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BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90. 1 -2010 Envelope BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM 1 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90. 1 -2010 Envelope BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM 1 April 2011 – PNNL-SA-80142 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Compliance Approaches Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required Compliance Approaches Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required for most compliance options) Power Trade Off Option Energy Code Compliance Energy Cost Budget Lighting Other Simplified 2 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Compliance Approach Building Envelope Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions Compliance Approach Building Envelope Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required for most compliance options) Power Trade Off Option Energy Code Compliance Energy Cost Budget Lighting Other Simplified 3 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Building Envelope Overview General (Section 5. 1) ü ü Scope Space-Conditioning Categories Section 5 Building Envelope Overview General (Section 5. 1) ü ü Scope Space-Conditioning Categories Envelope Alterations Climate Compliance Paths (Section 5. 2) Simplified Building (Section 5. 3) Not Used Mandatory Provisions (Section 5. 4) ü Insulation ü Fenestration and Doors ü Air Leakage 4 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Building Envelope Overview (cont’d) Prescriptive Building Envelope Option (Section 5. 5) ü Section 5 Building Envelope Overview (cont’d) Prescriptive Building Envelope Option (Section 5. 5) ü Opaque Areas ü Fenestration Building Envelope Trade-Off Option (Section 5. 6) Submittals (Section 5. 7) Product Information and Installation Requirements (Section 5. 8) 5 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 1. 2 Building Envelope Scope Envelope components that enclose ü Section 5 – 5. 1. 2 Building Envelope Scope Envelope components that enclose ü Conditioned space ü Semiheated space – Has a heating system with a capacity > 3. 4 Btu/h·ft 2 of floor area but is not conditioned space Requirements apply to three space conditioning categories ü Nonresidential ü Residential ü Semiheated Figure 5 -A Examples of Indirectly Conditioned Spaces (User’s Manual – 90. 1. -2010) 6 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Building Envelope 7 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU Section 5 Building Envelope 7 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 1. 2 Space Conditioning Categories & Basis Envelope Requirements Are Section 5 – 5. 1. 2 Space Conditioning Categories & Basis Envelope Requirements Are Specified by Space-Conditioning Categories ü Each space to be included in a category • Nonresidential conditioned space • Residential conditioned space • Semiheated space ü Spaces in climate zones 3 -8 assumed to be conditioned space unless • Space will only be semiheated or unconditioned and • Approved as such by the building official 8 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – Definition Semiheated Space ü Has a heating system with a capacity Section 5 – Definition Semiheated Space ü Has a heating system with a capacity > 3. 4 Btu/h. ft 2 (10 W/m 2) of floor area but is not conditioned space ü Space is not cooled at all 9 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Envelope Alteration Exceptions Allowed if they don’t increase energy usage of building Section 5 Envelope Alteration Exceptions Allowed if they don’t increase energy usage of building ü Installation of storm windows ü Replacement of glazing in existing sash and frame ü Alterations to envelope cavities provided they are insulated to full depth with a nominal R-3. 0 per in. ü Replacement of roof membranes ü Replacement of existing doors ü Replacement of existing fenestration, provided area of replacement is no more than 25% of total fenestration area ü Roof and floor alterations where no new cavities are created 10 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 1. 4 Climate Zones based on several climatic parameters ü Section 5 – 5. 1. 4 Climate Zones based on several climatic parameters ü Locations listed in Appendix B on county-by-county basis for United States 11 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 1. 4 Climate United States Locations – Snapshot of Table Section 5 – 5. 1. 4 Climate United States Locations – Snapshot of Table B-1 in Appendix B TABLE B-1 US Climate Zones State County Alabama (AL) Zone 3 a Except County (Arkansas cont. ) Washington Baldwin 2 A California (CA) Mobile 2 A Zone 3 B Except Alaska (AK) Zone State County (Colorado cont. ) Zone 4 A Las Animas Otero 4 B Alamosa 6 B Fairbanks North Star Zone Georgia (GA) 4 B County Zone 3 A Except Appling 8 2 A Atkinson 2 A Monterey 3 C 2 B Archuleta 6 B Bacon 2 A Alameda Zone 7 Except Imperial 3 C Chaffee 6 B Baker 2 A Bethel (CA) 8 Marin 3 C Conejos 6 B Berrien 2 A Dillingham (CA) 8 Mendocino 3 C Costilla 6 B Brantley 2 A Fairbanks North Star 8 Monterey 3 C Custer 6 B Brooks 2 A 12 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Compliance Approach Building Envelope Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions Compliance Approach Building Envelope Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required for most compliance options) Power Trade Off Option Energy Code Compliance Energy Cost Budget Lighting Other Simplified 13 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4 Mandatory Provisions Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1) ü Labeling Section 5 – 5. 4 Mandatory Provisions Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1) ü Labeling (Section 5. 8. 1. 1) ü Substantial Contact (Section 5. 8. 1. 5) ü Recessed Equipment (Section 5. 8. 1. 6) ü Insulation Protection (Section 5. 8. 1. 7) ü Insulation Above Suspended Ceilings (Section 5. 8. 1. 8) ü Joints in Rigid Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1. 10) 14 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4 Mandatory Provisions ü Fenestration and Doors (Section 5. 8. Section 5 – 5. 4 Mandatory Provisions ü Fenestration and Doors (Section 5. 8. 2) ü Air Leakage (Section 5. 4. 3) Photo courtesy of Ken Baker, K energy BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 15 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3 Air Leakage ü ü Continuous air barrier Fenestration Section 5 – 5. 4. 3 Air Leakage ü ü Continuous air barrier Fenestration and doors Loading dock weather seals Vestibules 16 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1 Air Leakage – Continuous Air Barrier Continuous Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1 Air Leakage – Continuous Air Barrier Continuous air barrier required except in: • Semiheated spaces in climate zones 1 -6 • Single wythe concrete masonry buildings in climate zone 2 B • Plans – Air barrier components identified or noted in construction documents – Joints, intersections, and penetrations of air barrier components (incl. lighting fixtures) detailed • To extend over all surfaces of building envelope – At lowest floor, exterior walls, and ceiling or roof • Designed to resist positive and negative pressures – Wind, stack effect, and mechanical ventilation 17 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1. 2 Air Leakage – Air Barrier Installation Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1. 2 Air Leakage – Air Barrier Installation These areas to be wrapped, sealed, caulked, gasketed, or taped • Joints around fenestration and door frames (both manufactured and site-built) • Junctions between walls – And foundations – At building corners – And roofs or ceilings • Penetrations for roofs, walls, and floors • Building assemblies used as ducts or plenums • Joints, seams, connections between planes, and other changes in air barrier materials 18 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1. 3 Air Leakage – Acceptable Air Barrier Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1. 3 Air Leakage – Acceptable Air Barrier Materials and Assemblies Materials with air permeance ≤ 0. 004 cfm/ft 2 under pressure differential of 0. 3 in. w. g. tested in accordance with ASTM E 2178 These materials meet this requirement: Material Thickness (minimum) Plywood 3/8 in. Oriented strand board 3/8 in. Extruded polystyrene insulation board ½ in. Foil-faced urethane insulation board ½ in. Exterior gypsum sheathing or interior gypsum board ½ in. Cement board ½ in. Built up roofing membrane Modified bituminous roof membrane Fully adhered single-ply roof membrane A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco, or gypsum plaster ½ in. Cast-in-place and precast concrete Sheet metal Closed cell 2 lb/ft 3 nominal density spray polyurethane foam 1 in. 19 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1. 3 Air Leakage – Acceptable Air Barrier Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 1. 3 Air Leakage – Acceptable Air Barrier Materials and Assemblies (cont’d) OR Assemblies of materials and components (sealants, tapes, etc. ) with average air leakage ≤ 0. 04 cfm/ft 2 under pressure differential of 0. 3 in. w. g. tested in accordance with ASTM E 2357, 1677, 1680, or 283 These assemblies meet this requirement: • Concrete masonry walls that are fully grouted OR painted to fill the pores 20 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 2 Air Leakage – Fenestration and Doors Product Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 2 Air Leakage – Fenestration and Doors Product cfm/ft 2 Procedure psf Glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors 1. 0 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I. S. 2/A 440, NFRC 400, or ASTM E 283 1. 57 Curtainwall and storefront glazing 0. 06 NFRC 400 or ASTM E 283 1. 57 Unit skylights with condensation weepage openings 0. 3 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I. S. 2/A 440 or NFRC 400 1. 57 Unit skylights with condensation weepage openings 0. 5 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I. S. 2/A 440 6. 24 Nonswinging opaque doors 0. 4 ANSI/DASMA 105, NFRC 400, or ASTM E 283 1. 57 All other products 0. 2 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I. S. 2/A 440 or NFRC 400 1. 57 All other products 0. 3 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I. S/A 440 6. 24 ü Exceptions – Field-fabricated fenestration and doors – Metal coiling doors in semiheated spaces in climate zones 1 -6 21 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 3 Air Leakage – Loading Dock Weatherseals In Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 3 Air Leakage – Loading Dock Weatherseals In climate zones 4 -8 ü Cargo doors and loading dock doors equipped with weatherseals – To restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the loading dock/doorway 22 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 4 Air Leakage – Vestibules Required in ü Section 5 – 5. 4. 3. 4 Air Leakage – Vestibules Required in ü Climate Zone 3 for building entrances in >4 story buildings > 10, 000 ft 2 ü Climate Zones 4 -8 for building entrances in buildings > 1000 ft 2 Vestibules must have ü Self-closing doors ü Interior and exterior doors not open at the same time ü Distance between interior and exterior doors not < 7 ft when in closed position (remember ADA!) 23 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Air Leakage – Vestibules Exceptions ü Non-entrance doors ü Building entrances with Section 5 Air Leakage – Vestibules Exceptions ü Non-entrance doors ü Building entrances with revolving doors ü All building entrances in climate zones 1 and 2 OR in buildings < 4 stories and < 10, 000 ft 2 in climate zone 3 OR in buildings < 1000 ft 2 in climate zones 4 -8 ü All doors that open from spaces < 3000 ft 2 (separate from building entrance) OR from dwelling units 24 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Compliance Approach Building Envelope Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions Compliance Approach Building Envelope Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required for most compliance options) Power Trade Off Option Energy Code Compliance Energy Cost Budget Lighting Other Simplified 25 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5 Prescriptive Building Envelope Option Rules ü WWR ≤ 40% Section 5 – 5. 5 Prescriptive Building Envelope Option Rules ü WWR ≤ 40% of gross wall area ü Skylight-roof ratio ≤ 5% of roof area ü Each envelope component must separately meet requirements 8 criteria sets for different climate types ü Set = single page that summarizes all prescriptive requirements – Insulation levels for roofs, walls, floors – Fenestration criteria 26 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3 Opaque Areas Compliance ü Meet or exceed minimum Section 5 – 5. 5. 3 Opaque Areas Compliance ü Meet or exceed minimum R-values in table – Only R-value of insulation, not to include air films, etc OR ü Meet maximum U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor for the entire assembly OR ü Perform area-weighted average U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor – Only if there are multiple assemblies within a single class of construction for a single space-conditioning category 27 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -1 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -1 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 1 (A, B)* Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 063 U-0. 065 U-0. 034 R-15. 0 c. i. R-19. 0 R-30. 0 U-0. 048 U-0. 065 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-19. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 218 U-0. 167 U-0. 081 R-3. 8 c. i. R-6. 0 R-13. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -1 on page 26 in 90. 1 -2010 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 28 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5 -1 (cont’d) Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -1 (Cont’d) 29 Section 5 – 5. 5 -1 (cont’d) Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -1 (Cont’d) 29 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -2 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -2 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 2 (A, B)* Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 055 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-13. 0+R 13. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 218 U-0. 097 U-0. 081 R-3. 8 c. i. R-10. 0 R-13. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -2 on page 27 in 90. 1 -2010 30 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 30 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -3 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -3 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 3 (A, B, C)* Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 055 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-13. 0+R 13. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 173 U-0. 097 U-0. 053 R-5. 0 c. i. R-10. 0 R-19. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -3 on page 28 in 90. 1 -2010 31 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 31 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -4 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -4 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 4 (A, B, C)* Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 055 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-13. 0+R 13. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 173 U-0. 097 U-0. 053 R-5. 0 c. i. R-10. 0 R-19. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -4 on page 29 in 90. 1 -2010 32 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 32 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -5 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -5 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 5 (A, B, C)* Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 055 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-13. 0+R 13. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 119 U-0. 083 U-0. 053 R-7. 6 c. i. R-13. 0 R-19. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -5 on page 30 in 90. 1 -2010 33 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 33 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -6 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -6 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 6 (A, B)* Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 049 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-13. 0+R 19. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 093 U-0. 072 U-0. 034 R-10. 0 c. i. R-16. 0 R-30. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -6 on page 31 in 90. 1 -2010 34 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 34 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -7 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -7 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 7 Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 049 U-0. 027 R-20. 0 c. i. R-13. 0+R 19. 0 R-38. 0 U-0. 093 U-0. 072 U-0. 034 R-10. 0 c. i. R-16. 0 R-30. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -7 on page 32 in 90. 1 -2010 35 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 35 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -8 Building Envelope Requirements Section 5 – 5. 5. 1 Opaque TABLE 5. 5 -8 Building Envelope Requirements For Climate Zone 8 Nonresidential Opaque Elements Residential Semiheated Assembly Maximum Insulation Min. R-Value U-0. 048 U-0. 035 U-0. 021 R-20. 0 c. i. R-11. 0+R 19. 0 Ls R-38. 0 U-0. 048 U-0. 035 U-0. 021 R-20. 0 c. i. R-11. 0+R 19. 0 Ls R-49. 0 U-0. 063 U-0. 055 U-0. 034 R-15. 0 c. i. R-19. 0 R-30. 0 Roofs Insulation Entirely above Deck Metal Building Attic and Other Reference Table 5. 5 -8 on page 33 in 90. 1 -2010 36 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 36 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – A 5. 3 Opaque Areas Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Section 5 – A 5. 3 Opaque Areas Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Depth) Cavity Insulation R-Value: Rated (Effective Installed [See Table A 9. 2 A]) Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Floor Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) Overall U-Factor For Entire Base Floor Assembly Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation R 1. 00 R 2. 00 R 3. 00 R 4: 00 R 5. 00 R 6. 00 R 7. 00 R 8. 00 R 9. 00 R 10. 00 R 11. 00 R 12. 00 R 13. 00 R 14. 00 R 15. 00 R 20. 00 R 25. 00 R 30. 00 R 35. 00 R 40. 00 0. 259 0. 206 0. 171 0. 146 0. 127 0. 113 0. 101 0. 092 0. 084 0. 078 0. 072 0. 067 0. 063 0. 059 0. 056 0. 044 0. 036 0. 030 0. 026 0. 023 Steel Joist Floor with Rigid Foam None (0. 0) 0. 350 37 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 Roof Insulation Meet or exceed minimum R-value Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 Roof Insulation Meet or exceed minimum R-value in table for climate zone Skylight curbs insulated to level of roofs with insulation entirely above deck or R-5, whichever is less 38 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 Roof Insulation (cont’d) Three types of roofs Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 Roof Insulation (cont’d) Three types of roofs are defined ü Roofs with insulation entirely above deck – R-value is for continuous insulation – Interruptions for mechanical equipment ≤ 1% of surface of the total roof area ü Metal building roofs – First value is for insulation – draped over purlins and then compressed when metal spanning members attached or – hung between purlins provided there’s a min. of 1” thermal break between purlins and metal spanning members – Second value is for double-layer installations with insulation installed parallel to the purlins ü Attics and other roofs – R-value is for insulation installed both inside and outside the roof or entirely inside the roof cavity 39 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 Roof Insulation (cont’d) Insulation System Rated R-Value Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 Roof Insulation (cont’d) Insulation System Rated R-Value of Insulation Total Rated R-Value of Insulation Overall U-Factor For Entire Base Roof Assembly Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation R-5. 6 R-11. 2 R-16. 8 R-22. 4 R-28. 0 R-33. 6 0. 087 0. 058 0. 046 0. 045 0. 043 0. 040 0. 038 0. 059 0. 044 0. 037 0. 036 0. 035 0. 033 0. 031 0. 045 0. 031 0. 030 0. 029 0. 028 0. 026 0. 036 0. 029 0. 026 0. 025 0. 024 0. 023 0. 030 0. 025 0. 023 0. 022 0. 021 0. 020 Standing Seam Roofs with Thermal Spacer Blocks Single Layer None R-6 R-10 R-11 R-13 R-16 R-19 0 6 10 11 13 16 19 U-1. 280 U-0. 167 U-0. 092 U-0. 083 U-0. 072 U-0. 065 0. 162 0. 086 0. 063 0. 061 0. 057 0. 051 0. 048 40 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8. 1 Insulation Installation ü Per manufacturer’s instructions ü Achieve Section 5 – 5. 8. 1 Insulation Installation ü Per manufacturer’s instructions ü Achieve rated R-value ü No open-blown or poured loose-fill insulation when ceiling slope is > 3/12 ü If eave vents installed – Provide baffling of air vents to deflect incoming air above the surface of the insulation – Metal buildings Exception • if roof and wall insulation is compressed between roof or wall skin and the structure 41 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Roof Insulation Examples Photos courtesy of MBMA BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 42 Section 5 Roof Insulation Examples Photos courtesy of MBMA BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 42 42 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 High Albedo Roofs Required in climate zones Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 High Albedo Roofs Required in climate zones 1 -3 Minimum three-year aged solar reflectance of 0. 55 and minimum three-year aged thermal emittance of 0. 75 OR Minimum Solar Reflective Index of 64 43 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 High Albedo Roofs - Exceptions • Ballasted Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 1 High Albedo Roofs - Exceptions • Ballasted roofs with minimum stone ballast of 17 lbs/ft 2 or 23 lbs/ft 2 pavers • Vegetated roof systems containing minimum thickness of 2. 5 in. of growing medium that covers minimum of 75% of roof area with durable plantings • Roofs, where a minimum of 75% of the roof area is: 1. 2. 3. shaded during peak sun angle on June 21 by permanent components or features of the building OR covered by off-set PV arrays, building-integrated PV arrays, or solar air or water collectors OR permitted to be interpolated using a combination of parts 1 and 2 above • Steep sloped roofs • Low sloped metal building roofs in climate zones 2 -3 • Roofs over: ventilated attics, or semiheated spaces, or conditioned spaces that aren’t cooled spaces • Asphaltic membranes in climate zones 2 -3 44 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 High Albedo Roof - Example 45 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. Section 5 High Albedo Roof - Example 45 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 2 Above-Grade Wall Insulation Meet or exceed R-value Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 2 Above-Grade Wall Insulation Meet or exceed R-value in appropriate table for climate zone Four types of walls are defined ü Mass walls – heat capacity determined from Table A 3. 1 B or A 3. 1 C – R-value is for continuous insulation or when uninterrupted by framing other than metal clips no closer than 24 in. o. c. horizontally and 16 in. o. c. vertically Exception • Requirement of U-0. 151 46 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Above-Grade Wall Insulation (cont’d) Four types of walls are defined (cont’d) ü Section 5 Above-Grade Wall Insulation (cont’d) Four types of walls are defined (cont’d) ü Metal building wall R-value – for insulation compressed between metal wall panels and the steel structure ü Steel-framed wall R-value – for uncompressed insulation installed in the cavity between steel studs ü Wood-framed and other R-value – for uncompressed insulation installed in the cavity between wood studs; also acceptable to be continuous insulation uninterrupted by studs 47 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 - 5. 5. 3. 3 Below-Grade Wall Insulation Meet or exceed values Section 5 - 5. 5. 3. 3 Below-Grade Wall Insulation Meet or exceed values in appropriate table for climate zone R-value is for continuous insulation Exception ü If framing is used, compliance is based on maximum assembly C-factor Photo courtesy of Dow Building Solutions 48 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 3 Below-Grade Wall Insulation Framing Type and Depth Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 3 Below-Grade Wall Insulation Framing Type and Depth Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone Specified C-Factors (Wall Only, without Soil and Air Films) No Framing R-0 C-1. 140 Exterior Insulation, Continuous and Uninterrupted by Framing No Framing R-5. 0 R-7. 5 R-10. 0 C-0. 170 C-0. 119 C-0. 092 49 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 4 Floor Insulation Meet or exceed values in Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 4 Floor Insulation Meet or exceed values in appropriate table for climate zone 3 classes of floors over unconditioned space are defined: ü Mass floors • R-value is for continuous insulation • If framing is used, compliance is based on maximum assembly U-factor ü Steel-joist floors • R-value is for uncompressed insulation or spray-on insulation, but is also acceptable for continuous insulation ü Wood-framed and others • R-value is for uncompressed insulation, but is also acceptable for continuous insulation 50 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 5 Slab-on-Grade Floor Insulation Meet or exceed values Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 5 Slab-on-Grade Floor Insulation Meet or exceed values in appropriate table for climate zone (includes R-value and depth or width of insulation) Be installed around the perimeter to the distance specified ü Inside foundation wall – extend downward from top of slab a minimum distance specified or to the top of the footing, whichever is less ü Outside foundation wall – extend from top of the slab or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to a minimum distance specified 51 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 6 Opaque Doors Meet or exceed maximum U-factors Section 5 – 5. 5. 3. 6 Opaque Doors Meet or exceed maximum U-factors in appropriate table for climate zone Opaque Doors Swinging Non-Swinging U-0. 700 U-1. 450 52 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4 Fenestration Criteria apply to fenestration, including windows, glass Section 5 – 5. 5. 4 Fenestration Criteria apply to fenestration, including windows, glass doors, glass block, plastic panels, and skylights Compliance ü Meet or exceed maximum U-factors in table ü Meet or exceed minimum SHGC in table ü Use NFRC ratings or default values in Appendix A 53 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 2 Fenestration Area Total vertical fenestration area to Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 2 Fenestration Area Total vertical fenestration area to be < 40% of gross wall area ü Including both fixed and operable vertical fenestration 54 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 2. 3 Skylight Fenestration Area Skylights are required Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 2. 3 Skylight Fenestration Area Skylights are required in enclosed spaces that are • ≥ 5, 000 ft 2 and • Ceiling heights > 15 ft and • Space types – – – – Office - Convention Center - Transportation Lobby - Automotive Service - Workshop Atrium - Manufacturing Concourse - Non-refrigerated Warehouse Corridor - Retail Storage - Distribution/Sorting Area Gymnasium/Exercise Center 55 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 2. 3 Skylight Fenestration Area Total skylight area Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 2. 3 Skylight Fenestration Area Total skylight area is either: • Minimum of 3% of roof area with a skylight VLT at least 0. 40 OR • Such that the daylight area under skylights is a minimum of half the floor area and provides a minimum skylight effective aperture of at least 1% Exceptions • Climate zones 6 -8 • Spaces with LPDs < 0. 5 W/ft 2 • Shaded spaces • Daylight area under rooftop monitors is > 50% of floor area • Documented that 90% of skylight area is shaded on June 21 (Northern Hemisphere)/December 21 (Southern Hemisphere) at noon by permanent features • Required daylight area under skylights may be reduced by amount of: • • primary sidelighted area with sidelighting effective aperture > 0. 15 secondary sidelighted area with sidelighting effective aperture > 0. 30 with general lighting controlled by continuous daylight dimming 56 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8. 2. 4 U-Factor Skylights – determine for a slope Section 5 – 5. 8. 2. 4 U-Factor Skylights – determine for a slope of 20° above the horizontal Labeled and certified by manufacturer U-factor not greater than specified in Tables 5. 5 -1 through 5. 5 -8 Exceptions ü Glazed wall systems in vertical fenestration and skylights – may use U-factors in A. 8. 1 ü A 8. 2 acceptable for other vertical fenestration ü A 7 acceptable for opaque doors ü ANSI/DASMA 105 acceptable for garage doors 57 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) Part of a system for rating window Section 5 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) Part of a system for rating window performance ü used by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) Has replaced shading coefficient (SC) in product literature and design standards ü convert SC to SHGC by multiplying the SC value by 0. 86 58 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) The glazing’s effectiveness in rejecting solar heat Section 5 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) The glazing’s effectiveness in rejecting solar heat gain NFRC 200 Exceptions ü SC x 0. 86 is acceptable for overall fenestration area (NFRC 300) ü SHGC of center-of-glass is acceptable (NFRC 300) for overall fenestration area ü SHGC from A 8. 1 for glazed wall systems in vertical fenestration and skylights ü SHGC from A 8. 2 for other vertical fenestration 59 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 4 Fenestration SHGC Vertical fenestration ü SHGC values Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 4 Fenestration SHGC Vertical fenestration ü SHGC values < Table value for appropriate total vertical fenestration area 60 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Information - Overhangs Standard credits permanent overhangs by adjustment to SHGC Size of overhang Information - Overhangs Standard credits permanent overhangs by adjustment to SHGC Size of overhang is determined by projection factor 61 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 4. 2 Skylight SHGC Skylights ü SHGC values Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 4. 2 Skylight SHGC Skylights ü SHGC values < Table value for appropriate total skylight area Exceptions, if skylights: • Have a glazing material or diffuser with measured haze value > 90% when tested according to ASTM D 1003 • Have a skylight VT > 0. 40, and • Have all general lighting in daylight area under skylights controlled by multilevel photocontrols per Section 9. 4. 1. 5 Dynamic Glazing • Minimum SHGC is used to demonstrate compliance • Considered separately from other vertical fenestration • Area-weighted averaging with other vertical fenestration that isn’t dynamic glazing isn’t allowed 62 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 5 Fenestration Orientation Vertical fenestration area to meet Section 5 – 5. 5. 4. 5 Fenestration Orientation Vertical fenestration area to meet this requirement: Area South ≥ Area West and Area South ≥ Area East N No! Yes! Exceptions: • Buildings shaded by other buildings within 20 ft to the south which is at least ½ as tall as the proposed building • Buildings with shade on 75% of the west and east • Alterations and additions that don’t increase vertical fenestration area BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY 63 www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 Visible Transmittance Determined in accordance with ASTM E 972 A measure of Section 5 Visible Transmittance Determined in accordance with ASTM E 972 A measure of the amount of visible light that passes through fenestration Affected by ü composition of the glass ü coatings ü internal shading devices Relationship between VT and SHGC ü Daylighting without excessive solar gain– VT at least 1. 2 x SHGC Exception ü For skylights not within scope of NFRC 200, VT to be the solar photometric transmittance of the skylight glazing material in accordance with ASTM E 972 64 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Compliance Approaches Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required Compliance Approaches Building System Compliance Options Prescriptive Option Envelope HVAC Mandatory Provisions SWH (required for most compliance options) Power Trade Off Option Energy Code Compliance Energy Cost Budget Lighting Other Simplified 65 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 6 Building Envelope Trade-Off Option Building complies if ü It Section 5 – 5. 6 Building Envelope Trade-Off Option Building complies if ü It satisfies the provisions of 5. 1, 5. 4, 5. 7, and 5. 8 ü Envelope performance factor (EPF) of proposed building is ≤ EPF of budget building – EPF considers only the building envelope components and is calculated using procedures in Normative Appendix C – Schedules of operation, lighting power, equipment power, occupant density, and mechanical systems to be the same for both the proposed building and the budget building 66 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8 Product Information and Installation Requirements ü Labeling of Building Section 5 – 5. 8 Product Information and Installation Requirements ü Labeling of Building Envelope Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1. 1) ü Compliance with Manufacturers’ Requirements (Section 5. 8. 1. 2) ü ü ü ü Loose-Fill Insulation Limitation (Section 5. 8. 1. 3) Baffles (Section 5. 8. 1. 4) Substantial Contact (Section 5. 8. 1. 5) Recessed Equipment (Section 5. 8. 1. 6) Insulation Protection (Section 5. 8. 1. 7) Location of Roof Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1. 8) Extent of Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1. 9) Joints in Rigid Insulation (Section 5. 8. 1. 10) 67 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 5 Insulation - Substantial Contact Install insulation in Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 5 Insulation - Substantial Contact Install insulation in a permanent manner in substantial contact with inside surface Flexible batt insulation in floor cavities ü Supported in a permanent manner by supports no more than 24 in. on center (o. c. ) 68 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 6 Recessed Equipment Do not recess equipment to Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 6 Recessed Equipment Do not recess equipment to affect insulation thickness ü Lighting fixtures ü HVAC equipment (includes wall heaters, ducts, and plenums) ü Other Except when ü Total combined area affected (include necessary clearances) is < 1% of opaque area of the assembly, OR ü Entire roof, wall, or floor is covered with insulation to the full depth required, OR ü Effects of reduced insulation are included in area-weighted calculations 69 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 7 Insulation Protection ü Cover exterior insulation with Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 7 Insulation Protection ü Cover exterior insulation with protective material – – – Sunlight Moisture Landscaping operations Equipment maintenance Wind ü Access to attics and mechanical rooms without damaging or compressing insulation ü Insulation materials in ground contact to have a water absorption rate ≤ 0. 3% (ASTM C 272) Example 70 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU

Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 8 Suspended Ceilings Roof Insulation ü Not installed Section 5 – 5. 8. 1. 8 Suspended Ceilings Roof Insulation ü Not installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling panels ü Non-compliant 71 BUILDING ENERGY CODES UNIVERSITY www. energycodes. gov/BECU