o Staged o Continuous Process improvement is measured using Part 1 Comparison of Representations o Staged o Continuous Process improvement is measured using maturity levels. Process improvement is measured using capability levels. Maturity level is the degree of process improvement across a predefined set of process areas. Capability level is the achievement of process improvement within an individual process area. Organizational maturity pertains to the “maturity” of a set of processes across an organization Process area capability pertains to the “maturity” of a particular process across an organization. Capability Maturity Model Integration 19

Part 1 Advantages of Each Representation o Staged o Provides a roadmap for implementing Part 1 Advantages of Each Representation o Staged o Provides a roadmap for implementing n groups of process areas n sequencing of implementation o Familiar structure for those transitioning from the Software CMM o Continuous o Provides maximum flexibility for focusing on specific process areas according to business goals and objectives o Familiar structure for those transitioning from EIA 731 Capability Maturity Model Integration 20

Part 1 Summary o There is one CMMI Model with two representations, Staged and Part 1 Summary o There is one CMMI Model with two representations, Staged and Continuous o The material in both representations is the same just organized differently o Each representation provides different ways of implementing processes o Equivalent Staging provides a mechanism for relating Maturity Levels to Capability Levels o The CMMI model should be applied using intelligence, common sense, and professional judgment Capability Maturity Model Integration 21

Part 2 Model Components Capability Maturity Model Integration 22 Part 2 Model Components Capability Maturity Model Integration 22

Part 2 CMMI Levels Capability Maturity Model Integration 23 Part 2 CMMI Levels Capability Maturity Model Integration 23

Part 2 Level Requirements Capability Maturity Model Integration 24 Part 2 Level Requirements Capability Maturity Model Integration 24

Part 2 Level Requirements Capability Maturity Model Integration 25 Part 2 Level Requirements Capability Maturity Model Integration 25

Part 2 Continuous Representation Capability Maturity Model Integration 26 Part 2 Continuous Representation Capability Maturity Model Integration 26

Part 2 CMMI Process Areas Categories Capability Maturity Model Integration 27 Part 2 CMMI Process Areas Categories Capability Maturity Model Integration 27

Part 2 CMMI Model Components Staged Representation Maturity Levels Process Area 1 Process Area Part 2 CMMI Model Components Staged Representation Maturity Levels Process Area 1 Process Area 2 Specific Goals Specific Practices Commitment to Perform Process Area n Generic Goals Ability Directing Verifying to Perform Implementation Generic Practices Capability Maturity Model Integration 28

Part 2 Maturity Levels o Provides a way to predict the future performance of Part 2 Maturity Levels o Provides a way to predict the future performance of an organization within a given discipline or set of disciplines o In CMMI models, there are five maturity levels: 1. Initial 2. Managed 3. Defined 4. Quantitatively managed 5. Optimizing Capability Maturity Model Integration 29

Part 2 Maturity Level Details o Consist of a predefined set of process areas Part 2 Maturity Level Details o Consist of a predefined set of process areas o Measured by the achievement of the specific and generic goals Capability Maturity Model Integration 30

Part 2 Maturity Level Details Capability Maturity Model Integration 31 Part 2 Maturity Level Details Capability Maturity Model Integration 31

Part 2 Equivalent Staging Capability Maturity Model Integration 32 Part 2 Equivalent Staging Capability Maturity Model Integration 32

Part 2 Maturity Level 1: Initial o Processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic Part 2 Maturity Level 1: Initial o Processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic o Organization usually does not provide a stable environment o Maturity level organizations often produce products and services that work o Maturity level organizations are characterized by: n Tendency to over commit n Abandon processes in the time of the crisis n Not be able to repeat their past successes Capability Maturity Model Integration 33

Part 2 Maturity Level 2: Managed o Organization has achieved all the specific and Part 2 Maturity Level 2: Managed o Organization has achieved all the specific and generic goals o Projects of the organization have ensured that: n Requirements are managed n Processes are planned n Performed, measured, and controlled Capability Maturity Model Integration 34

Part 2 Maturity Level 2: Managed Process Areas o REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT The purpose of Part 2 Maturity Level 2: Managed Process Areas o REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage the requirements of the project’s products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project’s plans and work products. o PROJECT PLANNING The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities. o PROJECT MONITORING AND CONTROL The purpose of Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. o SUPPLIER AGREEMENT MANAGEMENT The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to manage the acquisition of products from suppliers. Capability Maturity Model Integration 35

Part 2 Maturity Level 2: Managed Process Areas o MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS The purpose Part 2 Maturity Level 2: Managed Process Areas o MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs. o PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. o CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. Capability Maturity Model Integration 36

Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined o Processes are well characterized, and understood, are Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined o Processes are well characterized, and understood, are described in standards, procedures, tools and methods o The organizations set of standard processes, is established and improved over time o Establishing consistency across the organization Capability Maturity Model Integration 37

Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPMENT The purpose of Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPMENT The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product component requirements. o TECHNICAL SOLUTION The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to design, develop, and implement solutions to requirements. Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related lifecycle processes either singly or in combination as appropriate. o PRODUCT INTEGRATION The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. Capability Maturity Model Integration 38

Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o VERIFICATION The purpose of Verification Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o VERIFICATION The purpose of Verification (VER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. o VALIDATION The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. o ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS FOCUS The purpose of Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s processes and process assets. o ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. Capability Maturity Model Integration 39

Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS DEFINITION +IPPD The Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS DEFINITION +IPPD The purpose of Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets and work environment standards. o IPPD Addition For IPPD, Organizational Process Definition +IPPD also covers the establishment of organizational rules and guidelines that enable conducting work using integrated teams. o INTEGRATED PROJECT MANAGEMENT +IPPD The purpose of Integrated Project Management (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. o IPPD Addition For IPPD, Integrated Project Management +IPPD also covers the establishment of a shared vision for the project and the establishment of integrated teams that will carry out objectives of the project. Capability Maturity Model Integration 40

Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o RISK MANAGEMENT The purpose of Part 2 Maturity Level 3: Defined Process Areas o RISK MANAGEMENT The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives. o DECISION ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. o INTEGRATED TEAMING The purpose of Integrated Teaming is to form and sustain an integrated team for the development of work products. o INTEGRATED SUPPLIER MANAGEMENT The purpose of Integrated Supplier Management is to proactively identify sources of products that may be used to satisfy the project’s requirements and to manage selected suppliers while maintaining a cooperative project-supplier relationship. o ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR INTEGRATION The purpose of Organizational Environment for Integration is to provide an Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) infrastructure and manage people for integration. Capability Maturity Model Integration 41

Part 2 Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed o Subprocesses are selected that significantly contribute Part 2 Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed o Subprocesses are selected that significantly contribute to overall process performance o As criteria in managing process the quantitative objects for quality are established o Quantitative objectives are based on: n Needs of a customer n End users n Organization n Process implements o For these processes, detailed measures of process performance are collected and statistically analyzed Capability Maturity Model Integration 42

Part 2 Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed Process Areas o ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS PERFORMANCE The Part 2 Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively Managed Process Areas o ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS PERFORMANCE The purpose of Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process-performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects. o QUANTITATIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT The purpose of Quantitative Project Management (QPM) is to quantitatively manage the project’s defined process to achieve the project’s established quality and process-performance objectives. Capability Maturity Model Integration 43

Part 2 Maturity Level 5: Optimizing o Focuses on continually improving process performance through: Part 2 Maturity Level 5: Optimizing o Focuses on continually improving process performance through: n Incremental technological improvements n Innovative technological improvements o Both processes are the organization’s set of measurable improvement activities Capability Maturity Model Integration 44

Part 2 Maturity Level 5: Optimizing Process Areas o ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION AND DEPLOYMENT The Part 2 Maturity Level 5: Optimizing Process Areas o ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION AND DEPLOYMENT The purpose of Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) is to select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization’s processes and technologies. The improvements support the organization’s quality and processperformance objectives as derived from the organization’s business objectives. o CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future. Capability Maturity Model Integration 45

Part 2 Skipping Maturity Levels o Through staged representations an organization should evolve to Part 2 Skipping Maturity Levels o Through staged representations an organization should evolve to establish a culture of excellence o Each maturity level forms a necessary foundation on which to build the next level o Trying to skip maturity level is usually counterproductive Capability Maturity Model Integration 46

Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative Components o The components of CMMI model are Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative Components o The components of CMMI model are grouped into these three categories : 1. Required: n Specific and generic goals n Must be achieved by an organization’s planned and implemented process n Essential to rating the achievement of a process area n Only the statement of the specific or generic goal is a required model component n The title of a specific or generic goal and any other notes are considered informative model components Capability Maturity Model Integration 47

Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative Components 2. Expected: n Specific and generic practices Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative Components 2. Expected: n Specific and generic practices n Describe what an organization will typically implement to achieve a required components n Only the statement of the practice is a expected model component n The title of a practice and any notes associated with the practice are considered informative model components Capability Maturity Model Integration 48

Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative Components 3. Informative: n n n n Subpractices Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative Components 3. Informative: n n n n Subpractices Typical work products Discipline amplifications Generic practice elaborations Goal and practice titles Goal and practice notes Referrers Provide details that help model users get started in thinking about how to approach goals and practices Capability Maturity Model Integration 49

Part 2 Model Components o Process areas n Cluster of related practices in an Part 2 Model Components o Process areas n Cluster of related practices in an area n When performed collectively, satisfy a set of goals considered important for improvement in that area o Specific goals n Apply to a process area and address the unique characteristics n Describe what must be implemented to satisfy the process area o Specific practices n Activity that is considered important in achieving the associated specific goal n Describe the activities expected to result in achievement of the specific goals of a process area Capability Maturity Model Integration 50

Part 2 Model Components o Common features n Organize the generic practices of each Part 2 Model Components o Common features n Organize the generic practices of each process area n Commitment to perform (CO) n Ability to perform (AB) n Directing implementation (DI) n Verifying implementation (VE) o Typical work products n Provides example outputs from a specific or generic practice o Subpractices n Detailed description that provide guidance for interpreting specific or generic practices Capability Maturity Model Integration 51

Part 2 Model Components o Discipline amplifications n Contain information relevant to a particular Part 2 Model Components o Discipline amplifications n Contain information relevant to a particular discipline n Associated with specific practices o Generic goals n Used in appraisals to determine whether a process area is satisfied o Generic practices n Provide institutionalization to ensure that the processes associated with the process area will be effective, repeatable and lasting Capability Maturity Model Integration 52

Part 2 Model Components o Generic practice elaborations n Appear in each process area Part 2 Model Components o Generic practice elaborations n Appear in each process area to provide guidance on how the generic practices should uniquely be applied to the process area Capability Maturity Model Integration 53

Part 2 Specific Practices vs. Generic Practices o Apply to a single process area Part 2 Specific Practices vs. Generic Practices o Apply to a single process area o Describe activities that implement the process area o Example – Requirements Mgmt. o Apply to all process areas o Describe activities that institutionalize the process areas o SG 1 Manage Requirements SP 1. 1 Obtain an Understanding of Requirements SP 1. 2 Obtain Commitment to Requirements SP 1. 3 Manage Requirements Changes SP 1. 4 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of Requirements SP 1. 5 Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements o GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process GP 2. 1 Establish an Organizational Policy GP 2. 2 Plan the Process GP 2. 3 Provide Resources GP 2. 4 Assign Responsibility GP 2. 5 Train People GP 2. 6 Manage Configurations GP 2. 7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders GP 2. 8 Monitor and Control the Process GP 2. 9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence GP 2. 10 Review Status with Higher Level Management o GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process GP 3. 1 Establish a Defined Process GP 3. 2 Collect Improvement Information Capability Maturity Model Integration 54

Part 3 Model Terminology Capability Maturity Model Integration 55 Part 3 Model Terminology Capability Maturity Model Integration 55

Part 3 Terminology Evolution o In any CMMI model, the terminology used and how Part 3 Terminology Evolution o In any CMMI model, the terminology used and how it is defined are important for understanding the content o When developing the CMMI model, the Product Team started with the terminology used in the source model o Terminology is not consistent o Some terms were abandoned Capability Maturity Model Integration 56

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Adequate, Appropriate, As Needed n o Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Adequate, Appropriate, As Needed n o Words used to interpret goals and practices in light of organization’s business objectives Establish and Maintain n This phrase connotes a meaning beyond the component terms; it includes documentation and usage o Customer n Party (individual, project, or organization) responsible for accepting the product or for authorizing payment o Stakeholder n Group or individual that is affected by or in some way accountable for the outcome of an undertaking Capability Maturity Model Integration 57

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Relevant Stakeholder n The term used Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Relevant Stakeholder n The term used to designate a stakeholder that is identified for involvement in specific activities and is included in an appropriate plan o Manager n Refers to a person who provides technical and administrative directions n Control to those performing tasks or activities o Project Manager n Person responsible for planning, directing, controlling, structuring, and motivating the project n Responsible for satisfying the customer Capability Maturity Model Integration 58

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Senior Manager n Refers to a Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Senior Manager n Refers to a management role at a high enough level in an organization n Primary focus of the person filling n The role is the long-term vitality of the organization, rather than short-term project and concerns and pressures o Shared Vision n Common understanding of guiding principles n Includes mission, objectives, expected behavior, values, and final outcomes developed and used by the group, such as organization, project or team Capability Maturity Model Integration 59

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Organization n Typically an administrative structure Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Organization n Typically an administrative structure in which people collectively manage one or more projects as a whole, and whose projects share a senior manager and operate under the same policies o Enterprise n “Enterprise” illustrates the larger entity not always reached by the word “organization” o Development n Implies not only development activities, but also maintenance activities Capability Maturity Model Integration 60

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Discipline n Refers to the bodies Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Discipline n Refers to the bodies of knowledge available when selecting a CMMI model o Project n Managed set of interrelated resources that delivers one or more products to a customer or end user o Product n Mean any tangible output that is a result of a process n It is intended for delivery to an customer or end user Capability Maturity Model Integration 61

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Work Product n Mean any artifact Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Work Product n Mean any artifact produced by a process n These artifacts include files, documents, parts of the product, services, processes, specifications, and invoices o Product Component n Any work product that must be engineered (requirements defined and designs developed and implemented) to achieve the intended use of the product throughout its life o Appraisal n Examination of one or more processes by a trained team of professionals n Usage of appraisal reference model as the basis for determining strengths and weakness Capability Maturity Model Integration 62

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Tailoring Guidelines n Tailoring a process Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Tailoring Guidelines n Tailoring a process makes, alters, or adapts the process description for a particular end n Used to enable organizations to implement standard processes appropriately in their projects n Tailoring guidelines cover o Selecting a standard process o Selecting an approved life-cycle model o Tailoring the selected standard process and life-cycle model to fit project needs o Verification n Confirms that work products properly reflect the requirements specified to them Capability Maturity Model Integration 63

Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Validation n Confirms that the product, Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning o Validation n Confirms that the product, as provided, will fulfill its intended use o Quality and Process-Performance Objectives n Covers objectives and requirements for product quality, service quality, and process performance o Standard n Refers to the formal mandatory requirements developed and used to prescribe consistent approaches to development Capability Maturity Model Integration 64

Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o CMMI Product Suite n Complete set of products developed Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o CMMI Product Suite n Complete set of products developed around the CMMI concept o CMMI Framework n Basic structure that organizes CMMI components n Enables new discipline to be added to CMMI so that the new discipline will integrate with the existing one Capability Maturity Model Integration 65

Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o CMMI Model n Refers to one, some, or entire Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o CMMI Model n Refers to one, some, or entire collection of possible models that can be generated from the CMMI Framework o Peer Review n Review of work products performed by peers during development of the work products to identify defects for removal o Organization’s Set of Standard Processes n Contains the definitions of the processes that guide all activities in an organization Capability Maturity Model Integration 66

Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Process n Consists of activities that can be recognized Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Process n Consists of activities that can be recognized as implementations of practices in a CMMI model o Managed Process n Performed process that is planned and executed in accordance with policy o Defined Process n Managed process tailored from the organization’s set of standards processes according to the organization’s tailoring guidelines Capability Maturity Model Integration 67

Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Organizational Process Assets n Artifacts that relate to describing, Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Organizational Process Assets n Artifacts that relate to describing, implementing, and improving processes n Include the following: o Organization’s set of standard processes, o o including the process architectures and process elements Descriptions of life-cycle models approved for use Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s set of standard processes Organization’s measurement repository Organization’s process asset library Capability Maturity Model Integration 68

Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Process Architectures n Describes the ordering, interfaces, interdependencies, and Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Process Architectures n Describes the ordering, interfaces, interdependencies, and other relationships among the process elements in a standard process o Product Life Cycle n Period of time, consisting of phases, that begins when a product is conceived and ends when the product is no longer available for use Capability Maturity Model Integration 69

Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Organization’s Measurement Repository n Repository used to collect and Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology o Organization’s Measurement Repository n Repository used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and work products o Organization’s Process Asset Library n Library of information used to store and make available process assets that are potentially useful to those who are defining, implementing, and managing processes in the organization o Document n Collection of data, regardless of the medium on which it is recorded, that generally has permanence and can be read by humans or machines Capability Maturity Model Integration 70

Part 4 Common Features, Generic Goals, and Generic Practices Capability Maturity Model Integration 71 Part 4 Common Features, Generic Goals, and Generic Practices Capability Maturity Model Integration 71

Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization o o Critical aspect of process improvement; important concept Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization o o Critical aspect of process improvement; important concept within each maturity level Managed process is institutionalized by doing the following: n n n n Adhering to organizational policies Following established plans and process descriptions Providing adequate resources (including funding, people, and tools) Assigning responsibility and authority for performing the process Training the people performing and supporting the process Placing designated work products under appropriate levels of configuration management Identifying and involving relevant stakeholders Monitoring and controlling the performance pf the process against the plans for performing the process and taking corrective actions Capability Maturity Model Integration 72

Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization n n o Defined process is institutionalized by doing Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization n n o Defined process is institutionalized by doing the following: n n n o Objectively evaluating the process, its work products, and its services for adherence to the process descriptions, objectives, and standards, and addressing noncompliance Reviewing the activities, status, and results of the process with higher level management, and taking corrective action Addressing the items that institutionalize a managed process Establishing the description of the defined process for the project or organizational unit Collecting work products, measures, and improvement information derived from planning and performing the defined process Quantitatively managed process is institutionalized by doing the following: n n Addressing the items that institutionalize a defined process Controlling the process using statistical and other quantitative techniques such as product quality, service quality, and process performance Capability Maturity Model Integration 73

Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization o Optimizing process is institutionalized by doing the following: Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization o Optimizing process is institutionalized by doing the following: n Addressing the items that institutionalize a quantitatively managed process n Improving the process based on an understanding of the common causes; process focuses on continually improving the range of process performance Capability Maturity Model Integration 74

Part 4 Generic Goals o In staged representation, every process area has only one Part 4 Generic Goals o In staged representation, every process area has only one generic goal o Generic goal describes what institutionalization must be achieved to satisfy a process area o Each process area at maturity level 2 contains the following generic goal GG 2 Institutionalize a managed process ( the process is institutionalized as a managed process) GG 3 Institutionalize a defined process ( the process is institutionalized as a defined process) Capability Maturity Model Integration 75

Part 4 Common Features o o o Predefined attributes that group generic practices into Part 4 Common Features o o o Predefined attributes that group generic practices into categories Model components not rated in any way There are four common features in CMMI model: n n Commitment to perform – groups the generic practices related to creating policies and securing sponsorship Ability to perform – groups the generic practices related to ensuring that the project and/or organization has the resources it needs Directing implementation - groups the generic practices related to managing the performance of the process, managing the integrity of its work products, and involving relevant stakeholders Verifying implementation - groups the generic practices related to review by higher level management and objective evaluation of conformance to process descriptions, procedures, and standards Capability Maturity Model Integration 76

Part 4 Generic Practices Listed by Common Feature o Common features categories: n Commitment Part 4 Generic Practices Listed by Common Feature o Common features categories: n Commitment to perform: GP 2. 1 Establish and organizational policy n Ability to perform: GP 2. 2 Plan the process GP 2. 3 Provide resources GP 2. 4 Assign responsibility GP 2. 5 Train people GP 3. 1 Establish a defined process Capability Maturity Model Integration 77

Part 4 Generic Practices Listed by Common Feature o Directing implementation GP 2. 6 Part 4 Generic Practices Listed by Common Feature o Directing implementation GP 2. 6 Manage configurations GP 2. 7 Identify and involve relevant stakeholders GP 2. 8 Monitor and control the process GP 3. 2 Collect improvement information o Verifying implementation GP 2. 9 Objectively evaluate adherence GP 2. 10 Review status with higher level management Capability Maturity Model Integration 78

Part 5 Framework Interactions Capability Maturity Model Integration 79 Part 5 Framework Interactions Capability Maturity Model Integration 79

Part 5 Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas 1. Process Management process areas contain Part 5 Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas 1. Process Management process areas contain the cross-project activities related to defining, planning, resourcing, deploying, implementing, monitoring, controlling, appraising, measuring, and improving processes. 2. Project Management process areas cover the project management activities related to planning, and controlling the project. Capability Maturity Model Integration 80

Part 5 Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas 3. Engineering process areas cover the Part 5 Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas 3. Engineering process areas cover the development and maintenance activities that are shared across engineering disciplines. 4. Support process areas cover the activities that support product development and maintenance. Capability Maturity Model Integration 81

Part 6 Using CMMI Models Capability Maturity Model Integration 82 Part 6 Using CMMI Models Capability Maturity Model Integration 82

Part 6 Using CMMI Models o Interpreting CMMI Models n Every CMMI model provides Part 6 Using CMMI Models o Interpreting CMMI Models n Every CMMI model provides a set of publicly available criteria describing the characteristics of organizations that have successfully implemented process improvement n These criteria can be used by organizations to improve their processes for developing, acquiring, and maintaining products and services Capability Maturity Model Integration 83

Part 6 Appraisal and Benchmarking o Process appraisals focus on identifying improvement opportunities o Part 6 Appraisal and Benchmarking o Process appraisals focus on identifying improvement opportunities o The appraisal principles for CMMI model: n n n n Senior-management sponsorship A focus on the organization’s business objectives Confidentiality for interviewees Use of a documented appraisal method Use of a process reference model as a base A collaborative team approach A focus on actions for process improvement Capability Maturity Model Integration 84

Part 6 Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) o Contains a set of criteria for Part 6 Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) o Contains a set of criteria for developing, defining, and using appraisal methods based on CMMI products o Provides requirements for multiple types of appraisal methods o ARC document uses the CMMI models as its associated reference models Capability Maturity Model Integration 85

Part 6 ISO/IEC 15504 Compatibility and Conformance o The CMMI Product Suite was designed Part 6 ISO/IEC 15504 Compatibility and Conformance o The CMMI Product Suite was designed to achieve ISO/IEC 15504 compatibility and conformance o There are two aspects of conformance: n Model compatibility n Appraisal conformance Capability Maturity Model Integration 86

Part 6 Making the Transition to CMMI o Describing three transition scenarios: n First Part 6 Making the Transition to CMMI o Describing three transition scenarios: n First two assume the organization has already begun its improvement efforts using either the Software CMM or the EIA/IS 731 n Third scenario assumes that the organization has not used a particular reference model for current improvement efforts Capability Maturity Model Integration 87

Part 6 Organizations with Software CMM Experience o Organizations initially making the transition to Part 6 Organizations with Software CMM Experience o Organizations initially making the transition to CMMI: n Seeking to update their process-improvement efforts to incorporate the improvements n Gain the additional breadth of coverage afforded in CMMI models o Organizations that have achieved a high level of maturity: n Wish to make the transition more quickly n Taking advantage of the additional coverage described in CMMI model Capability Maturity Model Integration 88

Part 6 Organizations with EIA/IS 7 31 Experience o Involves some reorganization of specific Part 6 Organizations with EIA/IS 7 31 Experience o Involves some reorganization of specific practices under specific goals and process areas o The addition of informative materials Capability Maturity Model Integration 89

Part 6 Organizations New to CMM-Type Models o Assumed to be in one of Part 6 Organizations New to CMM-Type Models o Assumed to be in one of two categories: n May have undertaken process-improvement efforts under other quality initiatives (ISO 9000, Malcolm Baldrige) n May be considering such efforts because of the mounting evidence of business value resulting from such a commitment o May approach improvement by using either a continuous or staged representation Capability Maturity Model Integration 90

Part 6 Training o Key element in the ability of organizations to adopt CMMI Part 6 Training o Key element in the ability of organizations to adopt CMMI o Key part of the product suite Capability Maturity Model Integration 91

Part 6 Tailoring Perspectives o Tailoring - process whereby only a subset of a Part 6 Tailoring Perspectives o Tailoring - process whereby only a subset of a model is used to suit the needs of a specific domain of application o Involves the selection of options for use in an appraisal Capability Maturity Model Integration 92

Part 6 Model Tailoring Perspectives o Viewed from two perspectives: n Related to use Part 6 Model Tailoring Perspectives o Viewed from two perspectives: n Related to use of a model for process improvement o Focus on identifying the process areas and practices that support an organization’s business needs and objectives n Related to use of a model for benchmarking o Process areas, in some circumstances, may be determined to be “not applicable” if the process area is outside of the organization’s scope of work Capability Maturity Model Integration 93

Part 6 Model Tailoring for Smaller Projects o High-level plan is typically available that Part 6 Model Tailoring for Smaller Projects o High-level plan is typically available that has been developed for a group of projects o Defines the organization, resources, training, management participations, and quality assurance reporting descriptions for all projects Capability Maturity Model Integration 94

Conclusion CMMI Benefits o CMMI product users can expect to: n n n Efficiently Conclusion CMMI Benefits o CMMI product users can expect to: n n n Efficiently and effectively improve and assess multiple disciplines across their organization Reduce costs (including training) associated with improving and assessing processes Deploy a common, integrated vision of process improvement that can be used as a basis for enterprise-wide process improvement efforts. Capability Maturity Model Integration Improved Processes 95

Conclusion The promise. . . o CMMI team is working to assure the CMMI Conclusion The promise. . . o CMMI team is working to assure the CMMI Product Suite addresses needs of software and systems engineering communities of practice o Use of an integrated model to guide enterprise process improvement promises to be one of the more sustainable & profitable initiatives that any organization might pursue Capability Maturity Model Integration 96

Literature o CMMISM for Systems Engineering, Software Engineering, Integrated Process Development, and Supplier Sourcing Literature o CMMISM for Systems Engineering, Software Engineering, Integrated Process Development, and Supplier Sourcing o o Generic Practices CMMI Overview Measurement within the CMMI Why should you Care about CMMI? Capability Maturity Model Integration 97