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CAN WE USE OPTICS TO IMAGE TRACKS AND WHAT WOULD IT GET US? John CAN WE USE OPTICS TO IMAGE TRACKS AND WHAT WOULD IT GET US? John Learned University of Hawaii At Kam. LAND Collaboration meeting Gatlinburg, Tennessee, 4/05 Byron Dieterle has done optical studies, thought about problem, and been a great help in developing this idea. John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Tracking in Kam. LAND?

 • If we can design the optics with enough light collection adequate depth • If we can design the optics with enough light collection adequate depth of field • and not much rescattering of light • Reconstruct tracks and precise vertices. John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Basic Idea: a Scintillator “Bubble Chamber”

 • Accelerator neutrinos: superior recognition of electron events and rejection of πos. • • Accelerator neutrinos: superior recognition of electron events and rejection of πos. • PDK: excellent K mode resolution. • SN: resolution of direction. • Reactors: better e+-n direction resolution. • Solar Nu’s: Some directionality. • Muons: very accurate track reconstruction, increased rejection of backgrounds. • Nuclearites, Q-Balls, etc. : not presently recorded in SK or KL (? )… opportunity. John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Kam. LAND Physics Applications

 • • Aperture: assume 8 x 17”PMTs (~1. 2 m pupil) Similar QE, • • Aperture: assume 8 x 17”PMTs (~1. 2 m pupil) Similar QE, efficiency Assume 8 wide field cameras ~2. 4 PE/cm track in each camera 40 Me. V track yields ~200 pixels 1 Me. V yields ~10 pixels Aim for resolution ~4 mm Implies camera with ~4 M pixels => commerically available CCDs John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Sensitivity & Implications

Starting point: ASHRA Imaging Particle Detector Ideas and leader: Makoto Sasaki, ICRR 9 M-pix. Starting point: ASHRA Imaging Particle Detector Ideas and leader: Makoto Sasaki, ICRR 9 M-pix. CMOS Sensor Covering 50 deg-Fo. V 4, 500 x 3, 000 (14 M) pix. PMT-array Camera CMOS Sensor Chip Pixel Cost Reduction by O(104) Commercial CMOS Camera John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Key Technology

Ashra Optics Modified Baker-Nunn pupil : 1 m F/0. 74 Details can be found Ashra Optics Modified Baker-Nunn pupil : 1 m F/0. 74 Details can be found in M. Sasaki et al, NIM A 492 (2002) 49 • Schmidt-type optics • Spherical segment mirror • Spherical focal surface • 3 -element corrector lens Advantage: a large degree of freedom for optimization of lens surface shape to cancel 1. spherical aberration 2. chromatic aberration. John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Design of

Performance of Ashra Optics Spot diagram after optimization wavelength incident angle John Learned at Performance of Ashra Optics Spot diagram after optimization wavelength incident angle John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 4 largest peaks in air-fluorescence spectra incident angle

Ashra Optics has capability to achieve 1 arcmin resolution within the whole Spot size Ashra Optics has capability to achieve 1 arcmin resolution within the whole Spot size = 0. 0167°(1 arcmin) FOV of ± 25° incident angle from weighted sum of several wavelength using ZEMAX John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 performance of by A. Okumura

What this does for ASHRA EAS air fluorescence angular resolution 3 mφmirror 1 deg/Pix What this does for ASHRA EAS air fluorescence angular resolution 3 mφmirror 1 deg/Pix 3 mφmirror 1 arcmin/Pix ASHRA Angular Resolution 1 arcmin • < 1 arcmin at E > 1018. 5 e. V • 0. 3 arcmin at E ~ 1020 e. V John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 3 mφmirror 1 deg/Pix

 • I. I. • 補正レンズ • ミラー 2/3 scale prototype John Learned at • I. I. • 補正レンズ • ミラー 2/3 scale prototype John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 R&D 状況ー 2/3モデル望遠鏡

Image Intensifier Pipeline => CMOS Sensor Lens I. I. Incident photons Proximity focused I. Image Intensifier Pipeline => CMOS Sensor Lens I. I. Incident photons Proximity focused I. I. photocathode photon phosphor screen gate pulse >5 ns • 4. 6 Lp/mm =>σ~70μm @ input surface • de-magnification factor ~ 10 • 46 Lp/mm => σ~7μm ~ CCD pix. size • magnification factor = 1 commercial ASHRA I. I. Minimum modification of focal surface John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Focal sphere =>

Large Diameter Image Intensifier 16” (400 mm)φphotocathode Þ photocathode resolution 3. 4 line pair/mm (largest Large Diameter Image Intensifier 16” (400 mm)φphotocathode Þ photocathode resolution 3. 4 line pair/mm (largest and finest resolution in world)  Þ 24“ under development (but maybe 20” limit) John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Existing

Prototype Image Pipeline John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Not needed for KL application Prototype Image Pipeline John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Not needed for KL application

Would require draining the detector: stopper? Present idea based on ASHRA size camera. Maybe Would require draining the detector: stopper? Present idea based on ASHRA size camera. Maybe smaller camera which replaces 1 PMT and requires no cutting steel, but then need More cameras. John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Add Cameras to Kam. LAND?

Beam 4 Calculations Simple setup, easy to get started Can do simple optimization Example Beam 4 Calculations Simple setup, easy to get started Can do simple optimization Example of card file below: • • 9 surfaces sas 16. opt Diameter dia index Zvx Curv A 4 A 6 A 8 shape Mir/Lens -------: ----------: ----------------: ---------: 2. 400 : : : -. 22 : -0. 0 : 0. : 1. : lens : L 1 2. 400 : : 1. 414 : -. 195 : -0. 0013394: 0. 07467649 : 0. 0011911: 0. : 1. : lens : L 1 2. 000 : : : -. 05 : 0. 0130258: -0. 06570667 : -0. 0011347: -0. 000453 : 1. : lens : L 2 2. 000 : : 1. 414 : 0. 0 : -0. 0 : 0. : : iris : L 2 2. 000 : : 1. 414 : . 05 : -0. 0130258: 0. 06570667 : 0. 0011347: 0. 000453 : 1. : lens : L 2 2. 400 : : : . 195 : 0. 0013394: -0. 07467649 : -0. 0011911: 0. : 1. : lens : L 3 2. 400 : : 1. 414 : . 22 : -0. 0 : 0. : 1. : lens : L 3 2. 400 : : : 1. 50 : -. 667 : : 1. : mirror : M 0. 400 : : : 0. 694 : -1. 441 : : 1. : other : D Calculations by Byron Dieterle John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Start with Sasaki design

John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Byron has done some Beam 4 Sims for KL-like John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Byron has done some Beam 4 Sims for KL-like Geometry Conclude: resolutions of order of mm are achieved at IIT.

Use me tomo t g out hods raphi of f to re c ocu Use me tomo t g out hods raphi of f to re c ocu c s im onstr age uct. Image of a Track

 • Idea to add imaging to Kam. LAND needs study…. optics, design practicality, • Idea to add imaging to Kam. LAND needs study…. optics, design practicality, sensitivity, reconstruction. • How about small camera in place of a neck 6” PMT? Could do muon tracks, nuclearites? • Biggest question: does it buy us something really important? • Should we pursue it? Anyone interested? John Learned at Gatlinburg 4/05 Conclusion