Скачать презентацию c DIACETYL MATHOD Because of Instability of Diacetyl Скачать презентацию c DIACETYL MATHOD Because of Instability of Diacetyl

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c. DIACETYL MATHOD Because of Instability of Diacetyl, Use Diacetyl Monoxide, add Acid Diacetyl c. DIACETYL MATHOD Because of Instability of Diacetyl, Use Diacetyl Monoxide, add Acid Diacetyl CH 3 COCOCH + UREA CH 3 C-C-CH 3 Diacetyl N N C O Diazine yellow F. URIC ACID Test for Kidney and Renal(Gout) Function Normal- Males 2. 5 to 7 mg% Females – 1. 5 to 6 mg% In gout goes to 10 mg%(Reflection of Nucleic Acid Breakdown)

METHODS a. PHOSPHOTUNGSTIC ACID URIC ACID + H 3 PW 13 O 40 ALLANTOIN METHODS a. PHOSPHOTUNGSTIC ACID URIC ACID + H 3 PW 13 O 40 ALLANTOIN BLUE b. ENZYMATIC URIC ACID + URICASE PEROXIDE + ALLANTOIN -Measure decrease in absorbance at 290 nm of Uric Acid OR – Use o-dianisidine + Peroxide Red Color G. CREATININE Better method for Kidney Function. No dietary effects. Difficulty-only very low concentrations(approx. 1 mg%) in serum BASIC EQUILIBRIUM: CREATINE + ACID CREATININE + BASE CREATINE NORMAL: Men= 0. 6 to 1. 2 mg%; Women= 0. 50 to 1 mg%

If Creatinine rises to 2 to 4 mg% -Moderate to severe kidney damage ASSAY: If Creatinine rises to 2 to 4 mg% -Moderate to severe kidney damage ASSAY: JAFFE METHOD Alkaline picrate + Creatinine Red Color at 500 nm To do Creatine add Acid Creatinine, assay as above H. PROTEIN Proteins provide a Nutritive role If protein level changes=disease of kidney Normal rate is 6 to 8 mg% in serum ASSAY l. TOTAL PROTEIN BY FOLIN-CIOCALTEAU REAGENT ADD PHOSPHOTUNGSTIC ACID, OXIDIZE THE –OH GROUP IN TYROSINE RING(COLOR CHANGE FROM YELLOW TO BLUE

2. KJELDAHL METHOD : PROTEIN NH 3 on digestion with acid/catalyst. Distill NH 3 2. KJELDAHL METHOD : PROTEIN NH 3 on digestion with acid/catalyst. Distill NH 3 into Boric Acid H 2 BO 3 -(titrate with Acid) 3. BIURET METHOD: Cu(II) + PROTEIN BLUE COLOR (530 nm) DUE TO REACTION OF Cu(II) WITH C=O and =NH GROUPS OF PROTEIN CALLED BIURET BECAUSE OF ANALOGY OF Cu(II) REACTION WITH BIURET I. ALBUMIN -ONE OF KEY PROTEINS IN BODY ASSAY: ALBUMIN + METHYL ORANGE OR HYDROXYAZOBENZENE COLOR at 540 nm. NORMAL LEVELS: 3. 8 to 4. 7 g%. J. FIBRINOGEN A PLASMA PROTEIN FACTOR NECESSARY FOR COAGULATION.

NORMAL: 200 to 400 ng% GOES TO 700 ng% IN TUBERCULOSIS, PNEUMONIA ASSAY – NORMAL: 200 to 400 ng% GOES TO 700 ng% IN TUBERCULOSIS, PNEUMONIA ASSAY – CLOT WITH THROMBIN AND MEASURE DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT K. AMINO ACIDS -3 ARE IMPORTANT IN CLINICAL: 1. PHENYLALANINE = BENZENE-CH 2 CHCOOH NH 2 2. TYROSINE = HO-BENZENE-CH 2 CHCOOH NH 2 3. TRYPTOPHAN = INDOLE-CH 2 CHCOOH NH 2 TOTAL AMINO ACIDS = 2. 5 to 4. 5 mg% in Serum(Large Increase indicates severe liver damage)

ASSAY: NINHYDRIN + AMINOACID DEEP RED COLOR L. l-PHENYLALANINE MOST IMPORTANT AMINO ACID – ASSAY: NINHYDRIN + AMINOACID DEEP RED COLOR L. l-PHENYLALANINE MOST IMPORTANT AMINO ACID – PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) TEST=MEASURES BUILDUP OF PHENYLALANINE IN NEWBORN BABIES. BUILD UP DUE TO LACK OF ENZYME l. PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE l-TYROSINE, AN IMPORTANT STEP IN METABOLISM OF BODY. BUILD UP LEADS TO MENTAL RETARDATION IN BRAIN=ONE OF KEY CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION IN NEWBORNS. ASSAY: PHENYLALANINE + Fe(III) GREEN COLOR OR PHENYLALANINE + NINHYDRIN + LEUCYLALANINE FLUORESCENCE(EXCITATION 365 nm, EMISSION 525 nm) INFANTS: 2. 1 mg% AT BIRTH, 4. 5 mg% 3 -4 DAYS, 20 -30 mg% 10 days=SERIOUS

M. CHOLESTEROL/TRIGLYCERIDES/HDL/LDL TESTS IMPORTANCE=DIAGNOSIS OF POSSIBILITY OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. SOME CHOLESTEROL NECESSARY FOR BODY M. CHOLESTEROL/TRIGLYCERIDES/HDL/LDL TESTS IMPORTANCE=DIAGNOSIS OF POSSIBILITY OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. SOME CHOLESTEROL NECESSARY FOR BODY FUNCTIONING. BODY SYNTHESIZES 2 gram a day(3 X level that is taken in): Acetate radicals + Amino Acids, Carbohydrates and Fatty Acids Cholesterol ATTEMPTS TO LOWER CHOLESTEROL WITHOUT LIMIT OF DIETARY INTAKE = UNSUCCESSFUL PROBLEM: CHOLESTEROL IS INSOLUBLE AND CANNOT ENTER BLOOD STREAM BY CROSSING GI TRACT WITHOUT LIPOPROTEINS WHICH SOLUBILIZE CHOLESTEROL. THESE ARE IMPORTANT HDL AND LDL MOLECULES. TRIGLYCERIDES ARE FATTY MOLECULES THAT AFFECT MI BY BUIDING UP IN BLOODSTREAM. ALL OF THESE ARE IMPORTANT AND MUST BE ASSAYED.

l. CHOLESTEROL NORMAL 150 to 180 mg% at up to 850 mg% =GOOD CHANCES l. CHOLESTEROL NORMAL 150 to 180 mg% at up to 850 mg% =GOOD CHANCES OF MI Cholesterol is removed by liver Bile Acids(Hydroxylation Reaction) METHODS OF ANALYSIS: a. ENZYMATIC: TOTAL CHOLESTEROL + ESTERASE CHOLESTEROL + OXIDASE PEROXIDE + o-DIANISIDINE (RED COLOR) OR CAN MEASURE IN NOVA OR YELLOWSPRINGS INSTRUMENT WITH IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES IN BIOSENSOR b. LIEBERMAN-BURCHARD METHOD CHOLESTEROL + SULFURIC ACID GREEN COLOR(Bis Chlosteradienyl Monosulfonic Acid) c. CHOLESTEROL INSTRUMENT(SEE NEXT PICTURE)

2. TRIGLYCERIDES= ESTERS OF HIGH M. W. , CONSTITUTE 95% OF FAT STORED IN 2. TRIGLYCERIDES= ESTERS OF HIGH M. W. , CONSTITUTE 95% OF FAT STORED IN TISSUES. TERMED POLYUNSATURATED FATA UNDERGO DIGESTION IN DUODENDUM AND ILEUM. THEY ARE HYDROLYZED TO GLYCEROL + FATTY ACIDS BY LIPASES. DANGER: IN BLOOD STREAM, RESTRICT FLOW OF BLOOD SINCE THEY ARE INSOLUBLE. THE BAD LDL AND VLDL LIPOPROTEINS CAUSE ELEVATED TRIGLYCERIDES AND HENCE INCREASED POSSIBILITY OF MI. THE GOOD HDL CAUSES ONLY NORMAL LEVELS-LOWER MI NORMAL 40 -160 mg% Male; 35 -135 mg% Female. ABOVE 200 BAD ASSAY: ADD LIPASE FATTY ACIDS(MEASURE WITH DYE)

3. LIPOPROTEINS - TRANSPORT INSOLUBLE LIPIDS - PLAY KEY ROLE IN CHOLESTEROL/TRIGLYCERIDE METABOLISM. a. 3. LIPOPROTEINS - TRANSPORT INSOLUBLE LIPIDS - PLAY KEY ROLE IN CHOLESTEROL/TRIGLYCERIDE METABOLISM. a. GOOD = HDL(HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN) - Important in removing Cholesterol from Tissues, thereby reducing the amount of cholesterol stored in body - Involved in returning cholesterol from arteries to liver for removal as bile acids(Reverse Cholesterol transport) - Plays a major role as scavenger of lipid and apolipid proteins MEASUREMENT: USE ANTIBODY TO HDL Higher Value the better(low risk of MI)->35 mg% best

b. BAD = Low Density Lipoproten(LDL)and Very Low Density Lipoprotein(VLDL) -Causes Increased Uptake of b. BAD = Low Density Lipoproten(LDL)and Very Low Density Lipoprotein(VLDL) -Causes Increased Uptake of Cholesterol by allowing Transport Across GI Tract. Cholesterol deposits in arterial walls leading to premature athersclerosis. - Patients with Genetic Disorder Familial Hypercholesterolemia(FH) have a gene that codes fopr the LDL receptor. HIGH LDL and VLDL = GRAVE RISK Range of LDL 0 to 150 mg%. Above 150 BAD K. THYROID GLAND = Size of Butterfly, Synthesizes Hormones TEST FOR FUNCTIONING CALLED PBI(Protein Bound Iodine. Av PBI = 3. 5 to 8. 0 microgram %) T 3 and T 4 Important-Assayed by Immunology, old method Radio. Immunoassay, Now Enzyme Immunoassay with Antibodies

AUTOMATION a. First Machine called AUTOANALYZER. Developed by Leonard Skeggs at Oak Ridge Labs AUTOMATION a. First Machine called AUTOANALYZER. Developed by Leonard Skeggs at Oak Ridge Labs in 1960’s. b. ONE OF BIG ADVANCES IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS c. TWO BIG FACTORS IN INSTRUMENT d. - USE OF DIALYZER MEMBRANE TO SEPARATE 2 GROUPS(WATER SOLUBLE-DIFFUSABLE-AND NON DIFFUSABLE) e. - USE OF AIR BUBBLES TO SEPARATE SAMPLES FOR RAPID INTRODUCTION INTO INSTRUMENT f. ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT(SMA) 60 samples/hour with 12 tests g. h. Then New SMAC – Computer Linked 24 assays with 240/hour See Next View

SAMPLE DIALYZER Non-Diffusable: Total Protein(Folin Calcateau Reagent) Albumin(Dye) Billirubin(dye) Alkaline Phosphatase(Color) LDH, CK, Transaminases SAMPLE DIALYZER Non-Diffusable: Total Protein(Folin Calcateau Reagent) Albumin(Dye) Billirubin(dye) Alkaline Phosphatase(Color) LDH, CK, Transaminases etc DIFFUSABLE: Electrolyes(Na+, K+, Ca++, Cl-)-ISE’s Urea(Diaceyl Reaction) Glucose (Enzymatic) Bicarbonate(Acid Base) l-Phenylalanine(dye) Cholesterol(LB Reaction) RESULTS DISPLACED AUTOMATICALLY AS SHOWN. 2. DUPONT AUTOMATIC CLINICAL ANALYZER: SAMPLE CRUSHER INCUBATE READ PACK INJECTED INTO PACK AS CUVETTE

EACH TEST HAD SEPARATE COMPUTER LABELED PACK. ALL PACKS LOADED ON CONVEYER BELT. TEST EACH TEST HAD SEPARATE COMPUTER LABELED PACK. ALL PACKS LOADED ON CONVEYER BELT. TEST RESULTS COMPUTER REPORTED. USUAL METHODS USED. 3. OTHER INSTRUMENTS a. PERKIN ELMER CLINICAL ANALYZER – PROGRAMMED FOR 35 TESTS, 300/HOUR: GLUCOSE = HEXOKINASE/NADH; UREA = NITROPRUSSIDE REACTION; CREATININE=JAFFE REACTION; CHLORIDE = Hg++ + Fe+++ + SCN- ; PHOSPHATE = MOLYBDATE; URIC ACID = URICASE; TOTAL PROTEIN = Cu++ COMPLEX; ALBUMIN= COMPLEX; LDH and CK = NADH PRODUCTION; TRANSAMINASES = NADH; Ca, K and Na by ISE’s; ETC b. MASS SPEC CENTER OF USPHS –WORLDWIDE DATA BASE FOR POISONS. ANYTHING CAN BE IDENTIFIED=CHILD? c. DADE STRATUS – DRUGS, CLINICAL METABOLITES(LIKE PSA, T 3, T 4 ETC BY AUTOMATED IMMUNOASSAY=LATER)

d. BLOOD GAS ANALYZER= RESPIRATORY SYSTEM BY p. H, BICARBONATE, FREE CO 2 ETC) d. BLOOD GAS ANALYZER= RESPIRATORY SYSTEM BY p. H, BICARBONATE, FREE CO 2 ETC) = VERY BIG IN CLINICAL LAB e. NOVA INSTRUMENT FOR ELECTROLYTES/GLUCOSE/UREA/CHOLESTEROL/LACTATE - USES ISE’s ON WHOLE BLOOD FOR ELECTROLYTES - BIOSENSORS FOR GLUCOSE, UREA, CHOLESTEROL, LACTATE f. TODAY BIGGEST ARE (1)NOVA (2)BLOOD GAS (3) LARGE CLINICAL ANALYZERS LIKE OLYMPUS AND ROCHE(FORMERLY BOEHRINGER ANALYZER). FOUND IN ALL CLINICAL LABS CLINICAL LAB IS BIGGEST EMPLOYER OF ANALYTICAL CHEMIST. WHY? Over 10, 000 Hospitals Worldwide each with lab(Some very big) plus private labs that do only blood work worldwide=estimate at least 5000 large ones. Sommerville N. J. eg.

IMMUNOASSAYS ANTIGEN + ANTIBODY(LINKED TO ENZYME) COMPLEX. CALLED ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY = REPLACES OLD RIA IMMUNOASSAYS ANTIGEN + ANTIBODY(LINKED TO ENZYME) COMPLEX. CALLED ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY = REPLACES OLD RIA OF ROSEMOND YALLOW WHO WON NOBEL PRIZE FOR THIS WORK in 1950’s ACTIVITY OF ENZYME CONC OF ANTIGEN CONCEPT: ON BINDING TO ANTIGEN, THE ANTIBODY-ENZYME COMPLEX LOSES ACTIVITY BECAUSE BINDING SITE OF ENZYME IS COVERED BY ANTIGEN. HENCE ACTIVITY DECREASES WITH TIME AND ACTIVITY IS RELATED TO ANTIGEN CONCENTRATION>

LARGE USEAGE IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS TODAY: l. PSA(PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN). USE KIT WITH ANTIBODY LARGE USEAGE IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS TODAY: l. PSA(PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN). USE KIT WITH ANTIBODY TO PSA LABELED WITH ENZYME. LOOK AT COLOR – RELATE TO PSA ACTIVITY. 2. ISOENZYMES. THERE ARE SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO LDH 1, 2 and LDH 4, 5, TO CK MB, 3. LIPOROTEINS – HDL, LDL and now VLDL 4. THYROID FUNCTION – T 3 and T 4 DADE STRATUS MACHINE FOR IMMUNOASSAY: Labeled Pack for I SERUM PACKAGE FOR EACH IMMUNOASSAY CRUSH MIX ADD SUBSTRATE READ FLUORESCENCE In reagent pack we have Antibody for each test labeled to Alkaline Phosphatase. Add substrate(naphthol phosphate), read fluorescence

IMMUNOASSAY IS IMPORTANT IN - FOOD. ASSAY FOR BACTERIA(E. COLI, SALMONELLA, LISTERIA) -ENVIRONMENTAL( ALL IMMUNOASSAY IS IMPORTANT IN - FOOD. ASSAY FOR BACTERIA(E. COLI, SALMONELLA, LISTERIA) -ENVIRONMENTAL( ALL PESTICIDES DONE IN KITS TODAY. CHEAPER, NO NEED FOR CLEAN UP) - CLINICAL – IMMUNOASSAY IS THE SECOND GENERATION TEST NEXT STEP WILL BE RECEPTORS DIRECTLY but LACK OF LARGE SUPPLY WILL HINDER THIS ALREADY DONE BY PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT

REVIEW MUST KNOW: l. SIGNIFICANE/METHODOLOGY FOR 4 SUBSTRATE AND 4 ENZYMES GRADED ON RECOGNIZING REVIEW MUST KNOW: l. SIGNIFICANE/METHODOLOGY FOR 4 SUBSTRATE AND 4 ENZYMES GRADED ON RECOGNIZING MOST IMPORTANT 2. ISOENZYMES – WHAT ARE THEY, WHAT ARE THEY USED FOR, EXAMPLES 3. AUTOMATION IN CLINICAL LAB – HISTORY, TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS, WHAT DO THEY DO 4. FUTURE – WHERE ARE WE GOING? ? 5. VALIDATION 6. SET UP OF CLINICAL LAB 7. HISTORY OF CLINICAL ANALYSIS(IMPORTANT MARKER)