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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION UNIT 6 Bryan Shenton 1 BUILDING TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION UNIT 6 Bryan Shenton 1

INTRODUCTION Ø Building technology has evolved over the centuries between simple structures, through to INTRODUCTION Ø Building technology has evolved over the centuries between simple structures, through to hi-tech, state of the art buildings. 2

TRADITIONAL TYPE OF MATERIALS Ø BRICKS & MORTAR Ø TIMBER Ø CONCRETE 3 TRADITIONAL TYPE OF MATERIALS Ø BRICKS & MORTAR Ø TIMBER Ø CONCRETE 3

MODERN MATERIALS USED Ø GLASS Ø PLASTICS Ø PREFABRICATED COMPONENTS 4 MODERN MATERIALS USED Ø GLASS Ø PLASTICS Ø PREFABRICATED COMPONENTS 4

BUILDING USES Ø HOUSES & FLATS Ø TRADITIONALLY 1 OR 2 STOREY HIGH Ø BUILDING USES Ø HOUSES & FLATS Ø TRADITIONALLY 1 OR 2 STOREY HIGH Ø BUILT FROM BRICK, STONE OR TIMBER Ø ALL HOMES BUILT TO BUILDING REGULATIONS Ø MONITORED BY BUILDING CONTROL February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 5

CRITERIA FOR HOUSE BUILDING Ø STRUCTUALLY SOUND Ø RESISTANT TO MOISTURE Ø THERMAL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR HOUSE BUILDING Ø STRUCTUALLY SOUND Ø RESISTANT TO MOISTURE Ø THERMAL PERFORMANCE Ø LOAD BEARING Ø SOUND INSULATION Ø ASTHETICALLY PLEASING February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 6

WAREHOUSES & INDUSTRIAL UNITS Ø COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Ø OPEN SPAN BUILDINGS Ø BUILT IN WAREHOUSES & INDUSTRIAL UNITS Ø COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Ø OPEN SPAN BUILDINGS Ø BUILT IN STEEL FRAMES Ø CLAD WITH ALLUMINIUM Ø ENCLOSED BOTH ECONOMICALLY AND SAFELY February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 7

RETAIL UNITS Ø SHOPS & COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Ø LARGE OPEN SPAN Ø PORTAL FRAME RETAIL UNITS Ø SHOPS & COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Ø LARGE OPEN SPAN Ø PORTAL FRAME Ø CAN BE ADAPTED FROM LARGER HOUSES 8

OFFICES Ø CAN BE LOW OR MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS Ø OPEN PLAN Ø SUB-DIVIDED OFFICES Ø CAN BE LOW OR MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS Ø OPEN PLAN Ø SUB-DIVIDED INTO SMALLER WORKING AREAS Ø MUST INCORPORATE FIRE REGS. EG. FIRE EXITS, ALARMS, SPRINKLERS ETC. 9

FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION TIMBER FRAME Ø WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF PREFAB CONSTRUCTION? 10 FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION TIMBER FRAME Ø WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF PREFAB CONSTRUCTION? 10

TIMBER FRAME BUILDINGS Ø BEEN BUILT IN THE UK SINCE THE 1960’S Ø TIMBER TIMBER FRAME BUILDINGS Ø BEEN BUILT IN THE UK SINCE THE 1960’S Ø TIMBER PANELS BUILT IN THE WORKSHOP RATHER THAN IN SITU Ø DELIVERED TO SITE Ø EASY TO ASSEMBLE Ø PRODUCED TO QUALITY CONTROLLED STANDARDS & TOLERANCES 11

TIMBERFRAME COMPONENTS EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS; 1. VAPOUR BARRIER TIMBERFRAME COMPONENTS EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS; 1. VAPOUR BARRIER 2. INSULATION QUILT 3. S/S WALL TIE 4. INSULATION MEMBRANE 5. SHEATHING BOARD 12

TIMBER FRAME BUILDINGS CROSS SECTION February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London TIMBER FRAME BUILDINGS CROSS SECTION February, 2012 John Fox, College of North West London 13

TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION Ø TIMBER PANELS ( 100 X 50 MM ) ARE NAILED TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION Ø TIMBER PANELS ( 100 X 50 MM ) ARE NAILED WITH PLYWOOD SHEETS TO GIVE ADDED STRENGTH Ø THESE PANELS ARE LOAD BEARING AS THEY SUPPORT THE STRUCTURE OF THE ROOF Ø TIMBER STRUCTURE IS ENCLOSED WITH EITHER BRICKWORK OR STONE. THIS IS ALSO KNOWN AS CLADDING 14

STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION Ø LIGHT STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS (SKELETAL) WERE DEVELOPED IN THE 1880’S STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION Ø LIGHT STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS (SKELETAL) WERE DEVELOPED IN THE 1880’S FOR AMERICAN SKYSCRAPERS USED FOR HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN THE EARLY 1920’S Ø STEEL BECAME RELATIVELY EXPENSIVE & NOT A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR HOUSING 15

STEEL FRAME ADVANTAGES Ø FACTORY MADE Ø RELATIVELY EASY & QUICK TO ASSEMBLE Ø STEEL FRAME ADVANTAGES Ø FACTORY MADE Ø RELATIVELY EASY & QUICK TO ASSEMBLE Ø UNAFFECTED BY MOISTURE Ø POTENTIAL LONG ROOF SPANS Ø COMPOSITE DESIGN 16

DISADVANTAGES Ø DEFORMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE Ø NEEDS TO BE FIRE COATED Ø ELECTRICTY DISADVANTAGES Ø DEFORMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURE Ø NEEDS TO BE FIRE COATED Ø ELECTRICTY CONDUCTOR- MUST BE EARTHED 17

CONCRETE FRAME BUILDINGS Ø THIS SYSTEM WAS FIRST DEVELOPED IN THE LATE 19 TH CONCRETE FRAME BUILDINGS Ø THIS SYSTEM WAS FIRST DEVELOPED IN THE LATE 19 TH CENTURY BY WILLIAM E. WARD Ø THE FIRST CONCRETE FRAME SKYSCRAPER WAS THE INGALLS BUILDING, BUILT IN CINNCINATTI IN 1904 - 210 FT HIGH 18

CONCRETE FRAME FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION IN SITU- STEEL OR WOODEN FORMWORK IS REQUIRED TO CONCRETE FRAME FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION IN SITU- STEEL OR WOODEN FORMWORK IS REQUIRED TO CREATE THE COLUMNS AND BEAMS. CONCRETE IS THEN POURED AND THE SHUTTERING IS REMOVED ONCE THE CONCRETE HAS GAINED ENOUGH STRENGTH. Ø PRE-CAST- PANELS ARE DROPPED IN BY CRANE AND BOLTED TOGETHER TO FORM A RIGID STRUCTURE Ø 19

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE FRAME CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES- IN-BUILT FIRE PROTECTION Ø MOULDED INTO ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE FRAME CONSTRUCTION ADVANTAGES- IN-BUILT FIRE PROTECTION Ø MOULDED INTO ANY SHAPE Ø HIGH STRENGTH IN COMPRESSION Ø DO NOT REQUIRE A SECONDARY FINISH Ø DISADVANTAGES-CRAINAGE REQUIRED Ø REQUIRES INITIAL SUPPORT Ø SKILLED WORKFORCE REQUIRED TO ASSEMBLE Ø 20