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Business English 1 Instructor : Jimmy Tsao
Contents Ch. 1. Introduction to Business English Ch. 2. Letter Formats Ch. 3. 7 C’s in Business Letters Ch. 4. Customers Ch. 5. Trading Proposal Ch. 6. Credit Enquiries and Replies Ch. 7. Agreement on Business Terms Ch. 8. General Terms and Conditions in Business Ch. 9. Trading Enquiries
Ch. 10. Offer and Acceptance Ch. 11. Sales Promotion Ch. 12. Orders Ch. 13. Contracts Ch. 14. Letter of Credit Ch. 15. Marine Cargo Insurance Ch. 16. Ocean Transportation Ch. 17. Shipping Documents Ch. 18. Bill of Exchange
Ch. 19. Collection and Payment Ch. 20. Claims and Adjustments Ch. 21. Regaining Lost Customers Ch. 22. Establishment of Agencyship Ch. 23. Business Cable, Telex, and Fax Ch. 24. Circular Letters Ch. 25. Position Vacant &Position Wanted Ch. 26. Social Letters in Business Ch. 27. E-mail
Ch. 1. Introduction to Business English 1. Definition: Business English is English used in business. It handles mainly all kinds of communication in domestic or international business, especially the correspondence regarding international trade.
2. Coverage: In addition to grammar and business writing, Business English covers domestic/international trade practice, business knowledge, fax, e-mail, trading terms, etc.
3. Purpose: The purpose of learning this Business English is to get basic letter-writing skills, trade knowledge and know-how, and business terms and to be able to use them in the business fields the learners are going to devoted to.
4. Key Writing Skills---3 –Para. Structure: In Business English letter writing, it is important that the format of the body should be divided into three major paragraphs as follows: Introduction Information Action
. ABC Cosmestics Co. , LTD. 3 F-4 26 Min-Sheng E. Rd. Taipei, Taiwan 104 Sept. 5, 2012 XYZ Imports, INC 235 Cheng-De Boulevard New York, NY 12345 USA Dear Sirs, We are pleased to receive your letter of August 31, 2012 concerning our cosmetics. As requested , we enclose our latest catalogue and price list for your reference. We are sure that our products are excellent in quality and reasonalbe in price. As orders are rushing in, we would suggest you place your order without delay. We look forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely yours, _______ Jimmy Tsao Manager
5. International Trade Procedure a. Exporters---- looking for Customers--- b. Importers c. Trade Proposal to --- d. Buyers or Suppliers e. Credit Enquiries --- f. Buyers or Suppliers g. Sales Promotion---to h. Enquiries i. Replies/Quotation Request j. Quotation/Counter-offer k. Acceptance/Order l. Sales confirmation/Opening L/C(Letter of Credit) m. L/C receipt/ Shipping Instruction n. Shipment and (EL)Export License o. S/O (Shipping Order)/Ins. p. Shipping Advice q. Negotiation(押匯), then get r. Customs Clearance(進口贖單)(its copies to the other side for them to do that there when reached) s. Follow-up Letters--- (取提單)Bill of Lading to get D/O(Delivery Order)小提單 to get the products at harbor…. t. Adjustment/Complaint…. .
2. Clearness Using clear words and structures, instead of vague, obscure, And ambiguous ones, is essential to good business letter writing. (Word, *We will ship the computers ordered biweekly. --We will ship the computers ordered two times a week. ) (Structure, * The toys were packed in our opinion poorly. --In our opinion, the toys were packed poorly. )
3. Correctness In respect to correctness, there are 4 approaches: ( Correctness of Statement, Accuracy of Numerical Expression, Correct Use of Commercial Terms, Grammatical Correctness) (Correctness of Statement, *Our bikes are certainly the best on the market. -- Our bikes are solid in quality and attractive in design. They are enjoying good market. ) (Accuracy of Numerical Expression, * The loan limit is US$100. --The loan limit is US$100 or less. ) (Correct Use of Commercial Terms, * We offer US$2. 50 FOB Taipei. -We offer US$2. 50 FOB Keelung. )
4. Concreteness To give an exact picture in any statement is to the point. (Adjective, * Our prices are the best. -- Our prices are the lowest on the market. ) ( Noun, * We expect to receive your reply. --We expect to receive your early confirmation of the order. ) (Number, *We will make shipment under your L/C. -We will make shipment under your L/C No. BC-01. ) ( Date, * You will receive our samples in due time. -You will receive our samples before June 10. )
7. Consideration Trying to be in a customer’s shoes is essential in business communication. The proper use of the “ You-Attitude” is necessary. Pay attention to use”You” more often than “We”. The following are some examples: (Use”You”instead of”We” , * We are pleased to announce that we will offer you a 5% discount. —You will be pleased to know that we will offer you a 5% discount. ) ( Use”Your”instead of “Our”, *We insist on receiving our payment soon. —Your immediate payment is requested. )
Questions What are the 7 C’s in the skills of writing business letters? 電子資料交換: Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the structured transmission of data between organizations by electronic means. It is used to transfer electronic documents from one computer system to another, i. e. from one trading partner to another trading partner. It is more than mere e-mail; it serves many other technical transmission purposes. It is broadly used in trade-related business.
Chapter 4 Looking for customers The sources which can help an exporter/importer find his customers are as follows: Advertisement Recommendation Various Trade Organization Show/Fair/Exhibition
Advertisemen Example 1 Importers ask some Magazine companies to advertise some ads. on it. Oct. 21, 2012 Importer Magazine Co. , Ltd. P. O. Box 5555 Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. Dear Sirs, From TAITRA we understand that you are rendering the service of introducing foreign importers to the local exporters and manufaturers. We are one of the leading importers of bicycles in the US with branches in 20 major cities of the world, such as London and Tokyo, and as the expansion of business requires we are quite interested in importing bicycles from Taiwan. If you should kindly publicize our interest in your magazine, we would be very grateful. Your early reply in this matter would be highly appreciated. Sincerely Yours, ______ *TAITRA: Taiwan External Trade Development Council
Recommendation Example 2 Oct. 21, 2012 The Trade Weekly News The World Trade Center Taipei, Taiwan R. O. C. Through the courtesy of the TAITRA, we come to know that you are in a position to help the foreign importers get in touch with the local exporters. With this in mind, we are writing to request your kind assistance. As one of the most reputable importers of electronic products in Australia, we have been engaged in this line of business for over 20 years and have been enjoying very good reputation for our products in the market here. We are anxious to find suitable and dependable suppliers for our electronic products. We would, therefore, appreciate it very much if you should kindly make our request public in one of your publications. Thank you in advance in this matter. Sincerely yours, ______ James Winston Manager
Example 3 Oct. 21, 2012 Formasa Shoes Co. , Ltd. 222 Zhongshan N. Rd. Sec. 1 Taipei, Taiwan R. O. C. Dear Sirs, For the past 5 years we have been importing your shoes and we have been quite satisfied with your quality and service. As now our business is expanding rapidly and we are planning to include glassware items in our range, we should therefore be very much obliged if you would recommend some friends of yours who are able to supply glassware to us. For your information, our initial order will be around US$ 100, 000. We appreciate your cooperation in the past and are looking forward to hearing from you again soon. Sincerely yours, _______
3. Various Trade organizations Example 4 Oct. 21, 2012 The Chamber of Commerce Of Los Angles, CA. 90020 U. S. A. Dear Sirs, We are a twenty-year-old manufacturer of furniture in Taiwan and in the past years have been exporting our products to Canada and South America on the west coast, we would appreciate it very much if you should kindly supply us with a list of reliable business firms in Los Angles area who are interested in importing our furniture. For the convenience of your checking our credit standing, we refer you to the following bank for further details: The Bank of Taiwan, Yuan-Shan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Your kind assistance in this matter would be highly appreciated. Sincerely yours, ______
Example 5 Oct. 30, 2012 The TAITRA 3 -123, Keelung Rd. , Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. Dear Sirs, We are interested in developing our trade in your market and would be grateful if you could kindly introduce us to the related importers in your country. As a manufacturer of leather goods we have been established for over ten years and have won good reputation for our unique design and excellent quality. For information about our credit standing, please refer to the following: The Bank of America Los Angeles Branch, Los Angeles, CA. 90020 USA Your kind assistance in this matter would be highly appreciated. Sincerely yours, _______ James Winston Manager
4. Show/Fair/Exhibition April 12, 2012 The Italian Business Association Milan, Italy Dear Sirs, It has been our honor and pleasure to meet your group in the yearly Sporting Goods Exhibition held in Taipei. We are one of the leading and reputable expoters and manufacturers of sporting goods in Taiwan and our products have been exported to America, Canada, and Australia. As we are developing our market to Europe, especially Italy, we should be grateful if you would kindly send us a list of importers in your country who are interested in importing our first-rate sporting goods. Your early sending us the above list would be much appreciated. Sincerely yours,
Questions What are the sources which can help an exporter/importer find his customers? What are the trade organization which can help an exporter/importer develop his trade in Taiwan? Give one example. Why does a company supply trade references? When a company introdues itself, what are the points to be included? Letter-writing As an importer of toys in the U. S. , write your letter to the Taipei Chamber of Commerce to ask them to recommend potential exporters. Trade-Van關貿網路 1996/7/1成立 http: //www. tradevan. com. tw/web/gurst/abouttv
Ch. 5. Trading Proposal The sources for an exporter/importer to find his customers are as follows: Advertisement/Directories(名錄) Recommendation Various Trade Organization Show/Fair/Exhibition
Advertisement/Directories(名錄) Example 5 -1 Date: May 23, 2012 Sunshine Trading Co. , Ltd. 123 Alley 20, Lane 23, Nangjing East Rd. , Sec. 3 Taipei, Taiwan R. O. C. Dear Sirs, We learn from the recent issue of the Trade Winds that you are exporters of handbags of various kinds and would like to establish a business relationship with you. We are an importer with a history of 20 years and as we are now in the process of contracting our orders for the coming new season, we would appreciate receiving your latest catalogue and best price list. Please let us hear from you in a couple of days. Sincerely yours,
Recommendation Example 5 -2 August 24, 2012 Harry Imports, Ltd. 123 Chongqing S. RD. , Sec. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. Dear Sirs, It is through the recommendation of Imperial Corp. , Inc. that we come to know your company and are writing to you with a view to introducing our excellent quality jewelry to you. As we have been exporting considerable quantities of jewelry to South East Asian countries, we are sure that you will be interested in importing our first quality jewelry, such as earrings and pendants. Enclosed please find our detailed brochures and price list for your reference. We look forward to receiving your comments. Sincerely yours,
Various Trade Organization Example 5 -3 July 3, 2012 Joyce Leather , Inc. 110 Greenfield Ave. Los Angles, CA 92002 Dear Sirs, We are indebted to the TAITRA for your name and address and are writing to you with the purpose of establishing a business relationship with your company. We are old and well-established importers of all kinds of leather goods and, with our sound sales organization, are in a postion to import large quantities of your leather goods. Please send us your related brochure for our further evalation. We look forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely yours, _____
Show/Fair/Exhibition Example 5 -4 Mr. Mike Wilson Sept. 3, 2012 President Wilson Imports, Inc. 123 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 10100 U. S. A. Dear Mr. Wilson, It was our pleasure to meet you at the Taipei Hand Tool Show and to introduce our products to you. As we know you are quite interested in importing hand tools from Taiwan and as we have been exporting these items for more than ten years, we are in a position to supply you with our solid and heavy-duty tools at very competitive prices. We enclose our new catalogues and price lists for our whole range of products, including those newly-developed items for your reference. If you need any further information about our products , please feel free to contact us. Sincerely yours,
Exercise Questions 1. What are the sources for an exporter/importer to find his customers? 2. Why does an exporter write a trade proposal? Why does an importer write a trade proposal? 網路: MSN(originally the Microsoft Network) is a collection of Internet sites and services provided by Microsoft. The Microsoft Network debuted as(初入進入社交…) an online service and Internet service provider on Aug. 24, 1995, to coincide with the release of the Windows 95 operating system. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Msn Skype http: //skype. pchome. com. tw http: //www. skype. com/
Ch. 6. Credit Enquiries and Replies outline The Sources of Making Credit Enquiries Requesting References and Reply Credit Enquiry and Reply The Sources of Making Credit Enquiries (1)Trade reference supplied by the customer (2)The customer’s banker (3)Various trade associations (4)Credit enquiry agency
Requesting References and Reply Example 6 -1 Enquiry from the Exporter March 7, 2012 Dears Sirs, We thank you for your order of February 29. As it is your first with us, we would like to say how pleased we were to receive it. As our terms of payment for this order are on an open account basis. When customers open new accounts, it is our practice to ask them for trade references. Will you therefore please send us the names and addresses of two other suppliers with whom you have dealings. We shall be glad if you send us the information soon. Meanwhile, we have put your order in hand with dispatch. We will deliver the goods immediately after we hear further from you. Sincerely yours ,
Example 6. 2 Reply from the Importer March 15, 2012 Dear Sirs, We thank you very much for your letter of March 5 asking us to supply you with our references. As requested, we are now sending you the references of two of the suppliers who have done business with us for your checking our credit standing as follows: Union Trade Co. , Ltd. 1098 Zhonxiao E. Rd. Sec. 2 Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. Ideal Exports, Inc. 123 Chongfang E. Rd. Sec. 2 Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. Please write to them directly for the details of our standing. We are sure that they would be very willing to be of any assistance to you. Meanwhile, we are looking forward to receiving our ordered goods soon. Sincerely yours,
Credit Enquiry and Reply Example 6. 3 Enquiry from the Exporter March 20, 2012 Dear Sirs, We have received a request from Hobbies Inc. in New York for supplies of our tennis rackets on open-account terms. They have given us your name as a reference. We should be grateful if you would let us know, in your opinion, whether they are reliable in their dealing and prompt in their payment, and whether they are able to meet their commitment for credit up to US$3, 000. Any information you supply will be treated in strict confidence. Sincerely yours,
Example 6. 4 Reply from the Referee(Favorable Reply) March 25, 2012 (Confidential) Dear Sirs, We are pleased to inform you that the company referred in your letter of March 20, 2012 has placed regular orders with us for the past five years and has been trustworthy and reliable. As far as our knowledge goes, they meet their commitments punctually and a credit in the sum you mention would seem to be safe. We hope this information will be of help to you. Sincerely yours,
Example 6. 5 Reply from the Referee(Unfavorable Reply) March 25, 2012 (Confidential) Dear Sirs, We are writing in connection with the credit standing of the firm referred to in your letter of March 20, 2012. The firm was a well-reputed one but went bankrupt last month. This seems to be a case in which caution is necessary. This information is strictly confidential and is given without any responsibility on our part. Sincerely yours,
Exercise Questions What are the sources from which an exporter/importer can make credit enquiry about his customer? Give an example of various trade organizations in Taiwan? Internet Man Power Bank http: //www. evta. gov. tw http: //www. ejob. gov. tw http: //hirecruit. nat. gov. tw/chinese/ http: //www. career. com. tw
Ch. 7. Agreement on General Terms and Conditions of Business Outline 1. To state the parties who sign the agreement 2. To list the general terms of quotation and acceptance 3. To regulate the steps to be taken when an order is placed. 4. To regulate the terms as to quality, packing , marking, payment, shipment, and insurance, etc. 5. To submit the ways for settling claims 6. To include other details, such as rate of exchange, etc.
Agreement on General Terms and conditions of business as Principal to Principal This Agreement entered into between ABC Enterprises Co. , Ltd. 123 Minsheng E. Rd. Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan , hereinafter referred to as Seller, and Watsons Imports, Inc. 234 Wall St. , New York, NY 12345 U. S. A. hereinafter referred to as Buyer, witnesses as follows: 1. Business: Both Seller and Buyer act as principal not as agents. 2. Commodities: Commodities in business and their unit to quoted are specified in each specific price list and quotation.
3. Quotations and Others: Unless otherwise specified in written forms, all quotations and offers submitted by either party to this Agreement shall be in U. S. dollars on CIF New York basis. 4. Firm offers: All firm offers shall be subject to a reply within the period stated in respective correspondence. 5. Orders: Any business concluded by cable/telex/fax shall be confirmed in writing without delay, and orders thus confirmed shall not be cancelled unless by mutual consent.
6. Payment: Payment shall be made by Buyer by usual negotiable and irrevocable letter of credit in the favor of Seller, to be opened 30/45/60 days before shipment, covering 100% of the invoice value against a full set of shipping documents. 7. Shipment: All commodities sold in accordance with this Agreement shall be shipped within the stipulated time. The date of Bill of Lading is taken as conclusive proof of the day of shipment. Unless expressly agreed to , the port of shipment is at Seller’s option. 8. Marine Insurance: All shipments shall be covered All Risks for a sum equal to the amount of the invoice plus 10 percent, if no other conditions are particularly agreed to. All policies shall be made out in U. S. currency and payable in New York.
9. Quality: Quality to be guaranteed equal to descriptions of the commodities and/or as the sample shows. 10. Inspection: Commodities , unless otherwise specified, will be inspected in accordance with normal practice of suppliers. 11. Packing & Marking: All shipment shall be packed in standard export cartons and be marked WTS. 12. Damage: Seller shall ship all commodities in good condition and Buyer shall assume all risks of damage, deterioration or breakage during transportation. 13. Claims: Claims, if any, shall be submitted by cable/telex/fax/ within fourteen days after arrival of commodities at destination. Certificates by recognized surveyors shall be sent by mail without delay. All claims which cannot be amicably settled between SELLER and BUYER shall be submitted to arbitration.
14. Arbitration: The arbitration board shall consist of two members; one to be nominated by SELLER and one by BUYER, and should they be unable to agree, the decision of an umpire selected by the arbitration shall be final, and the losing party shall bear the expensed thereto. 15. Exchange Rate: The price offered in US dollars is based on the prevailing official exchange rate in Taiwan between the US dollar and the New Taiwan dollar. Any devaluation of the US dollar to the New Taiwan dollar at the time of negotiating draft shall be for Buyer’s risks and account. In witness hereof, Eton Enterprises Co. , Ltd. Have hereunto set their hand on the 22 nd day of May, 20. . , and Watsons Importd, Inc. have hereunto set their hand on the 22 nd day of May, 20… This Agreement shall be valid on and from the 1 st day of June 20. . and any of the articles in this Agreement shall not be changed and modified unless by mutual written consent. SELLER BUYER Eton Enterprise Co. , Ltd. Watsons Imports, Inc. _______ _________ President
Exercise Questions What are the details usually included in an agreement on general terms and conditions of business? Will an agreement on general terms and conditions of business be signed before or after starting doing business? Is an agreement on general terms and conditions of business very important for both the buyer and the seller? Why or why not? Incoterms: like FOB, CIF etc. International commercial terms (abbreviations)
Chapter Eight Terms and Conditions 1. Commodity 2. Quality Terms 3. Quantity Terms 4. Price Terms 5. Packing and Marking 6. Insurance Terms 7. Delivery Terms 8. Payment Terms
1. Commodity(goods, merchandise, products, ware, cargo etc. ) Goods: Canned goods, Capital goods, Consumer goods, Cotton goods, Inflammable goods, Standard goods , Processed goods…. Merchandise: General merchandise (雜貨) Products: Agricultural products, Industrial products, Fishery products, Commercial products Ware : Bamboo-ware, Brass-ware, Ceramic-ware, Earthen-ware(瓦器), Glassware, Hardware, Kitchenware, Silver-ware, Tableware etc. Cargo: Bulk cargo, Bulky cargo, General cargo Others: Toys, Stoves, Shoes, Bicycles….
2. Quality Terms Sale by sample, Sale by standard, Sale by grade(JIS, CNS etc. ) (Sale on FAQ or GMQ)JIS: Japanese Industrial Standard CNS: Chinese National Standard FAQ: Fair Average Quality GMQ: Good Merchandise Quality ISO: International Organization for Standardization UL: Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 3. Quantity Terms Bag, Bale(綑, 包)Bundle, Case, Carton, Coil, Deca(十個), Dozen, Each, Head, Pack, Pair, Piece, Reel, Ream(令, 紙張用), Roll, Set, Sheet, Unit….