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Bureaucracy – Ch. 13 Key Terms Bureaucracy – Ch. 13 Key Terms

Bureaucracy l l Is an efficient and an effective way to organize people to Bureaucracy l l Is an efficient and an effective way to organize people to do work. They are found wherever there are large organizations

Three features l l l 1. Hierarchical authority 2. Job specialization 3. Formalized rules Three features l l l 1. Hierarchical authority 2. Job specialization 3. Formalized rules

Facts – Federal Bureaucracy l l l Federal bureaucrats are career employees 15 Cabinet-level Facts – Federal Bureaucracy l l l Federal bureaucrats are career employees 15 Cabinet-level Departments 60 independent agencies 2000 –Bureaus, divisions and offices 2. 8 million workers Diverse group – Rocket scientist to Janitor

Figure 13. 2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations l. Source: Expenditures and employment, Figure 13. 2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations l. Source: Expenditures and employment, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 483 and 582; regulations: Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Washington, D. C. : Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), tables 6 -12, 6 -14 .

Figure 13. 3: Characteristics of Federal Civilian Employees, 1960 and 1999 l. Sources: Statistical Figure 13. 3: Characteristics of Federal Civilian Employees, 1960 and 1999 l. Sources: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1961, 392 -394; Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 450, 482, 500, 595, 1118.

Discretionary Authority l l The power to choose courses of action and to make Discretionary Authority l l The power to choose courses of action and to make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws. Examples may include: safety regulations, which drugs should be legal & which corporate mergers shall be allowed

Name-request job l l l The hiring of a person whom an agency has Name-request job l l l The hiring of a person whom an agency has already identified Called the “buddy system” This also occurs in the private sector

Iron Triangles l l Relationship & pattern of interaction that occur among an agency, Iron Triangles l l Relationship & pattern of interaction that occur among an agency, interest group & congressional committee or subcommittee Ex. – AARP, the Social Security Administration, & the House subcommittee on aging – all would probably agree on the need for increased SS benefits

Issue networks Not as concrete as “Iron Triangles” l More common today l Agency Issue networks Not as concrete as “Iron Triangles” l More common today l Agency officials, members of Congress, lobbyists, think tanks, media and professors l

Authorization legislation l l l Part of Congressional oversight States the amount of money Authorization legislation l l l Part of Congressional oversight States the amount of money that can be spent by a program Usually begins in a legislative committee

Appropriation l l Money formally set aside for a specific purpose Done by the Appropriation l l Money formally set aside for a specific purpose Done by the appropriations committee in the House

Congressional Oversight l l 1. agency needs congressional approval 2. Congress must authorize money Congressional Oversight l l 1. agency needs congressional approval 2. Congress must authorize money 3. House Appropriations Committee has special power over agencies 4. Investigate agencies by holding hearings

Red Tape l l The complex rules and procedures that must be followed to Red Tape l l The complex rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done “bureaucratic delay or confusion”

Policy making Implementation – the process by which a law or policy is put Policy making Implementation – the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy l Ex. – law grants money for persons who are handicapped – bureaucrats will decide “handicapped” l

Problems with the Bureaucracy l l l Red Tape Conflict Duplication Imperialism Waste Problems with the Bureaucracy l l l Red Tape Conflict Duplication Imperialism Waste

l The text defines bureaucracy as “a large complex organization composed of appointed officials. l The text defines bureaucracy as “a large complex organization composed of appointed officials. ” What does this mean? Can you envision a large, simple organization? Could such an organization accomplish anything consistently?

Executive Branch Executive Branch

l Executive Branch of government includes President, VP, cabinet, & Agencies l Executive Branch of government includes President, VP, cabinet, & Agencies

Executive Office the President (EOP) l Umbrella agency- includes – – – White House Executive Office the President (EOP) l Umbrella agency- includes – – – White House office OMB Council of Economic Advisers National Security Council National Drug Control Policy Office of Vice President

WHITE HOUSE OFFICE Closest advisors l Staffs organized in 3 ways: – Pyramid structure- WHITE HOUSE OFFICE Closest advisors l Staffs organized in 3 ways: – Pyramid structure- Eisenhower, Nixon, & Reagan – Circular structure- Carter – Ad hoc structure-Clinton –

l Most important of the EOP offices- White House Office l INCLUDES- CHIEF OF l Most important of the EOP offices- White House Office l INCLUDES- CHIEF OF STAFF, COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENT, PRESS SECRETARY, EXPERT ADVISORS

The National Security Council l l Advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military The National Security Council l l Advises the president on domestic, foreign, and military matters that relate to the nation’s security Members – VP, Sec. Of Defense & State, director of CIA, & Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

National Security Council National Security Council

Office of Management & Budget OMB l l Largest office in EOP Major task Office of Management & Budget OMB l l Largest office in EOP Major task is to prepare the federal budget – President must submit to Congress in Jan, or Feb.

Office of National Drug Control Policy l l Prepares an annual national drug control Office of National Drug Control Policy l l Prepares an annual national drug control strategy Coordinates the efforts of more than 50 federal agencies fighting the war on drugs

WHO GETS APPOINTED - CABINET l PRESIDENT KNOWS FEW PERSONALLY l MOST HAVE HAD WHO GETS APPOINTED - CABINET l PRESIDENT KNOWS FEW PERSONALLY l MOST HAVE HAD FEDERAL EXPERIENCE l Rivalry often develops between Cabinet and White House staff

Table 12. 1: The Cabinet Departments Table 12. 1: The Cabinet Departments

Journal – Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power l l What constitutional powers does Congress Journal – Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power l l What constitutional powers does Congress have over the bureaucracy? What is the basis for the claim that the President is “Chief Administrator? ”

Figure 13. 4: Department of Homeland Security as Proposed by George W. Bush, June Figure 13. 4: Department of Homeland Security as Proposed by George W. Bush, June 6, 2002 l. Source: Ivo H. Daalder, Statement before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, October 12, 2001 .