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By Ms. Harrington By Ms. Harrington

Why Make the Journey • The Homestead Act- 160 for every single man and Why Make the Journey • The Homestead Act- 160 for every single man and 320 acres for married couples • Climate – Can cure the sick • New Opportunities – Many lost land savings • Land of Milk and Honey – Land is perfect for farming • Gold Discovered

What is the Oregon Trail? • It was the only practical, overland path for What is the Oregon Trail? • It was the only practical, overland path for entering the western United States • The trail was about 2, 000 miles • It would take about 6 months to cross • Pioneers started at jumping off towns -St. Louis, Missouri -Independence, Missouri • The end of the trail is Oregon City

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Located in Western nebraska Located in Western nebraska

 • Nearly 300 feet (90 meters) tall • Made of primarily of brule • Nearly 300 feet (90 meters) tall • Made of primarily of brule clay with layers of volcanic ash and arikaree sandstone • Helped pioneers know they were getting closer to Oregon • Has become smaller due to erosion and lightning

Independence Rock Located in Wyoming Independence Rock Located in Wyoming

Independence Rock • Giant, granite structure • 130 feet (40 meters) high • Designated Independence Rock • Giant, granite structure • 130 feet (40 meters) high • Designated a National Landmark on January 20, 1961 • Most pioneers reached this point on July 4 th • Many Pioneers Carved their initials into the rock

Fort Kearny Located in Wyoming Fort Kearny Located in Wyoming

Fort Kearny • Founded in 1848 • Built to protect the emigrants on the Fort Kearny • Founded in 1848 • Built to protect the emigrants on the trail • A place for travelers to buy supplies and send mail to friends and family back east • It was abandonment in 1871

In 1834, a group of missionaries traveled west to the Oregon territory. In the In 1834, a group of missionaries traveled west to the Oregon territory. In the years that followed, many other settlers followed. The Oregon Trail began in St. Louis, Missouri and crossed over two thousand miles of plains and mountains, finally ending in the Willamette Valley in Oregon. The journey took four to six months and the travelers faced many hardships for the promise of a better life. Willamette Valley

Fort Hall Located in Idaho Fort Hall Located in Idaho

Fort Hall • Originally built as a trading post for the fur traders • Fort Hall • Originally built as a trading post for the fur traders • Became a stopping off point for the pioneers • Around 270, 000 emigrants stopped at the fort • After leaving Fort Hall, the pioneers faced an important decision - cross the Snake River or take the overland route

Hardships • Disease – Cholera killed more emigrants than anything else • Crossing Rivers Hardships • Disease – Cholera killed more emigrants than anything else • Crossing Rivers with out losing your wagon or drowning • Injuries – Usual no doctors - cuts and broken bones could become infected • Supply and quality of water • Lack of food – run out and can’t hunt • Wagons braking down on the trail

Dear Journal, May 5, 1852 We have only just begun our journey and we Dear Journal, May 5, 1852 We have only just begun our journey and we have already come again severe challenges. As we tried to cross the great Missouri River today we had to disassemble each wagon and ferry them across one by one. After working all day we still only a third of the wagons on the west back. On top of this painstaking and time intensive work the men struggled to get the oxen to swim across. They were so afraid of the strong current and many found themselves thrashing in thick mud. Several oxen were swept down stream or had to be left for they were stuck too deep in the mud. I fear after this experience we will never make it to the land of milk and honey. Sincerely, Hattie Smith

Dear Diary, January 25, 1863 After much debate Charles and I have decide to Dear Diary, January 25, 1863 After much debate Charles and I have decide to move with the Children out West. Everyone in town has been discussing the Homestead Act and the opportunities it will provide. After much deliberation I agreed to Charles’ wish to head out West so we too can take 320 acres of beautiful farming land. We have decided to invite Ma and Pa to dinner and sit down with the girls to tell them about our plans. I know this decision will be hard on them all but in time they too will understand why we must make this move. We have all heard stories about the challenges other pioneers have faced on the trail, but I hope we fair to be luckier then them. We have the next year to earn the money necessary and gather provisions for the long journey. Until then I will try to focus on all the good fortune this move can bring our family. Sincerely, Caroline Ingalls

Wikipedia Works Cited http: //www. wikipedia. org/ Google Images http: //images. google. com/imghp? hl=en&tab=wi Wikipedia Works Cited http: //www. wikipedia. org/ Google Images http: //images. google. com/imghp? hl=en&tab=wi Why Pioneers Went West http: //www 2. localaccess. com/wald/whywest. htm The Oregon Trail http: //www. isu. edu/~trinmich/Introduction. html Think Quest http: //library. thinkquest. org/CR 0210182/hardships. html Roots Web http: //www. rootsweb. ancestry. com/~genepool/barlowrd. htm#provisions