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Canadian Core Learning Object Metadata Application Profile Norm Friesen norm@netera. ca www. cancore. ca Canadian Core Learning Object Metadata Application Profile Norm Friesen [email protected] ca www. cancore. ca National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 1

Overview n n n What Can. Core? Rationale for Can. Core’s development Can. Core’s Overview n n n What Can. Core? Rationale for Can. Core’s development Can. Core’s place in standards evolution Understanding of Learning Objects Repositories, Alliances and Support Future of Can. Core National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 2

What is Can. Core? n n n Based on and fully compatible with the What is Can. Core? n n n Based on and fully compatible with the first e-learning standard: IEEE 1484. 21. 1, LOM 1. 0, IMS Meta-data "multi-part Standard to facilitate search, evaluation, acquisition, and use of learning objects…" "also facilitates the sharing and exchange of learning objects, by enabling the development of catalogs and inventories while taking into account the diversity of cultural and lingual contexts in which the learning objects and their metadata are reused. " National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 3

What is Can. Core? n n n Application profile: What is Can. Core? n n n Application profile: "customization of a standard to meet the needs particular communities of implementers with common applications requirements. " Subset of LOM elements: 77 down to 56; 39 are active Guidelines document: best practice recommendations, 175 pp. National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 4

Can. Core’s Community: input n instructional and information specialists from: n n n implementers Can. Core’s Community: input n instructional and information specialists from: n n n implementers from: n n Academic Technologies for Learning of the University of Alberta the Open Learning Agency of British Columbia the Electronic Text Centre of the University of New Brunswick Athabasca University Centre recherche LICEF the University of Calgary indexers from Alberta Learning administrators from Tele. Education New Brunswick. National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 5

Can. Core’s Community: stakeholders n n n Alberta Learning Industry Canada Edu. Source: primary Can. Core’s Community: stakeholders n n n Alberta Learning Industry Canada Edu. Source: primary partners n n AU, Netera Alliance, Téléuniversité du Québec, University of Waterloo, New Media Innovation Centre Larger repository community: n n Eisenhower National Clearinghouse SESDL, COLIS, ? ? National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 6

Rationale: Simplicity n n LOM: leading educational metadata specification LOM Data Model too complicated Rationale: Simplicity n n LOM: leading educational metadata specification LOM Data Model too complicated for effective implementation: "Many vendors [have] expressed little or no interest in developing products that [are] required to support a set of meta-data with over 80 elements" Best Practices and Implementation Guide, IMS, 2000 National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 7

Rationale: Simplicity n LOM Element 5. 4 Semantic Density: Rationale: Simplicity n LOM Element 5. 4 Semantic Density: "The degree of conciseness of a learning object. " n n LOM Element 1. 2 Title "Name given to this learning object. " n n omitted in Can. Core Word order, subtitles, multilingual titles, series/episode titles LOM Classification Element Group "Describes where this learning object falls within a particular classification system. " National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 8

Rationale Solution: core set of LOM elements most important for exchangeable resource descriptions n Rationale Solution: core set of LOM elements most important for exchangeable resource descriptions n Mid-way between structuralist (LOM) and minimalist (Dublin Core) approaches to metadata n National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 9

Rationale: Semantics n n E-learning specifications & standards communities are largely concerned with syntax Rationale: Semantics n n E-learning specifications & standards communities are largely concerned with syntax and technical interoperation Effective metadata requires semantic specification and consensus Incorporate best practice from library and heritage communities No other body is doing this across elearning projects National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 10

Rationale: Specificity n n Effective implementation requires a consistent interpretation of each element’s purpose Rationale: Specificity n n Effective implementation requires a consistent interpretation of each element’s purpose and use Realize economy of scale by coordinating the implementation and interpretation of metadata for a number of learning object repository projects National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 11

Can. Core: Element Groups & Numbers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. General (7) Can. Core: Element Groups & Numbers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. General (7) Life. Cycle (4) Metametadata (6) Technical (7) Educational (5) Rights (3) National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 6. Relation (2) 7. Annotation (omitted) 8. Classification (7 x 2): – Discipline (i. e. subject) – Pedagogic. Type (i. e. granularity) www. cancore. ca 12

Can. Core Guidelines n n n explication and interpretation of element definitions and descriptions Can. Core Guidelines n n n explication and interpretation of element definitions and descriptions recommendations based on best practice recommendations for vocabulary (or "value space") values and definitions multilingual plain language examples XML-binding examples technical implementation notes National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 13

Rationale: Overview Complexity decreases IMS Metadata Information Model: appx. 80 elements, little interpretation Implementation Rationale: Overview Complexity decreases IMS Metadata Information Model: appx. 80 elements, little interpretation Implementation Can. Core - CAREO Specificity and Interoperability increases National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 14

Can. Core and Standards Evolution R&D Concepts User Needs Spec Consortia Specifications National Library Can. Core and Standards Evolution R&D Concepts User Needs Spec Consortia Specifications National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 Labs ADL Labs Testbeds Markets Testbeds, Markets IEEE Standards ISO Bodies Standards Bodies Implementations, Reference Models, Requirements www. cancore. ca Approved Standards From: Thor Anderson, (2001) "International E -learning Specifications" ©IMS 15

Two approaches to Learning Objects n Context provided by technical specifications (training): n n Two approaches to Learning Objects n Context provided by technical specifications (training): n n n SCO’s (SCORM) RLO’s (Cisco) Context provided by pedagogical practice (K-12, higher ed. ): n n Can. Core MERLOT National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 16

The ADL Model Sharable Content Objects (SCO) Repository WWW Database DVD Library of National The ADL Model Sharable Content Objects (SCO) Repository WWW Database DVD Library of National Canada, Nov. 2002 From: Slosser, S. (2001) "ADL and the Sharable Content Object Reference Model" Learning Management System (LMS) Course Tracking Testing Intelligent Tutoring Adaptive Learning www. cancore. ca Delivery Device Learner Warfighter Browser Student Technician PDA Wireless Phone Laborer Human Dialogue Professional System Anyone! 17

Can. Core and ADL-SCORM n n n Different definitions of “educational objects” Many specifications Can. Core and ADL-SCORM n n n Different definitions of “educational objects” Many specifications referenced and combined vs. just metadata Public education vs. training emphases National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 18

The MERLOT Model National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 19 The MERLOT Model National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 19

Educational Object: Example n Content n Pedagogical purpose; to augment learning about: n n Educational Object: Example n Content n Pedagogical purpose; to augment learning about: n n n n Paris 1839 Urban environments Architecture Daguerre Photography Daguerreotypes Granularity: an object can be a course, unit, lesson, image, Web page, exercise, image, multimedia clip; but it must have a specified pedagogical purpose National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 20

Learning Objects: Granularity Smaller: n Easier: reusability and adapability n More difficult: discovery and Learning Objects: Granularity Smaller: n Easier: reusability and adapability n More difficult: discovery and metadata creation National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 Larger: n Easier: discovery and metadata creation n More difficult: reusability and adaptibility www. cancore. ca 21

Repository Architectures: Metadata Creation National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 22 Repository Architectures: Metadata Creation National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 22

National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 23 National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 23

Repository Architectures: Access n n n Separate resources and metadata allow for multiple and Repository Architectures: Access n n n Separate resources and metadata allow for multiple and disparate resource collections to appear as one Metadata must be freely available Combined in a single search set for singleclick access Provides a personalized, "portal" solution for the data access problems of the Internet AU tool: staff. icaap. org/careo National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 24

Repository Architectures: Access National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 25 Repository Architectures: Access National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 25

Can. Core’s Future n n Update Can. Core guidelines document Looking at formal governance Can. Core’s Future n n Update Can. Core guidelines document Looking at formal governance issues Looking internationally for collaboration opportunities Looking to establish a permanent office National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 26

Conclusion n Can. Core is the current state of educational metadata development and implementation Conclusion n Can. Core is the current state of educational metadata development and implementation in Canada “A widespread consensus on a particular protocol which has not been ratified by any official standards body, such as ISO, but which nevertheless has a large market share. ” (FOLDOC) National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 27

Find out more about Can. Core at: www. cancore. ca National Library of Canada, Find out more about Can. Core at: www. cancore. ca National Library of Canada, Nov. 2002 www. cancore. ca 28