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BUSINESS PROCESS ANALYSIS A First Look at HR/Payroll Processes Presented by Dr. Sherry D. Ralston Director, Human Resources and Alberta G. Lee, Associate Director
Purpose of Session o Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Overview of Business Process Analysis (BPA) Review a new way to gather information which might be used to modify/analyze current processes/functions (tasks) in and between HR and Payroll. Select a process for analysis Apply BPA criteria and practice THINK HOW THIS MIGHT WORK WITH BANNER!
What is BPA? o A three-fold method of gathering information-- o describes the “as is” (current) process; defines the “should be” process, and models the “can be” process o BPA enables “reengineering” of processes to manage change and promote effective teamwork.
Definition (cont’d) o A business process that describes the day-to- day activities and job duties an employee performs. (Job duties = processes) o A business process is a picture of workflow with a beginning, middle and end. o Work often crosses over departments. BPA requires cooperation and a willingness to assess the ownership of duties/tasks.
Common Business Processes in Higher Ed. o EXAMPLES: o Admit students and maintain student records; o Hire and pay personnel; o Buy and pay for goods and services, Processes may be subdivided into functional parts. How might we subdivide hire and pay personnel?
Sample HR/Payroll Process n n n Hire Employee Process Paperwork Pay Employee Human Resources Payroll
Reasons to Use BPA o Elimination of activities that do not add value; o Simplification of tasks and activities; o Integration of jobs or job groups; o Automation of task and activities (technology).
Questions to Evaluate the Need to Use BPA How well does the process work? 2. Are there redundant steps that don’t add value? 3. Are better results needed? 4. Can the same or better results be achieved through change or modification? 1.
Questions to Ask. . . ? , (cont’d) 5. What are the overall goals of redefining the process? Decrease work Better efficiency Decrease cost Manage and promote change Effectiveness all of the above
Steps in the BPA Method (Twelve Step Program) o Name the process; o Define the process terms; o Establish process boundaries; o Identify process actors (who does what); o Identify the process owner; o Identify (stakeholders) who is being affected by the process;
Steps in BPA. . . (cont’d) o Describe tasks associated with process o Describe decisions associated with the task(s) o Cross reference (check) o Arrange tasks in order of importance o Establish measures and identify additional related information o Identify areas for improvement within the institution (Are outcomes aligned with goals? )
Naming the Process A process name identifies what the process does. (Verb + Noun) Stated as– “end-to-end” (end of one process to the end of another process). Recruit student aides to pay student aides. Stated as– (a gerund with a noun) Recruiting student aides to paying student aides.
Defining Process Terms o Identify the business objective of the process (What is the goal of the department/institution? ) o Clarify each term of the process (Who is the target? )
Establishing Boundaries o Identify the beginning and end points of the process (specific points) o Identify the inputs o Identify the end of the process o Identify the outputs o (Boundaries produce the first picture in the workflow)
Identifying Process Actors (Stakeholders) o These are all the individuals who are involved in the activities of the process. (Each one’s role will be a part of the final workflow picture). (What examples are there? )
Identifying the Process Owners Identify: 1. 2. 3. 4. Who owns the process? Who is responsible for its failure or success? Who is the key decision-maker? Who allots the institution’s resources? (Only one owner; the one whose job is on the line if the work fails? )
Describing Associated Tasks o Create a list of all the tasks associated with the process and who does each task. o No order is necessary. o List as many as possible. (Brainstorm)
Definition of a Task A “task” is defined as work done by one person, such as changing an address or updating benefit information.
Identifying Who the Process Impacts The process stakeholder is someone who is not a supplier, customer or owner, but who stands to gain or lose as a result of the process. (i. e. , vice presidents) (Depicted with a different graphic)
Describe Decisions Made o These are conditional tasks. The “What if or who if. ” o Example: If the applicant is internal. . . then. . . If the employee applies for Blue Choice Select. . . then.
Cross Referencing o Be sure all persons identified as process actors are represented by a task. o (Eliminate or change those incorrectly identified. )
Arranging Tasks in Order o Sequence tasks. (may use post-it notes. ) o Start at the identified beginning point and progress to the end. o Add any tasks or decisions missed.
Establishing Measures and Adding Information l l Count the number of transactions, tasks, actors, approvals, and percentage of tasks allotted to one department or the other. Timeframes (length of time it takes to complete the task). Impediments to success or flow of process (persons or tasks performed, paperwork, etc. )
Establish Measures. . (CONT’D) Areas of needed improvement (participants’ wish list) 5. Interfaces 6. Additional data needed from the system (inputs, letters, etc. ) 7. Critical functions to keep (functions to retain in the current state) 4.
Identify Areas for Improvement and Plan for Changes to the Process Steps in change process (list) 2. Resources needed or policy changes, etc. 3. Determine how the picture of the workflow will appear. 1.
Future Steps o Continue to refine workflow through n n Elimination of tasks/activities Simplification of tasks/activities Integration of process parts Automation of process parts
Elements of Flowchart: Representative figures o Swim lanes: Parallel lines which show the functional process of workflow ===== (Each main actor may have a swim lane for his/her tasks; these may cross over depts) o Tasks: Rectangular boxes o To and From arrows: > to; from < o Decisions: Diamonds o Terminators: curved oblong box
Exercise o 1. Choose a partner in another dept. o 2. Identify a process (a limited one) you think would benefit by BPA? Write it down. (Do on your own) o 2. Flowchart the process beginning to end. List the tasks and decisions. Include the stakeholders and owners. Identify steps which you would change o 3. Share with your partner.
Exercise (cont’d) o 4. Determine if the process crosses departments? If it doesn’t, should it; if not who in your dept. is involved; how would you work within your dept or the other dept. ? (Do this step with your partner. ) o 5. Be ready to share with the group.