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Brain Drain and the Academic and Intellectual Labour Market in Croatia Greta Pifat-Mrzljak Luka Brain Drain and the Academic and Intellectual Labour Market in Croatia Greta Pifat-Mrzljak Luka Juroš Vlasta Vizek Vidović Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb UNESCO Chair in Governance and Management of Higher Education, University Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović of Zagreb 2004

Croatia – Facts and Figures l l l l Population: 4, 37 million 6 Croatia – Facts and Figures l l l l Population: 4, 37 million 6 universities, 7 polytechnics 17 independent post-secondary schools (11 of them private) 28 public research institutes System of higher education employs 9, 570 people Public research institutes employ 1, 475 people Higher education graduates make 7. 3% of the total population Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Higher education profile 19712001 Year Number of persons with higher education % in total Higher education profile 19712001 Year Number of persons with higher education % in total population 1971 74, 376 2. 20 1981 131, 937 3. 60 1991 204, 066 5. 30 2001 267, 995 7. 27 Source: Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Croatia, 2001, www. dzs. hr Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Number of scientists and researchers in 2003 Total In research organisations 10, 161 Outside Number of scientists and researchers in 2003 Total In research organisations 10, 161 Outside research organisations 3, 679 Retired 2, 325 TOTAL 16, 165 Source: Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, 2004 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Structure of scientists and researchers in 2003 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Structure of scientists and researchers in 2003 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Human potential in R&D activities in public institutions in 2003 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Human potential in R&D activities in public institutions in 2003 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Employment in science in 1998 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Employment in science in 1998 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Scientific production by number of cited texts (1998) Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Scientific production by number of cited texts (1998) Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Proportion of state budget for science in GDP Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Proportion of state budget for science in GDP Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Budget structure for science and higher education (in millions of kuna) Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović Budget structure for science and higher education (in millions of kuna) Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Ministry of Science and Technology expenditure in 2003 1/3 of total funds allocated to Ministry of Science and Technology expenditure in 2003 1/3 of total funds allocated to science l 60% allocated to higher education l Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Sources of funding for research and development in 1998 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Sources of funding for research and development in 1998 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Number of junior researchers in 2003 Scientific areas Natural sciences Tota l 449 Engineering Number of junior researchers in 2003 Scientific areas Natural sciences Tota l 449 Engineering 486 Biomedicine health Biotechnical and 374 178 Social sciences 353 Humanities 323 Types of institutions Public institutes Higher education institutions Other institutions 1, 526 Total number of junior researchers: 2, 163 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 499 138

Scholarship exchanges on the basis of bilateral programmes from Croatia Year Number of scholarships Scholarship exchanges on the basis of bilateral programmes from Croatia Year Number of scholarships 2000 130 Number research months 337 2001 145 606 2002 143 603 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 of

Student enrolments in 2002/03 by scientific disciplines Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Student enrolments in 2002/03 by scientific disciplines Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Number of graduates from HE institutions 1991 -2000 l Total number of graduates: 105, Number of graduates from HE institutions 1991 -2000 l Total number of graduates: 105, 535

Prospective students in academic year 2004/2005 University and professional studies at University of Zagreb Prospective students in academic year 2004/2005 University and professional studies at University of Zagreb Total University of Osijek 4, 879 University of Rijeka 5, 830 University of Split 8, 136 University of Zadar 1, 005 University of Dubrovnik 900 TOTAL 34, 301 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 13, 551

Number of undergraduate students at University of Zagreb Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Number of undergraduate students at University of Zagreb Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Number of full-time employed staff at University of Zagreb Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Number of full-time employed staff at University of Zagreb Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Potential migrations of young scientists 1990 -2000 Young scientist s 1990 Young scientis ts Potential migrations of young scientists 1990 -2000 Young scientist s 1990 Young scientis ts 1998 Young scientis ts 2000 Young scientists ith w offers to go abroad Potential base for brain drain Decided to go abroad 78. 7% 56. 0% 66. 7% 21. 7% 11. 7% 7. 3% 2. 4% TOTAL 24. 1% l Source: M. Adamović, 2003 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Brain drain of Croatian scientists by disciplines and titles 1990 -2000 Natural sciences 244 Brain drain of Croatian scientists by disciplines and titles 1990 -2000 Natural sciences 244 Ph. D 346 40. 75% Technical sciences 249 MSc 319 37. 57% Biomedici ne Others 139 Young scientist s 184 21. 67% TOTAL 849 l 217 Source: "Večernji list" January 19, 2001; M. Adamović, 2003 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Statistical estimation on number of persons with high education leaving Croatia l Estimation conducted Statistical estimation on number of persons with high education leaving Croatia l Estimation conducted by Ministry of Science and Technology – The difference between number of graduates and the actual increase in number of HE persons is 30, 000 – Number of brain drain was estimated by calculating proportion in total mortality in the period – Proportions taken: 5%, 4%, 3% in total mortality Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović – Possible brain drain rates: 4. 5% (min), 8. 9%, 2004 13. 2% (max)

Molecular biology degrees profile 1985 -2000 Acad. year Students 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 Molecular biology degrees profile 1985 -2000 Acad. year Students 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 Total Percentag e 30 44 44 43 40 47 51 53 589 Graduate s 27 44 39 37 34 42 35 14 3 483 82 MSc Ph. D 9 10 7 3 ? ? ? 6 10 7 2 ? ? ? Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Brain drain of molecular biologists Graduated up to 1996/97 – 432 l Working in Brain drain of molecular biologists Graduated up to 1996/97 – 432 l Working in Croatia – 249 or 57. 6% l Working abroad (brain drain) – 166 or 38. 3% l Brain drain countries Number USA 34 Germany 34 Switzerland 39 Austria 16 Great Britain 8 France 12 Italy 6 Sweden 4 Serbia 3 the Netherlands, Spain, Canada, Belgium, Macedonia, Slovenia, Australia Total 10 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 166

Number of graduated MD students and their brain drain Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 Number of graduated MD students and their brain drain Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Total l No. of students 317 320 312 277 255 240 251 1971 Brain MDs 9 19 8 10 3 1 1 51 drain MDs studying abroad 1 1 1 0 0 4 Another survey shows that 403 MDs applied for documents for travel abroad in the last 10 years Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 % 2. 8

Number of graduated pharmacy students and their brain drain Year No. graduates 1993/94 1994/95 Number of graduated pharmacy students and their brain drain Year No. graduates 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 TOTAL 48 73 71 90 94 117 122 118 154 132 1019 Brain drain 0 6 1 0 1 3 1 1 15 Studying abroad 2 1 3 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Othe r 2 2 % 2. 0

Distribution of mining engineers in the period of 1993 -2003 Category 1 2 3 Distribution of mining engineers in the period of 1993 -2003 Category 1 2 3 TOTAL No. of graduates 214 13 15 1 28 Percentage 6. 0 7. 0 13. 0 • 1 – Brain drain of mining engineers • 2 – Engineers who worked in Croatia and then went abroad • 3 – Brain gain Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Number of graduated electrical engineering students and their brain drain Year 1994 1995 1996 Number of graduated electrical engineering students and their brain drain Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Total No. graduates 400 520 469 460 432 532 443 442 388 4090 of Brain drain 12 20 16 18 16 10 7 0 3 102 Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004 Studying abroad 1 1 0 0 3 1 0 7 % 3. 0 3. 8 3. 4 3. 9 2. 7 1. 9 1. 6 0. 8 2. 6

Almae Matris Alumni Societies l l l Established in 1990 at University of Zagreb Almae Matris Alumni Societies l l l Established in 1990 at University of Zagreb 16 AMAC societies throughout the world today (AMAC Mundus) and 16 in Croatia (AMAC Domus) 9 societies in the process of formation AMAC bulletin published in 10, 000 copies Convention of all AMAC societies is due in Zagreb June 30 – July 3 http: //www. unizg. hr/amac/prob. htm Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Geographical distribution of Croatian scientists abroad Country Number of scientists USA Germany Canada Switzerland Geographical distribution of Croatian scientists abroad Country Number of scientists USA Germany Canada Switzerland France UK Austria Australia Argentina Italy Sweden Netherlands 466 143 84 75 50 39 37 34 16 16 15 12 Bosnia and Herzegovina Chile Slovenia Norway Denmark Belgium Mexico Israel Hungary Venezuela Peru 7 7 6 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 12 Greece, Iceland, Brasil, Kenya, Nepal, Liechtenstein, Taiwan, Monaco, Japan, Hong Kong, Serbia, Malta Total 1033

Congress of Croatian scientists from homeland abroad l l l Due in November 2004 Congress of Croatian scientists from homeland abroad l l l Due in November 2004 in Zagreb and Vukovar, organised by Ministry of Science, Education and Sport Bringing together Croatian scientists across the world Promoting individual networking and institutional cooperation Workshops and discussions http: //www. mzos. hr/pkhz/ Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Measures and strategies for solving the brain drain problem l l l l Significantly Measures and strategies for solving the brain drain problem l l l l Significantly increase investment in science Define and employ measures and procedures to transform brain drain into brain gain and brain circulation Encourage international cooperation in science and higher education Emphasize the importance of science for the development of Croatia Establish the economic and social measures to be implemented for improvement of the role of knowledge in Croatian society Involve alumni into Alma Mater activities Use the potential of the scientific diaspora Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004

Conclusion Case study of brain drain in Croatia determined three facts: – There currently Conclusion Case study of brain drain in Croatia determined three facts: – There currently exists no systematic monitoring of brain drain and labour migration market. This could escalate into a significant problem as seen in the case of molecular biologists. – Academic labour market is influenced by the quality of environment for scientific work and the opportunity for scientific development – interest expressed by Croatian scientists abroad and AMAC societies shows significant potential for reinvestment of human scientific resources l Policy proposal: “to use the EHEA and ERA trends, Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović diaspora and AMAC potentials to build a sustainable 2004 and effective system of brain drain monitoring and l

Web sites l Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb www. irb. hr l UNESCO Chair in Web sites l Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb www. irb. hr l UNESCO Chair in Governance and Management of Higher Education, University of Zagreb www. unizg. hr/[email protected] hr Pifat-Mrzljak, Juroš, Vizek-Vidović 2004