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British North America Introduction British North America Introduction

History Overall Expectations British North America Explain the origins of English settlement in British History Overall Expectations British North America Explain the origins of English settlement in British North America after the fall of New France, and describe the migration and settlement experiences of various groups of settlers, and outline the causes, events, and results of the War of 1812 Use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about the beginnings and development of the new British colonies Identify some themes and personalities from the period, and explain their relevance to contemporary Canada

Big Ideas With so many groups of people under the rule of the British, Big Ideas With so many groups of people under the rule of the British, how did Britain meet their needs?

After the Treaty of Paris (1763) The British took over New France and named After the Treaty of Paris (1763) The British took over New France and named it Quebec The people in Quebec got to keep their language, culture, and religion The British learned quickly that there were many different groups in the region with many different wants and needs

Canadiens Wanted to keep their language (French) and religion (Roman Catholic) Wanted to expand Canadiens Wanted to keep their language (French) and religion (Roman Catholic) Wanted to expand their territory for the fur trade

Merchants and Farmers English speaking Wanted to take the fur trade from the French Merchants and Farmers English speaking Wanted to take the fur trade from the French Wanted to change the “way of life” from French to English Wanted free land in the interior to set up farms

First Nations Wanted to keep their traditional way of life Wanted to gain control First Nations Wanted to keep their traditional way of life Wanted to gain control of the fur trade Wanted to stop more settlers from coming in the area Wanted to keep control of the Ohio Valley region

The Thirteen American Colonies Wanted to expand their settlements into Quebec and the Ohio The Thirteen American Colonies Wanted to expand their settlements into Quebec and the Ohio Valley Wanted to expand their control of the fur trade

The “Carrot” or the “Stick” The Carrot People who believed this argued that you The “Carrot” or the “Stick” The Carrot People who believed this argued that you can gain more followers by being nice to people and listening to their wants British officials in Quebec favoured this approach The Stick People who believed this argued that you had to show people who the boss was and rule strictly British officials in England favoured this approach

Rules suggested in each approach Stick Restrict Roman Catholic religion Return government and church Rules suggested in each approach Stick Restrict Roman Catholic religion Return government and church officials to France Give British control of fur trade Restrict Quebec’s territory to a small area Carrot Let Roman Catholics practise their religion freely Allow R. C. and Protestants to become involved in government of Quebec Let French continue in fur trade Allow Canadiens expand into the interior and guarantee some land to the First Nations

Supporters of Each approach Stick Earl of Shelburne, the Colonial Secretary (in charge of Supporters of Each approach Stick Earl of Shelburne, the Colonial Secretary (in charge of all British colonies) Carrot Sir Guy Carleton, governor of Quebec

Dealing with the First Nations Mineweh, chief of the Ojibwe “Although you have conquered Dealing with the First Nations Mineweh, chief of the Ojibwe “Although you have conquered the French you have not yet conquered us! We are not your slaves. These lakes, these woods, and mountains were left us by our ancestors. Our Father, the king of France, employed our young men to make war upon your nation. Many have been killed and it is our custom to retaliate. Your king has not sent us any presents, nor entered into any treaty with us, therefore we are still at war. ”

The leader of the Alliance Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa First Nations, formed an The leader of the Alliance Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa First Nations, formed an alliance of many native groups to fight against the British In 1763, the alliance attacked Fort Detroit. The five month battle ended with several smaller forts being captured

The British Response Germ Warfare The British gave metal boxes filled with pieces of The British Response Germ Warfare The British gave metal boxes filled with pieces of blankets to the First Nations peoples as a gift. They told them they had “special powers” and were not to be opened until they returned to their villages The blankets were infected with smallpox, a disease that the First Nations had no immunity to As a result, many died

Royal Proclamation of 1763 The first British attempt to make peace with the First Royal Proclamation of 1763 The first British attempt to make peace with the First Nations Issued by King George III Key points Britain controlled all of France’s territories in the region Boundaries of Quebec were the St. Lawrence River English Civil law replaced French law (no more seigneurial system) The rest of New France (Ohio Valley) was First Nations territory All French living in the Ohio Valley had to leave Only the British Crown could buy First Nations land Fur traders had to have a license

The Thirteen Colonies The British controlled 13 American colonies on the east coast The The Thirteen Colonies The British controlled 13 American colonies on the east coast The 13 colonies began to cause problems for the British after they tried to pass special taxes on the colonists to help pay for the Seven Years War

Special Taxes Sugar Act- takes on imports of many popular goods (wine, coffee, sugar, Special Taxes Sugar Act- takes on imports of many popular goods (wine, coffee, sugar, cloth) Stamp Act- government stamps on all documents and printed materials Declaratory Act- Colonies were under British control Coercive Acts- Controlled discussion of issues to public meetings

Response to the British Acts The Thirteen Colonies had their own governments and felt Response to the British Acts The Thirteen Colonies had their own governments and felt that the British did not have the power to place these laws/taxes on them Some colonies resisted the taxes 1770, 5 people were killed in Boston by British troops during a protest

The Boston Tea Party 1773 - Rebels dressed as First Nations people snuck into The Boston Tea Party 1773 - Rebels dressed as First Nations people snuck into Boston Harbor and threw chests of tea into the water in protest

The Quebec Act With fighting over the Ohio Valley and the issues with the The Quebec Act With fighting over the Ohio Valley and the issues with the 13 colonies, the British replaced the Royal Proclamation with the Quebec Act in 1774 Enlarged the territory of Quebec Created a Council of Representatives to pass laws Replaced Civil Law with French Civil Law (seigneurial system back)

Reaction to the Quebec Act The British North Americans strongly disliked the Quebec Act Reaction to the Quebec Act The British North Americans strongly disliked the Quebec Act and the Quebecois loved it The First Nations did not like having the French in the Ohio Valley, but preferred them to the British North Americans

Declaration of Independence, 1776 As a result of the Quebec Act and the new Declaration of Independence, 1776 As a result of the Quebec Act and the new taxes, the 13 Colonies met in Philadelphia July 4 th, 1776 they declared the United States of America an independent nation The American Revolutionary War also started between USA and Britain

What should Quebec do? Quebec had to decide what side to take in the What should Quebec do? Quebec had to decide what side to take in the Revolutionary War The Continental Congress recommended that Quebec join the American side, but the people were unsure When Quebec did not pledge immediate support, America invaded Quebec City and Montreal (Led by Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold)

What happened during the invasion? The American invasion of Quebec failed Why? The defense What happened during the invasion? The American invasion of Quebec failed Why? The defense of the two cities The harsh winter conditions that the American army was not prepared for

United Empire Loyalists The people in the Thirteen Colonies were divided into two distinct United Empire Loyalists The people in the Thirteen Colonies were divided into two distinct groups 1. Patriots- Those who favoured independence from Britain 2. Loyalists- Those who supported British rule When it became clear that the Americans were going to win independence, many Loyalists took free land in Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and PEI that was offered to them by the British About 50 000 Loyalists left the Colonies during the war

The Loyalists Many of those who left the 13 colonies were minorities who felt The Loyalists Many of those who left the 13 colonies were minorities who felt like they needed protection from the American rebels (Huguenots, Quakers are examples of religious minority groups) Many Black soldiers joined the British side of the war when they were promised free land at the end of their service. However, once the war ended, they were largely ignored and many left to found their own communities (e. g. Shelburne, N. S. )

Loyalists in Ontario In the 1780 s, most of “Ontario” (area around Lake Ontario Loyalists in Ontario In the 1780 s, most of “Ontario” (area around Lake Ontario and Lake Erie) was populated by First Nations people only After the war ended, many Loyalist regiments disbanded and were given land in this area (Butler’s Rangers founded Niagara-On-The-Lake)

Loyalists in Ontario Several First Nations groups (Iroquois) helped the British during the war. Loyalists in Ontario Several First Nations groups (Iroquois) helped the British during the war. As a reward, they were relocated to Ontario (from New York) Land was given to various Aboriginal groups in British North America as “Reserves”-which were supposed to be guaranteed to be theirs forever The problem was, some land was given to more than one group. Laws and treaties were constantly changing and the British crown was also buying some of the land back from various Native groups to give to other Native groups Because these treaties changed often, and were usually poorly recorded (if at all), it was difficult to prove certain treaties existed. Eventually, cities and towns were built over Reserve land Today, less than one-tenth of the land allotted as Reserves in Ontario is still reserve land Disputes over who owns the land occur often (Caledonia- 2006)

The Treaty of Paris, 1783 The American defeated the British in the Thirteen Colonies The Treaty of Paris, 1783 The American defeated the British in the Thirteen Colonies The Second Treaty of Paris (First one gave New France to Britain in 1763) was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin Britain recognized America as an independent nation The US got control of the Ohio Valley America could fish the costal waters of British Colonies (Quebec) All British Troops must leave the US Loyalists could no longer be prosecuted

The War of 1812 Who? - United States of America vs. the British Empire The War of 1812 Who? - United States of America vs. the British Empire (Great Britain and British North America) What? - A fight over land power in North America Where? - Mostly in North America (along the east coast and waterways) Why? - 1) trade restrictions 2) forced enrollment into Royal Navy 3) British support for First Nations peoples When? - 1812 -1815 How? -

Causes of the War of 1812 Long-Term Causes in Europe In the late 18 Causes of the War of 1812 Long-Term Causes in Europe In the late 18 th Century (1700 s), France and Britain were are war to become the world’s leading military power -Napoleonic Wars (1799 -1812) -Earlier, Britain defeated France in the Seven Year’s War (1756 -1763) so France got revenge by helping the 13 colonies gain independence from Britain -France and Britain tried to weaken each other by restricting their trade (Blockades, searches)

Causes of the War of 1812 Immediate Causes in North America Since they shared Causes of the War of 1812 Immediate Causes in North America Since they shared a common “enemy”, France and America had been helping each other Britain tried to harm France by stopping American merchant ships going to France to harm their trade During these inspections, the British often found British citizens on board, so they captured them and forced them to work on British warships (Impressment) Impressment was legal if the sailors were British citizens, but some were not and the Americans protested

More immediate causes Battle for expansion In the Treaty of Paris (1783), Britain gave More immediate causes Battle for expansion In the Treaty of Paris (1783), Britain gave America the Ohio Valley BUT they also had to respect the treaties that had already been signed with the First Nations peoples there America wanted to settle the Ohio Valley, so when people started moving into the area, First Nations peoples protested Britain was worried that America would get stronger if they did not step in

More immediate causes Fur Trade The Americans were arguing that the First Nations were More immediate causes Fur Trade The Americans were arguing that the First Nations were making fake claims about settlers in the Ohio Valley to keep control of the fur trade America was also accusing the British of providing the First Nations with guns to attack American settlers America demanded this stopped, or there would be a war between settlers and the First Nations peoples

More immediate causes Jingoism “Aggressive talk and opinions that justify military action” America is More immediate causes Jingoism “Aggressive talk and opinions that justify military action” America is extremely confident after gaining their independence Many politicians are trying to convince America they need to expand further (into Upper and Lower Canada) to protect their new country They claimed that America would be welcomed in these areas because UC and LC needed to be freed from the British Thomas Jefferson- Capturing BNA would be “a mere matter of marching”

Major Battles June 1812, US declares war on Britain US had larger army, Britain Major Battles June 1812, US declares war on Britain US had larger army, Britain had larger navy (but most of it was in Europe) Britain had a large amount of territory to defend (only 10 000 troops for 2000 km)

British Leaders Sir Isaac Brock Tecumseh British Leaders Sir Isaac Brock Tecumseh

Important Battles Detroit Brock and Tecumseh attacked a fort at Detroit They were outnumbered Important Battles Detroit Brock and Tecumseh attacked a fort at Detroit They were outnumbered but marched their soldiers in a circle so they passed in front of the Americans over and over again Thinking he was outnumbered, General Hull surrendered The victory secured the west and allowed the defenses to move to other parts of Upper and Lower Canada

Important Battles Queenston Heights Fought at Niagara-on-the-Lake (Oct. 1812) American troops crossed the Niagara Important Battles Queenston Heights Fought at Niagara-on-the-Lake (Oct. 1812) American troops crossed the Niagara River from New York into Upper Canada and captured the high ground (where the British were firing down at the river) The British were able to push the Americans back over the river, but Brock was shot and killed

Important Battles York (Toronto) American ships sailed across Lake Ontario and defeated the British Important Battles York (Toronto) American ships sailed across Lake Ontario and defeated the British at York They stayed a few days, burned down the town and went home An important battle because it showed the Americans could successfully attack “the heart of Upper Canada”

Important Battles Stoney Creek The British attacked the Americans in Upper Canada at night Important Battles Stoney Creek The British attacked the Americans in Upper Canada at night They got lost, missed the main camp, and many died (from both sides) in the confusion The Americans retreated to their side of the Niagara River

Important Battles Beaver Dams Americans were staying at an inn owned by Laura Secord Important Battles Beaver Dams Americans were staying at an inn owned by Laura Secord She overheard their plans for attack She travelled by foot to tell Colonel Fitzgibbon so he could be prepared for the attack The First Nations surrounded the Americans, and Fitzgibbons offered to protect them if they surrendered

Important Battles Crysler’s Farm A failed attack on Montreal Lundy’s Lane Heaviest casualities of Important Battles Crysler’s Farm A failed attack on Montreal Lundy’s Lane Heaviest casualities of any battle in Canadian history on Canadian soil Washington and Baltimore – In retaliation of attacks on Upper Canada, the British attacked and destroyed many gorvernment buildings (Including the White House)

The end of the War The Treaty of Ghent Britain and America met in The end of the War The Treaty of Ghent Britain and America met in Belgium to reach a peace agreement December 1814, the treaty was signed ending the war The boarder remained the same The war was declared a stalemate, but it was a major development for British North America

Effects of the War of 1812 on BNA Agriculture declined because farmers were called Effects of the War of 1812 on BNA Agriculture declined because farmers were called to fight Food supply dropped An increased demand for war materials (importers made lots of money) Politicians and religious figures banded together to fight for a common goal (and militia volunteers) Canadiens say the Americans as “antifrench” so their support for the British increased

Key Figures Sir Isaac Brock Sent by the British to Lower Canada (Quebec) in Key Figures Sir Isaac Brock Sent by the British to Lower Canada (Quebec) in 1802 to build up the city’s defenses 1810, he was promoted to major-general (in charge of all the defenses of LC and UC) Got the First Nations to join the British in defending against the Americans

Key Figures Tecumseh A Shawnee Chief who lived in the Ohio Valley Was opposed Key Figures Tecumseh A Shawnee Chief who lived in the Ohio Valley Was opposed to First Nations people selling their land to Americans Helped organize the First Nations people and helped set up the alliance with the British Killed in 1813 in battle (near Chatham)

Key Figures Laura Secord After being forced to take care of Americans at her Key Figures Laura Secord After being forced to take care of Americans at her inn, Secord heard about the plans of an American attack Secord walked over 20 kms (longer because she had to avoid American troops) through terrain to warn the British of the attack Was one of the first female spies

Key Figures Lieutenant- Colonel John By An engineer who designed canals and fortifications Designed Key Figures Lieutenant- Colonel John By An engineer who designed canals and fortifications Designed the Rideau Canal, which provided a waterway from Kingston to Ottawa that was north of the St. Lawrence River and safe from American attack