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Brainstorming Session 2 Informed Dialogue is Key to Collaborative Development of Water Resources India Water Week 2017 October 2017 M. Gopalakrishnan Session Chair’s Remarks
Water Sector Policies related to water resources development and management need to address the competing needs of Food, Environment and People; while attempting to do so, nevertheless, the NWP and Constitutional Provisions shall remain the governing rules.
SSM and DSM in Water Sector We can broadly categorise the competing Water demands, generically, into 3 categories 1. Water for Food 2. Water for People 3. Water for Nature
Water for Food • A basic Shift in the concept of “Resources”. • Accounting water use by the sector, and their integration. • Proper accounting of return flows, (could be an indicator of hazard (PQW). • Consumptive use (ET) management. • Watershed Management and water harvesting. • Integrating surface water & GW use in irrigation. • Integrated management of land water resources.
Water for People • National Policies & Dimensions of priority, could differ region to region – water allocation by uses • Drinking • Industrial – Recycling of Water – Treatment of waste water at source & reuse
Water for Nature • Terrestrial Eco system Needs form also Consumptive Uses • Aquatic needs which is non consumptive: Procedures to establish the requirements – desirable approaches • Quantification of Minimum flows in streams: (dilution of waste water philosophy to be discouraged. Zero effluent from industries).
India - River Basins
Dialogue based on Scientific Studies on Selected Basins for the Dialogue Process as model in recent times -ICID One Water Scarce Basin in West of India Viz: Sabarmati & One Water Rich Basin in the East viz: Brahmani
Basin Characteristics in a nutshell Sabarmati Brahmani Sabarmati is a water deficit basin having intensive agriculture and industrial development and large population density; basin with interbasin transfer into the basin taking place already Brahmani is a water rich basin having large industrial development and less agriculture with a definite requirements for the ecological management of certain eco systems
SB 1 : Main stem upto Narmada canal crossing SB 2 : Watrak tributary upto Narmada canal crossing SB 3 : Downstream basin Map of Sabarmati Basin
Water Assessment Modelling The model has to have certain desirable attributes like: · Simplicity, in concept. · Capability to deal with the entire land phase of the hydrologic cycle, from precipitation to evapo-transpiration and outflow to sea or sink, including all possible withdrawals & return flows · Flexibility, to allow depiction of changes in land use, as also human interventions through water infrastructure development, irrigation expansion, changes in domestic and industrial withdrawals and consumption, changes in water use efficiencies and in the paths of the return flows. · Capability to depict surface and groundwater balances separately, interaction between them, as also impacts of storage and depletion through withdrawals · Capability to consider changing environmental flow requirements · Capability to consider gradual changes in rainfall and evapotranspiration (due to Global Climatic Change)
COUNTRY POLICY SUPPORT PROGRAMME (CPSP) CONTENT AND APPROACH (ICID 2004 -05) • Ministries, Govt. Departments • Non-Governmental Organizations • Academic Institutions • Municipal Corporations • Farmers’ Associations • ICID NCs • Consultants • International COs • Dialogue POs INVOLVEMENT OF KEY STAKE HOLDERS • Preparatory workshop Basin Level • Assessment of water needs National Level • • ICID’s publications, Text Delivery Service Govt. Ministries Improved version of PODIUM and IMPACT World Bank, Asian Development Bank CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE BASE • ICID’s annual meetings WWF 3 and 4 • INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH CONSULTATIONS • Reports • Review of ICID’s present Strategy Websites PRESENTATION AND DISSEMINATION ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS Evolution of future Strategy of ICID
BHIWA Model ICID 2004 CPSP studies
CALIBRATION MODE SIMULATION MODE START Model input for Model input (past and / or present *) alternate future scenarios * Basic model Is initial GW+ storage nearly equal to final GW storage? Select a set of model parameters No Reduce GW use or take induced recharge option Adjust scenario Change model parameter(s) Yes No No Compare with known data. Is the comparison acceptable? Model outputs ** Are there unacceptable surface shortages being compensated by large GW pumping to canals? No Are low flows, proportion of returns etc. acceptable, if not the best? Yes Yes • ** + Freeze model parameters Model inputs include hydrological, demographic, D&I related land use, crop related (both rainfed and irrigation), water development and management information, including imports, exports and environmental flows required. Model outputs include monthly flows, inter and intra annual GW fluctuations, GW recharge, surface and ground water withdrawals, and water balance (overall, surface & GW) Ground Water Store model outputs ** for later inter comparison Reduce surface water use / increase surface storage END No Some Desirable Logical Sequence in dealing with a Basin New Scenario? Yes
Desirable RATIONALE, kept on board in Dialogue • The need for depicting the entire land phase this stems from the basic hydrologic premise that precipitation (and not river flow/ aquifer recharge) constitutes the primary resource • Evapotranspiration management to increase the flows in rivers/ aquifers is a potential development strategy and of course, this can be either • improving river flows or • the traditional resource
Brahmani basin – Estuarine Environment Bhitar Kanika Richest in mangrove Diversity 2 nd largest mangrove in Indian Mainland 1330 crocodiles (Largest in this part) Gahirmatha 0. 7 to 0. 9 million Turtles visit during breeding season
Assessment for Sabarmati basin –Annual river water balance
ICID - IAH CPSP Study Assessment for Sabarmati basin – Overall basin annual water balance
Assessment for Sabarmati basin – Annual ground water balance
Assessment for Sabarmati basin – Consumptive use by sector
Assessment for Sabarmati basin Main Findings • Non-beneficial ET in the nature and agriculture sectors exceeds quantum of annual river flow. Reduction of non-beneficial ET through rain harvesting, soil and agriculture management is a potential strategy for improved water management • Import of Narmada water is necessary to sustain the present withdrawals and meet future needs, including that for improvement of low flows. • Present ground water use is unsustainable. While the situation would improve slightly in future due to large additional Narmada imports, composition of return flow indicates much higher risk of ground water pollution
Assessment for Brahmani basin Main Findings ü Nature sector is by far the largest consumer of water. ü Contribution of groundwater to base flow is increasing, indicating risk of water logging ü Future withdrawal requirements would need full use of Rengali storage as well as creation of additional storage ü Considerable land would remain rainfed, and productivity increase may require watershed management of uplands. ü Basin would not have overall water shortages even in the projected scenario for increased agricultural and industrial use
Suggested Indicators In the Study framework following 4 indicators are proposed to describe the State of Water Resources Indicator 1: Withdrawals/total input to surface water Indicator 2: Returns/total input to surface water Indicator 3: Withdrawals/total recharge to ground water Indicator 4: Returns/total recharge to ground water Indicators 1 & 3 - depict quantitative stress due to withdrawals and Indicators 2 & 4 depict hazard to water quality
Extrapolation • Inferences drawn from Sabarmati assessments are of much relevance to Pennar, Cauvery, Indus, Ganga, Subarnarekha, Mahanadi and Tapi in regard to surface water • Ground water problems of Indus, Ganga, Subarnarekha, Krishna, Pennar and Cauvery have similarity with Sabarmati • Problems of Brahmani resulting out of the high flows and low use of ground water have similar implications for Brahmaputra and Godavari
Policy Issues highlighted by the Studies • Shift in the concept of “Water Resources” ; Precipitation Management? · Accounting water use by the sector, and integration · Proper accounting of return flows, since these constitute a major resource and could depict hazard potential · Consumptive use (evapotranspiration) management · Watershed Management and water harvesting · Integrating surface water and groundwater use in irrigation · Integrated management of land water resources · Integrating livelihoods in land water planning · Water for people: Dimensions of priority. · Water allocation by uses • Estimating water use and requirement of ‘Nature’ sector
Shift in the concept of “Water Resources” Considering rainfall ( and not runoff/GW recharge) as the primary resource will allow consideration of strategies which involve management of evapotranspiraton, water shed management, effects of land use changes etc. to be studied Total modelling of the land phase will allow accounting for evapotranspiration by uses, accounting of returns and base flows etc.
Accounting water use by the sector, and integration Consumptive use for terrestrial ecosystem (forests, grasslands and lands not under agricultural use), agricultural lands including irrigated lands etc. are acknowledged to be accounted for separately. In each, beneficial and non-beneficial uses can be segregated. Consumptive use of the “People” sector is taken on board and impacts studied (return after use and reuse potential after treatment)
Integrating livelihoods in land water planning
Dialogue using multifaceted Basin Studies That a modeling framework of a DYNAMIC, HOLISTIC and INTEGRATED nature to water resource assessments is the need for any informed dialogue One such is the ICID’s CPSP model: it did consider physical constraints of land & water including infrastructure development constraints. The approach helps to provide source wise & composite water balances, water accounting by sectoral use and classifies as beneficial / non beneficial. Easy analyses of scenarios for Decision Making opting a Dialogue Process Large scale changes in land use could be factored in a dynamic way to obtain a fair insight into desirable water policy interventions. Much of the fresh water may often be consumed by the nature sector. Agriculture (including rainfed farming) may not be the main consumer of freshwater. The water used for nature as well as agriculture could have beneficial and non beneficial components. Reducing non beneficial consumption could be an important strategy for the future challenge.
Understandable forms of Result Presentation for Decision Makers Graphical depiction of outcome of each one the options
Sabarmati River Basin India (1995) Rainfall 91% People 0. 7% + + Import 9% Export 1. 5% River Flow 16% Agriculture 53% Nature 29%
Brahmani River Basin India (2000) Rainfall 99% + Import 1% People 0. 4% Agriculture 22. 7% Nature 42. 1% River Flow 35%
Inter-Sectoral Interests in Management of Water • What we saw was the Basin Study, lying in a Single State (like Gujarat / Orissa) • Issue of Water is in the State List in the Indian Constitution throwing Challenges – Geographical and administrative boundaries dividing the Basin bring in varied and conflicting interests in the real world • Morphing over to IWRM of Basins require new provisions in Water Governance
Water in Our Indian Constitution • The Need for River Basin Management Act in Indian Context • Could there be a Dialogue on a Change in B as U ?
Entry 17, List II of Indian Constitution The Constitution of India lays down the legislative and functional jurisdiction of the Union, State and local Governments regarding 'Water'. Under the scheme of the Constitution, 'Water' is basically a State subject and the Union comes in only in the case of interstate river waters. List II of the Seventh Schedule, dealing with subjects regarding which states have jurisdiction, has the following as Entry 17 : – "Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power subject to the provisions of Entry 56 of List I (Union list), reads as follows: "Regulation and development of inter- state rivers and river valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law, to be expedient in the public interest".
Disputes Resolution • The Constitution has a specific article (Article 262), dealing with adjudication of disputes relating to matters of inter- state rivers or river valleys, which reads as follows: – Article 262 (1): Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication on any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter- state river or river valley. – (2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may by law provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other Court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as is referred to in clause (1).
The 1992 amendments to Constitution to cover ‘Panchayats & Municipalities’ • Following entries in the schedules listing the subject-areas in which the State Governments and legislatures may devolve functions to such bodies, so as to make them evolve as local self-governing institutions: – In the Eighth Schedule (Part IX) dealing with Panchayats, the subjects, ''Minor irrigation, Water management and Watershed development", "drinking water" and "maintenance of community assets" are listed. – In the Twelfth Schedule (Part IX A) dealing with municipalities, the subjects "water supply of domestic, industrial and commercial purposes" is listed. • Functional responsibilities are, thus, visualised for local Governments in respect of several aspects of water use.
India at Cross roads: The complexity of Integrated Water Management demand “new approaches” We still lack in ‘updated basin wise’ integrated water resources development and management plans for various inter-state basins, ensuring convergence among various water resources programmes. • ü ü ü • Expansion of hydrological observation network for a reliable Water Data Base Modernizing the National flood forecasting network for disaster mitigation & Expansion of inflow forecasting for major reservoirs in the country Water Resources Information System (WRIS) Intensive push in the area of major, medium, multipurpose and minor irrigation projects, flood management etc. , with also a focus on Management at basin level Issues related to Dam Safety at basin level Coastal Management Climate Change activities identified under National Water Mission (NWM) to face new Water Challenges seeks a fresh look at ‘basin level’, with IWRM approach
River Basin Management Act Doabia Committee Report 2012 • A new draft act of the Committee chaired by Doabia suggest: Ø Principles governing River Basin Development & Management and Regulation Ø Inter State River Basins could be brought under the Act in the 1 st instance Ø Establishment & Constitution of RBAs Ø a 2 tier system, comprising a Governing Council and an Executive Board (The EB to work with the Governing Council and act to bridge with the Central Government) Ø Evolving RB Master Plan, in consonance with National Plans for Social & Economic Developments, thro’ an ‘inclusive consultation process’ involving all Stakeholders Ø Other important aspects like the powers & functions of RBAs (GC, EB etc), The Dispute Resolution process and Ø Funds and Accounts, besides other matters of (key) relevance.
Inter State River Basins to be brought in, in the 1 st Phase of RBA • • • Brahamani-Baitarini basin Cauvery basin, Ganga basin Godavari basin, Indus basin, Krishna basin Mahanadi basin, Mahi basin Narmada basin, Pennar basin Subarnreakha basin Tapi basin
Elements of River Basin Master Plans to be evolved by RBOs • • Basin Features, hydrology and yield (both SW and GW) including data collection aspects, potential storage and diversion sites, existing and ongoing schemes for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control and Drainage, water treatment plants, Quality and quantity of hot spots etc inventory of existing water uses in the basin, temporal and spatial distribution of the uses, source wise and area wise water account comprising of qualitative as well as quantitative availability and utilisation (consumptive and non-consumptive) Development needs, Accounting for needs for aquatic ecosystem in rivers, reservoirs and lakes; making specific allocation of ecosystem needs, water and soil conservation, prevention and control of sedimentation development scenarios including possibility of integrating various uses of water, integrating various reservoir systems, conjunctive use of surface and ground water, integrating ecological needs and incorporation of inter. State/international agreements and tribunal awards RB Master Plan would be a dynamic document moving with times
Why a RBM Act? • The legal framework for constituting an Inter-State River Basin Organization is contained within the Constitution of India itself. • The Constitution of India has vested powers on the Parliament of India for the “Regulation and development of Inter State Rivers and river valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest” by virtue of Entry 56 of List I of the Seventh Schedule to Article 246 of the Constitution. • It was in pursuance of this power that the Parliament had enacted the River Boards Act, 1956 (Act 49 0 f 1956). Contd….
Why a RBM Act? … 2 Ø No single River Board was, in fact, constituted under the RBA, earlier promulgated. The States have not responded to the legal space for River Boards created under the River Boards Act, 1956 and this has meant that the Act has fallen into disuse. This is largely due to the fact that in Section 4(1) of the Act, the exercise of power of the Government of India to establish a River Board was incidental to a request received from the State government and no State Government ever made a request under the said section of the River Boards Act, 1956. Ø The River Boards Act, 1956 also does not provide for any river basin planning. In fact the integrated planning, development and management of water resources of the river basin were not contemplated explicitly at the time of enactment of the River Boards Act, 1956. Ø Understandably, the IWRM was not a concept of that era but attained importance due to the water scarcity world wide, in the later decades, impacting highly populated countries, more & more.
Why a RBM Act? … 3 • The Basin approach shall ensure that current demands for water are met without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet theirs. • Overall, it also seeks to advance the country’s social and economic development goals in ways that do not compromise the sustainability of vital ecosystems to the extent desirable and feasible.
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