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Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/Mc. Graw-Hill Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/Mc. Graw-Hill

Noun Functions and Plurals Identify proper and common nouns. Objectives Identify functions of nouns Noun Functions and Plurals Identify proper and common nouns. Objectives Identify functions of nouns in sentences. Recognize the differences among singular, plural, and collective nouns. Form plurals of singular nouns, numbers, letters, and abbreviations. Form plurals of foreign and irregular nouns. Business English at Work PP 4 -1

Noun Functions and Plurals Classes of Nouns Persons Places Things Activities Ideas and Qualities Noun Functions and Plurals Classes of Nouns Persons Places Things Activities Ideas and Qualities Business English at Work assistant Bill Gates college Switzerland computer e-mail walking singing freedom sincerity PP 4 -2

Noun Functions and Plurals Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns Refer to Noun Functions and Plurals Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns Refer to general persons, places, things, activities, ideas, or qualities Are not capitalized Refer to specific persons, places, things, activities, ideas, or qualities Are capitalized magazine employee dictionary Wall Street January Grand Canyon Business English at Work PP 4 -3

Noun Functions and Plurals Functions of Nouns Singular or compound subject Nouns often appear Noun Functions and Plurals Functions of Nouns Singular or compound subject Nouns often appear as singular or compound subjects of sentences. Their usual placement in the sentence is before the verb. Many people use the Internet for research purposes. George and Kim work for an online clothing store. Direct Object A direct object often involves a noun that receives the action of a verb. A direct object appears after the verb. Direct objects may be singular or plural. The administrator requested new computers. Business English at Work PP 4 -4 a

Noun Functions and Plurals continued Functions of Nouns Indirect Object An indirect object usually Noun Functions and Plurals continued Functions of Nouns Indirect Object An indirect object usually appears before a direct object and directly after a verb in a sentence. Indirect objects usually follow verbs such as buy, sell, send, ask, give. I bought Laurie a docking station for her computer. Object of a Preposition A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, the object of the preposition, which is a noun or pronoun, and its modifiers. More that one prepositional phrase may appear in a sentence. The seminar focused on using the Internet and its use in small businesses. Business English at Work PP 4 -4 b

Noun Functions and Plurals continued Functions of Nouns Subject Complement A subject complement (predicate Noun Functions and Plurals continued Functions of Nouns Subject Complement A subject complement (predicate noun) follows a linking verb and renames the subject. Alice Hampton is our help desk technician. Appositive The term appositive means one noun renames another noun or pronoun. The appositive immediately follows the noun it renames. Alice Hampton, our help desk technician, recommends that we update our software. Business English at Work PP 4 -4 c

Noun Functions and Plurals continued Functions of Nouns Direct Address A noun in direct Noun Functions and Plurals continued Functions of Nouns Direct Address A noun in direct address names the individual being addressed. Tim, please design new icons for our Website. We believe, Tim, that you know more about our Website than anyone else. Business English at Work PP 4 -4 d

Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns Plural nouns name two or more Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns Plural nouns name two or more persons, places, things, activities, ideas, or qualities. To form plurals of most common and proper nouns, add s to the singular nouns. File page desk keystroke Business English at Work files pages desks keystrokes PP 4 -5

Noun Functions and Plurals Collective Nouns Collective nouns name a group of persons or Noun Functions and Plurals Collective Nouns Collective nouns name a group of persons or things. If the group acts as a unit, the collective noun is singular. The department has recommended its selection for new database software. If the sentence implies that the members of a team, committee, etc. , are acting individually, the collective noun is plural. The committee received the surveys last week and were asked to return their responses today. Business English at Work PP 4 -6

Noun Functions and Plurals of Nouns Ending in. . . ch sh Add es Noun Functions and Plurals of Nouns Ending in. . . ch sh Add es Exception Business English at Work s x watch dish glass box waltz quiz or z watches dishes glasses boxes waltzes quizzes PP 4 -7

Noun Functions and Plurals of Nouns Ending in. . . F, fe, or ff Noun Functions and Plurals of Nouns Ending in. . . F, fe, or ff Many singular nouns require only an s for their plural forms. For other singular nouns, change the f or fe to ve and add an s. belief shelf wife beliefs shelves wives wharfs/wharves Both forms are acceptable for a few nouns. Business English at Work PP 4 -8

Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns. . . When a noun ends Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns. . . When a noun ends in y and the letter before the y is a vowel, add an s to make the noun plural. delay key boy play essay Business English at Work delays keys boys plays essays PP 4 -9

Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns. . . When a noun ends Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns. . . When a noun ends in y and the letter before the y is a consonant, change the y to i and add es to make the noun plural. policy copy accessory facility Business English at Work policies copies accessories facilities PP 4 -10

Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns. . . When the noun ends Noun Functions and Plurals Plural Forms of Nouns. . . When the noun ends in o and is preceded by a vowel, add an s to form the plural. stereo tattoo portfolio stereos tattoos portfolios When the noun ends in o and is preceded by a consonant, add s or es to form the plural. photo potato Business English at Work photos potatoes PP 4 -11

Noun Functions and Plurals Irregular Noun Plurals and Special Nouns Some singular nouns have Noun Functions and Plurals Irregular Noun Plurals and Special Nouns Some singular nouns have irregular plurals. Singular Plural woman foot mouse goose child ox Business English at Work women feet mice geese children oxen PP 4 -12 a

Noun Functions and Plurals continued Irregular Noun Plurals and Special Nouns Some nouns have Noun Functions and Plurals continued Irregular Noun Plurals and Special Nouns Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms. Singular Plural deer sheep moose species series Business English at Work deer sheep moose species series PP 4 -12 b

Noun Functions and Plurals continued Irregular Noun Plurals and Special Nouns Some nouns that Noun Functions and Plurals continued Irregular Noun Plurals and Special Nouns Some nouns that end in s look like plurals; but, depending on their use, they may have singular meanings. news physics ethics politics Most nouns that represent ideas or qualities have no plural forms. honesty integrity patience innocence Some nouns are never singular. proceeds Business English at Work savings goods earnings PP 4 -12 c

Noun Functions and Plurals Foreign Nouns May use foreign or English plural forms. One Noun Functions and Plurals Foreign Nouns May use foreign or English plural forms. One form may be preferred over the other, or each form may have its own definition. Foreign Singular syllabus census index criterion Business English at Work Foreign Plural syllabi (preferred) indices (math) criteria (preferred) English Plural syllabuses censuses indexes (books) criterions PP 4 -13

Noun Functions and Plurals Abbreviations Most abbreviations form their plurals by adding s to Noun Functions and Plurals Abbreviations Most abbreviations form their plurals by adding s to the singular. Singular Abbreviation apt. bldg. Dr. Co. Business English at Work Plural Abbreviation apts. bldgs. Drs. Cos. PP 4 -14

Noun Functions and Plurals Measurements Most measurement abbreviations are the same in their singular Noun Functions and Plurals Measurements Most measurement abbreviations are the same in their singular and plural forms. Singular Abbreviation foot ounce pound Business English at Work ft oz lb Plural Abbreviation feet ounces pounds ft oz lb PP 4 -15

Noun Functions and Plurals Numbers expressed in figures form their plurals by adding s. Noun Functions and Plurals Numbers expressed in figures form their plurals by adding s. Singular Number 7 1960 876 Plural Number 7 s 1960 s 876 s Singular Number forty three Plural Number forties threes Numbers expressed in figures form their plurals by adding s. Business English at Work PP 4 -16

Noun Functions and Plurals Letters Capital letters form their plurals by adding s. To Noun Functions and Plurals Letters Capital letters form their plurals by adding s. To avoid confusion, add an apostrophe before the s to the plurals of A, I, M, and U. To avoid confusion in meaning, all lowercase letters form their plurals by adding an apostrophe and s. Singular Letter Plural Letter D Ds A A’s i i’s Business English at Work PP 4 -17

End of Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/Mc. Graw-Hill End of Business English at Work © 2003 Glencoe/Mc. Graw-Hill