Скачать презентацию BUILDING DYNAMICS Moisture Airflows and Construction Technology James Скачать презентацию BUILDING DYNAMICS Moisture Airflows and Construction Technology James

83dc3265c0c674ad203937684020e9c0.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 62

BUILDING DYNAMICS: Moisture, Airflows and Construction Technology James Biddle, Mansel Nelson Northern Arizona University BUILDING DYNAMICS: Moisture, Airflows and Construction Technology James Biddle, Mansel Nelson Northern Arizona University Presentation Credit to: Joseph T. Ponessa, Ph. D. Professor Emeritus Housing, Indoor Environments and Health 1

Goals n Review basic dynamics of moisture movement, control in buildings n Review basic Goals n Review basic dynamics of moisture movement, control in buildings n Review basic dynamics of airflows in buildings n Proper management of moisture and airflows provides better buildings and reduces callbacks --------------------------n Understanding of these mechanisms is essential for diagnostics 2

Objective: How does this fit with weatherization? Weatherization can improve comfort and save money. Objective: How does this fit with weatherization? Weatherization can improve comfort and save money. Downside is ‘inadequate’ ventilation When is ventilation inadequate? n When it is less than prescribed ventilation n When it is inadequate to take care of building excesses – Too much moisture – Excessive pollution sources 3

Overview of Today’s Presentation Building Science n Moisture dynamics; applications in buildings n Airflow Overview of Today’s Presentation Building Science n Moisture dynamics; applications in buildings n Airflow mechanisms; applications in buildings 4

Section I: Moisture Dynamics Outline n Basic moisture science: Vapor & Liquid – Air Section I: Moisture Dynamics Outline n Basic moisture science: Vapor & Liquid – Air – vapor – temperature relationships – Relative Humidity – Putting it all together – Psychrometric chart n Vapor movement § Diffusion § Bulk transfer – air flows 5 5

Moisture Dynamics Outline (cont. ) Basic moisture science (cont. ) n Water movement § Moisture Dynamics Outline (cont. ) Basic moisture science (cont. ) n Water movement § Gravity; wind § Capillary action n n Moisture sources Moisture Measurement § Air § Surfaces / solids 6 6

Moisture Dynamics Water can exist in three states n Vapor n Liquid n Solid Moisture Dynamics Water can exist in three states n Vapor n Liquid n Solid 7

Moisture Dynamics (cont. ) n Vapor-Temperature relationships (At saturation) The amount of moisture that Moisture Dynamics (cont. ) n Vapor-Temperature relationships (At saturation) The amount of moisture that air can hold increases directly with temperature. 8

Moisture Dynamics Vapor Dew point: Saturation Air cooled to the limit of its moisture Moisture Dynamics Vapor Dew point: Saturation Air cooled to the limit of its moisture carrying capacity releases vapor as droplets condensation (or rain) This is the Dew point n temperature 9

Moisture Dynamics Vapor n So what does it all mean? Moist air that is Moisture Dynamics Vapor n So what does it all mean? Moist air that is cooled down OR… Moist air that meets a cool surface will condense! Wet surfaces that don’t/can’t dry rapidly will produce mold 10

Moisture Dynamics Vapor Transport Vapor transport: how does vapor get from point A to Moisture Dynamics Vapor Transport Vapor transport: how does vapor get from point A to point B? POSSIBLE MECHANISMS n Diffusion n Bulk transport: Airflow Which is more important? 11

Moisture Dynamics Vapor Transport via Airflow Source: USDOE Moisture carried into wall via air Moisture Dynamics Vapor Transport via Airflow Source: USDOE Moisture carried into wall via air flow / leakage through openings. What is the driving force? 12

Moisture Dynamics Which mechanism is most important? n Diffusion? n Air transport? 13 Moisture Dynamics Which mechanism is most important? n Diffusion? n Air transport? 13

Moisture Dynamics Diffusion vs. air transport While air transport accounts for bulk of moisture Moisture Dynamics Diffusion vs. air transport While air transport accounts for bulk of moisture migration in most buildings, there are circumstances when diffusion is most important factor 14

Permeability – Bldg Materials Four classes of vapor retarders have been identified Semi-imperm. P Permeability – Bldg Materials Four classes of vapor retarders have been identified Semi-imperm. P 0. 1 -1 Vapor Imperm P <0. 1 * PE Film Glass Aluminum foil Foil faced insul (non perf) Kraft –backed fiberglass insul Oil based paint Vinyl wallpaper (most) Extr polystr >1” (unfaced) P = Perm * Vapor Barrier 15

Permeability – Bldg. Materials Vapor semi-perm P 110 Plywood Bitumen impreg kraft OSB Unfaced Permeability – Bldg. Materials Vapor semi-perm P 110 Plywood Bitumen impreg kraft OSB Unfaced Exp polystyrene Unfaced Extr poly <1” Building paper Latex paint (Most) Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4 –…. . Mixed-Humid Climate Version 1, 9/2005 • Design-p 13 Vapor perm P >10 Fiberglass insul Unpainted gyp board, plaster Masonry, Fiberboard, Dimens. lumber 15# felt, Housewrap Cellulose insulation 16

PERMABILITY An important note about building materials and water n Permability of many materials PERMABILITY An important note about building materials and water n Permability of many materials changes when they are wet. Ppermeability of wet plywood, for example, changes from 0. 75 (dry) to 3. 0 when wet 17

Questions about vapor transmission/dynamics? While vapor migration and condensation can play an important role Questions about vapor transmission/dynamics? While vapor migration and condensation can play an important role in moisture problems, most problems are caused by rainwater

Moisture Dynamics Liquid water can flow via n Gravity (or wind pressure) n Capillary Moisture Dynamics Liquid water can flow via n Gravity (or wind pressure) n Capillary action (wicking) = against gravity 19

Moisture Dynamics Liquid Gravity “It flows downhill” Source: Builder Magazine 20 Moisture Dynamics Liquid Gravity “It flows downhill” Source: Builder Magazine 20

Moisture Dynamics Capillary action Water can flow against gravity when moving in a tight Moisture Dynamics Capillary action Water can flow against gravity when moving in a tight space… …and, by the same process, can wick through porous materials 21

Moisture Dynamics Practical applications n Water can travel up and behind flashing that is Moisture Dynamics Practical applications n Water can travel up and behind flashing that is not properly dimensioned n Water can diffuse/wick through masonry, adding humidity to spaces and wetting components (e. g. sill plates) 22

Moisture Dynamics Capillary action Source: USDOE 23 Moisture Dynamics Capillary action Source: USDOE 23

Moisture dynamics Abbey XXX barn grange, Great Coxwell, England Photo: Barn. Houghton Mifflin, 1992. Moisture dynamics Abbey XXX barn grange, Great Coxwell, England Photo: Barn. Houghton Mifflin, 1992. Some builders, at least, have known about capillary action for a long time… 24

Moisture dynamics Barn interior, showing posts set on stone piers This barn, built in Moisture dynamics Barn interior, showing posts set on stone piers This barn, built in mid 13 th century, in use until 1966, when deeded to National trust Photo: Barn. Houghton Mifflin, 1992 25

Moisture dynamics Note detail on top of pier A sacrificial wood slab has been Moisture dynamics Note detail on top of pier A sacrificial wood slab has been placed here. Moisture migrating through pier will enter slab instead of end grain of post; slab is easily replaced Photo: Barn. Houghton Mifflin, 1992 26

Moisture Sources Outline for this section n Plumbing leaks n Rainwater n Groundwater n Moisture Sources Outline for this section n Plumbing leaks n Rainwater n Groundwater n Humid air (Including embodied water) n Mechanical equipment (Including Combustion equipment) n Occupant practices 27

Moisture Sources: Plumbing leaks n Plumbing leaks should be obvious but can be in Moisture Sources: Plumbing leaks n Plumbing leaks should be obvious but can be in concealed spaces, and may involve supply or drain lines n Sweating may sometimes be significant 28

Moisture Sources Rainwater Gutters & downspouts n Water discharged next to foundation and /or Moisture Sources Rainwater Gutters & downspouts n Water discharged next to foundation and /or against building is almost certain to enter n Most basement moisture problems are due to rainwater 29

Moisture Sources Rainwater Discharge against building may also penetrate- masonry is not waterproof (Consider Moisture Sources Rainwater Discharge against building may also penetrate- masonry is not waterproof (Consider masonry as a “Hard sponge”) ---------Low spots, backslope next to building also cause problems 30

Moisture Sources: Rainwater and grading 31 Moisture Sources: Rainwater and grading 31

Moisture Sources: Humid air (Summer) Basement ventilation may add moisture / RH Also consider Moisture Sources: Humid air (Summer) Basement ventilation may add moisture / RH Also consider air conditioned interior 32

Moisture sources: Mechanical equipment Combustion produces a LOT of moisture 2 O 2 + Moisture sources: Mechanical equipment Combustion produces a LOT of moisture 2 O 2 + CH 4 = CO 2 + 2 H 2 O 1 lb of nat gas 2. 25 lb (1. 125 Q) water! Further discussion under Airflows Gas furnace, blocked flu, condensation soaks brick in & out 33

Moisture Measurement Air measurement n Sling psychrometer n Hygrometer (electronic) 34 Moisture Measurement Air measurement n Sling psychrometer n Hygrometer (electronic) 34

Moisture Measurement (cont. ) Surface / material measurement n Electronic device (eg Protimeter) Measures Moisture Measurement (cont. ) Surface / material measurement n Electronic device (eg Protimeter) Measures moisture content- wood, drywall, masonry 35

Moisture Content in Building Materials Mold growth can begin… n In lumber @16% moisture Moisture Content in Building Materials Mold growth can begin… n In lumber @16% moisture content (this represents equilibrium @80%RH) n In gypsum sheathing @1% moisture content Source: Lstiburek, ASHRAE Journal, 2/02 36

Keep Water Out: Drain the Building 37 Keep Water Out: Drain the Building 37

Case study: Things Gone Wrong Photo: Joe Lstiburek Photo: Nathan Yost, BSC 38 Case study: Things Gone Wrong Photo: Joe Lstiburek Photo: Nathan Yost, BSC 38

Anatomy of a Disaster 39 39 Anatomy of a Disaster 39 39

Flashing is Key: e. g. , Windows Photo: Mark La. Liberte, Building Knowledge. 40 Flashing is Key: e. g. , Windows Photo: Mark La. Liberte, Building Knowledge. 40 40

Photo: Mark La. Liberte, Building Knowledge. 41 41 Photo: Mark La. Liberte, Building Knowledge. 41 41

Reverse Flashing: A Common Mistake Photo: Mark La. Liberte, Building Knowledge 42 42 Reverse Flashing: A Common Mistake Photo: Mark La. Liberte, Building Knowledge 42 42

Building Moisture: Take-away Messages n Building components that get wet must be able to Building Moisture: Take-away Messages n Building components that get wet must be able to dry out quickly. Assemblies must be able to dry! n If they don’t, mold and other organisms will grow, creating health hazard for occupants and ultimately destroying the building A moisture problem is like a fire: it will not get better with time. It cannot be ignored. Respond promptly! 43

Section II: AIRFLOWS OUTLINE n Air moves according to pressure differences; These can be Section II: AIRFLOWS OUTLINE n Air moves according to pressure differences; These can be created by – Temperature differences – Wind – Mechanical equipment 44

Airflow • • • For air to move (leak) into or out of building, Airflow • • • For air to move (leak) into or out of building, you need a hole and a pressure difference Air in must equal air out– same for moisture, but on a different time frame Pathways can be direct or indirect, natural or mechanical EEBA BFG 45

Airflows: Driving forces: Temperature Differences Heating Season: Aka THERMOSIPHONING Source: USDOE 46 Airflows: Driving forces: Temperature Differences Heating Season: Aka THERMOSIPHONING Source: USDOE 46

Airflows: Driving Forces: Wind Source: USDOE 47 Airflows: Driving Forces: Wind Source: USDOE 47

Airflows: Driving forces: Mechanical Equipment Airflows can also be influenced by n Ventilation fans Airflows: Driving forces: Mechanical Equipment Airflows can also be influenced by n Ventilation fans n Furnaces / boilers n Ductwork (leaking) n Major Appliances (dryer, water heater) All of the above can remove air from the conditioned space. What about makeup air? 48

Providing Fresh Air Best practice to control moisture, pollutants and to save energy n Providing Fresh Air Best practice to control moisture, pollutants and to save energy n Build a tight building n Tightly seal ducts (anything but duct tape) n Ventilate by design! 49

Building Ventilation by Accident Typical ducts can lose 25% of airflow through joint leakage Building Ventilation by Accident Typical ducts can lose 25% of airflow through joint leakage Daylight! 50

…and some ducts lose more than 25% of their airflow! “Needs repair” 51 …and some ducts lose more than 25% of their airflow! “Needs repair” 51

Typical Ventilation Rates n 100 -year-old house: Two ACH n Energy-conserving house (1970’s)”: 0. Typical Ventilation Rates n 100 -year-old house: Two ACH n Energy-conserving house (1970’s)”: 0. 1 ACH) n Estimated optimum, 1980’s: 0. 5 ACH n Present day: ASHRAE’s engineering standard 52

Building Ventilation by Design Various choices n Passive vent open to building n Outside Building Ventilation by Design Various choices n Passive vent open to building n Outside air ducted to air return; dampers, controllers n Sealed combustion equipment reduces need for makeup air 53

ASHRAE Residential Ventilation Standard 62. 2 Goal: Reduce indoor pollutants Approach n Whole-house ventilation ASHRAE Residential Ventilation Standard 62. 2 Goal: Reduce indoor pollutants Approach n Whole-house ventilation § 50 CFM (typical house) § Vent system rated @ 7. 5 CF PP + 1 CFM / 100 SF (Some exceptions) n Local exhaust § Mech exhaust, Kitchens & baths (Not toilets, utility rooms) Source: M. Sherman, Lawrence Berkeley Labs 54

ASHRAE Residential Ventilation Standard 62. 2 (cont. ) n Source control § Some sources ASHRAE Residential Ventilation Standard 62. 2 (cont. ) n Source control § Some sources addressed --------------------------Backdraft testing required in some cases Some secondary requirements Some flexibility Lots of controversy 55

ASHRAE Residential Ventilation Standard 62. 2 (cont’d. ) About whole house ventilation Calculation: House, ASHRAE Residential Ventilation Standard 62. 2 (cont’d. ) About whole house ventilation Calculation: House, 3 BR, 1500 sq ft 7. 5 CFM/ BR+1 + 1 CFM/100 sq ft 7. 5 X 4 + 100 X 15 = 30 + 15 = 45 CFM 56

Airflows: Summary Why be concerned about airflows into & out of buildings? 1) Energy Airflows: Summary Why be concerned about airflows into & out of buildings? 1) Energy transfers (losses) 2) Moisture transport (into bldg or into walls) 3) Pollutant transport (eg radon, ozone, fireplace smoke, particulates, etc. ) And on the plus side, airflows provide 1) Fresh air 2) Replacement/ makeup air n 57

Airflow Dynamics Summary “Nature abhors a vacuum” The law that gases (and other materials) Airflow Dynamics Summary “Nature abhors a vacuum” The law that gases (and other materials) move from a region of high pressure to low pressure is analogous to, and as immutable as the law of gravity Pressures will equilibrate whenever there is a pathway, no matter how small or indirect 58

Airflow Dynamics Summary (cont. ) Amount of air entering (or leaving) through various openings Airflow Dynamics Summary (cont. ) Amount of air entering (or leaving) through various openings (such as envelope leaks) vs. flue openings depends on relative sizes of openings OR If total envelope leaks are small relative to flue opening(s), some flues may become main sources of makeup air–a problem if flue is active! Direct vent or sealed combustion better 59

Airflows Summary Take Home Message If building airflow is not balanced – inflow and Airflows Summary Take Home Message If building airflow is not balanced – inflow and exhaust not equal - the building will become pressurized or depressurized and bad things can happen. Likewise, pressure differentials can happen within the building. 60

References & Resources for this Section Building Science Corporation wwww. buildingscience. com n BFG: References & Resources for this Section Building Science Corporation wwww. buildingscience. com n BFG: Builders Guide: Mixed Humid Climates. Energy and Environmental Building Association (EEBA): www. eeba. org n Lstiburek, J. Water Management Guide. Energy and Environmental Building Association (EEBA): 2004. www. eeba. org n Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4. USDOE Building America program: www. buildingamerica. gov n 61

References (cont. ) n Lstiburek, J. Moisture Control for Buildings. ASHRAE Journal, Feb 02, References (cont. ) n Lstiburek, J. Moisture Control for Buildings. ASHRAE Journal, Feb 02, pp 36 -41. HUD Moisture Resistant Homes. March 2006. 125 pp. Available at http: //www. huduser. org/publications/dest ech/moisturehomes. html Or call 1 -800 245 2691, option 1 for hard copy ($5. 00) n 62 62