Born April 23 rd, 1564 Stratford-on-Avon,

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 Born April 23 rd, 1564 Stratford-on-Avon, England Grammar School from age 7 to Born April 23 rd, 1564 Stratford-on-Avon, England Grammar School from age 7 to 1313 His father, John Shakespeare, owned a shop as a glove maker and also held several government positions, including Mayor of Stratford. Married young, Anne Hathaway worked as a schoolteacher or tutor, joined a troupe of traveling players. By 1594, he had risen to the top of London’s theatrical world as a playwright as well as an actor.

Shakespeare Started out as an actor performing with “The Lord Chamberlain’s Men” (1592) (LondonShakespeare Started out as an actor performing with “The Lord Chamberlain’s Men” (1592) (London theater co. ) Gave him a chance to write a play, principal playwright for them 1599> Lord Chamberlain built Globe Theater where most of Sh. play’s were performed wrote 37 plays about 154 sonnets

Shakespeare wrote:  Comedies Histories Tragedies Shakespeare wrote: Comedies Histories Tragedies

Critics Rank the Plays Comedies --  The Tempest, As You Like It, TheCritics Rank the Plays Comedies — The Tempest, As You Like It, The Winter’s Tale, The Merchants of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, A Midsummer Night’s Dream Histories — Henry IV, Henry V, Richard II, Richard III, Henry VIII Tragedies — Hamlet, Macbeth, King Lear, Othello

Sonnets In 13 thth century Italy, poets introduced a poetic form called the sonnet,Sonnets In 13 thth century Italy, poets introduced a poetic form called the sonnet, “little song” 14 -line lyric poem with a complicated rhyme scheme and a defined structure. Required technical skills Francesco Petrarch (1304 -1374) perfected the Italian sonnet – Petrarchan sonnet. set the thematic course of the sonnet: pang and longing of the speaker’s unfulfilled love for an idealized lady – unobtainable Laura (300)

 Sonnet was introduced into English by Thomas Wyatt (1503 -1542) in the early Sonnet was introduced into English by Thomas Wyatt (1503 -1542) in the early 16 thth century Translated Petrarch Wrote few of his own

Shakespeare’s Sonnets 154 Sonnets, 60 songs (1590 th) Written during the years 1592 -1594Shakespeare’s Sonnets 154 Sonnets, 60 songs (1590 th) Written during the years 1592 -1594 when theaters were closed due to a plague outbreak Love, broken trust of friend, loss of love, forgiveness, time, change, death, friend, rival poet, dark lady, fair lord

Shakespearean Sonnet 14 lines with five iambic feet to the line (an iambic footShakespearean Sonnet 14 lines with five iambic feet to the line (an iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one). Follows the rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg – Shakespeare used the first twelve lines of each sonnet to present a problem that he resolves or restates in the couplet.

Shakespeare’s Sonnet 29 When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes, (a) I allShakespeare’s Sonnet 29 When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes, (a) I all alone beweep my outcast state, (b) And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, (a) And look upon myself and curse my fate, (b) Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, (c) Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, (d) Desiring this man’s art, and than man’s scope, (c) With what I most enjoy contented least. (d) Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, (e) Haply I think on thee, and then my state, (f) Like to the lark at break of day arising (e) From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven’s gate; (f) – For thy sweet love remembered such wealth brings (g) – That then I scorn to change my state with kings. (g)

Sonnet 29 11 stst quatrain: When the speaker finds himself depressed with no oneSonnet 29 11 stst quatrain: When the speaker finds himself depressed with no one else to listen to him or sympathize with him, he sits around cursing the heavens and himself 22 ndnd quatrain: Also wishes himself like more successful, richer, more popular men, but knows he won’t really be made happy by these things 33 rdrd quatrain: Then he thinks of his loved one and he is made cheerful Couplet: The love of his life brings so much “wealth” that he wouldn’t even want to change his situation with that of a king

Shakespeare’s Sonnet 106 When in the chronicle of wasted time I see descriptions ofShakespeare’s Sonnet 106 When in the chronicle of wasted time I see descriptions of the fairest wights, And beauty making beautiful old rhyme, In praise of ladies dead and lovely knights, Then in the blazon of sweet beauty’s best Of hand, of foot, of lip, of eye, of brow, I see their antique pen would have express’d Even such a beauty as you master now. So all their praises by prophesies Of this our time, all you prefiguring; And, for they look’d but with divining eyes, They had not skill enough your worth to sing: – For we, which now behold these present days, – Have eyes to wonder, but lack tongues to praise.

Sonnet 106 - an example of Shakespeare’s syntax- saves the main idea until theSonnet 106 — an example of Shakespeare’s syntax- saves the main idea until the end of sentence All previous descriptions of handsome men and beautiful women only anticipated the beauty of a special person the poet knows. Ironically, these earlier descriptions are inadequate because they were only “prophecies” that were imagining this person, but lacked the skill to praise this person. Now, however, we have the ability to view this person, but lack the words to praise.

Shakespeare’s Language •  Shakespeare did NOT write in “Old English. ” • Shakespeare’s Language • Shakespeare did NOT write in “Old English. ” • Old English is the language of Beowulf: Hwaet! We Gardena in geardagum Þeodcyninga Þrym gefrunon Hu ða æÞelingas ellen fremedon! (Hey! We have heard of the glory of the Spear-Danes in the old days, the kings of tribes, how noble princes showed great courage!)

Shakespeare’s Language •  Shakespeare did not write in “Middle English. ” • Shakespeare’s Language • Shakespeare did not write in “Middle English. ” • Middle English is the language of Chaucer, the Gawain -poet, and Malory: We redeth oft and findeth y-write— And this clerkes wele it wite— Layes that ben in harping Ben y-founde of ferli thing… ( Sir Orfeo )

Shakespeare’s Language •  Shakespeare wrote in “Early Modern English. ” •  EMEShakespeare’s Language • Shakespeare wrote in “Early Modern English. ” • EME was not very different from “Modern English” • Much is written in Blank Verse : 1. unrhymed verse 2. iambic (unstressed, stressed) 3. pentameter( 5 “feet” to a line)

Soliloquy Long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage.  Soliloquy Long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage.

Aside Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by allAside Words spoken, usually in an undertone not intended to be heard by all characters

Pun. Pun Shakespeare loved to use them!!! – Humorous use of a word withPun. Pun Shakespeare loved to use them!!! – Humorous use of a word with two meanings

What differentiates comedy from tragedy?  Drama of state The heroes of tragedy wereWhat differentiates comedy from tragedy? Drama of state The heroes of tragedy were figures from the nobility. Tragedy was set in the court or in battlefields. Tragedy was the drama of separation. Its characters ended by being isolated from one another. Because the ultimate form of isolation is death, tragedies tended to end in death. Tragedy negotiates notions of law and justice, asking us to worry about what is and is not fair. Common issues and ordinary people. Comic protagonists came from the middle or the working classes. Comedies could take place in the countryside, but were most often set in the city. Comedy was the genre of unity. In the end, its characters got together. Comedies often wrapped up with husbands, wives, and children finding themselves reunited or with a marriage that promised the beginning of a new family. Comedies open in moments of tension, where characters who will ultimately unite are separated from one another and at odds. Comedy tends to be more democratic. In comedies, several points of view can coexist.

 In the end, characters get together.  Common issues and ordinary people. In the end, characters get together. Common issues and ordinary people. The heroes were figures from the nobility. was about separation. Its characters ended by being isolated from one another. could take place in the countryside, but were most often set in the city. tended to end in death. Protagonists came from the middle or the working classes. was set in the court or in battlefields. husbands, wives, and children find themselves reunited or with a marriage that promised beginning of a new family. open in moments of tension, where characters who will ultimately unite are separated from one another and at odds. tends to be more democratic. negotiates notions of law and justice, asking us to worry about what is and is not fair.

History of Comedy Originated in Greece, 4 thth  cent. BC.  First comediesHistory of Comedy Originated in Greece, 4 thth cent. BC. First comedies (“Old Comedy”) were social satires. Aristophanes, “the father of comedy. ” Later, “New Comedy” formed the love-meets-obstacles model.

Comedy A drama or narrative with a happy ending or non-tragic theme. – ComedyComedy A drama or narrative with a happy ending or non-tragic theme. – Comedy of manners — depicts and satirizes the manners and customs of fashionable society. – High comedy- appeals to and reflects the life and problems of the upper social classes, characterized by a witty, sardonic treatment. – Low comedy — e. g. farce – Romantic comedy is usually based on a mix-up in events or identities. Shakespeare’s comedies often move towards tragedies (a death or lack of of resolution) but are resolved in the nick of time.

Types of Comedy ““ Low comedy” appeals to baser sense of humour (farce, slapstickTypes of Comedy ““ Low comedy” appeals to baser sense of humour (farce, slapstick comedy). ““ High comedy” appeals to intellect (romantic comedy; comedy of humours; comedy of manners).

Brief History of English Comedy Farcical elements in medieval mystery and morality plays (Brief History of English Comedy Farcical elements in medieval mystery and morality plays ( The Second Shepherds’ Play ); ); Renaissance comedy (Shakespeare, Ben Jonson); Restoration comedy of manners (William Congreve, Aphra Behn).

Elements of Comedy Slapstick humour Situational humour;  qui pro quo. .  Satire.Elements of Comedy Slapstick humour Situational humour; qui pro quo. . Satire. Verbal humour.

COMEDY Focuses on people’s social behaviour.  Exposes and unmasks human weaknesses and vices.COMEDY Focuses on people’s social behaviour. Exposes and unmasks human weaknesses and vices. Explores the discrepancy between the seeming and the real. Starts with a problem, ends with its resolution. Depends on a complicated plot (obstacles, confused identities, misunderstandings). Instructive by nature and purpose. Comic relief instead of catharsis

A Midsummer Night's Dream is a romantic comedy which portrays the adventures of fourA Midsummer Night’s Dream is a romantic comedy which portrays the adventures of four young Athenian lovers and a group of amateur actors in a moonlit forest, and their interactions with the fairies who inhabit it. A Midsummer Night’s Dream 1595.

A Midsummer Night’s  Dream 1595. Obvious plot links exist between A Midsummer Night’sA Midsummer Night’s Dream 1595. Obvious plot links exist between A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Romeo and Juliet , and critics disagree about which play was written first. 1. THE ATHENIANS : • Theseus and his bride, Hippolyta (Theseus represents law and order. ) • The four lovers: Hermia, Helena, Demetrius, Lysander (They represent adolescent rebellion. ) • Egeus (Hermia’s father)

2.  THE ACTORS:  •  Bottom (the rather vain “leader” of the2. THE ACTORS: • Bottom (the rather vain “leader” of the group who wishes to play all the parts • Other members of the cast: Quince, Flute, Starveling, Snout, Snug, Philostrate 3. THE FAIRIES: Their realm is the woods where they interact with the humans who wander there. This setting is outside the walls of Athens and so disorder prevails. • Titania (Queen) • Oberon (King) • Puck (a. k. a. Robin Goodfellow) – Oberon’s loyal helper

A Midsummer Night's Dream:  Introduction Hermia and Lysander are in love. Hermia’s father,A Midsummer Night’s Dream: Introduction Hermia and Lysander are in love. Hermia’s father, however, insists that she marry Demetrius. Hermia’s friend Helena loves Demetrius.

In act One, Lysander laments: “The course of true love never did run smooth”In act One, Lysander laments: “The course of true love never did run smooth” (1. 1. 134). The play deals with the trials of those “in love” both in the world of the Athenians and the world of the fairies. Because the play is a romantic comedy, the audience can enjoy the conflicts, mix ups, and misunderstandings without ever doubting that all will turn out well. Other topics (besides “love”): Reality versus illusion Friendship Parental authority Dreams

Definition A tragedy is a dramatic play of human actions that produces exceptional suffering,Definition A tragedy is a dramatic play of human actions that produces exceptional suffering, ending in the death of a tragic hero. A A tragic hero is the main character in a tragedy who makes an error in his actions that leads to his or her downfall. It can also be a flawed character trait.

Tragedy A serious play or drama typically dealing with the problems of a centralTragedy A serious play or drama typically dealing with the problems of a central character, leading to an unhappy or disastrous ending brought on, as in ancient drama, by a fate and a tragic flaw in this character in modern drama — usually by moral weakness, psychological maladjustment or social pressures.

Tragedy (Shakespearean) Drama where the central character/s suffer disaster/great misfortune – In many tragedies,Tragedy (Shakespearean) Drama where the central character/s suffer disaster/great misfortune – In many tragedies, downfall results from Fate Character flaw/Fatal flaw Combination of the two

Tragic Hero ““ Man of high standard who falls from that high because ofTragic Hero ““ Man of high standard who falls from that high because of a flaw that has affected many ” – Aristotle A person of high rank who is brought to eventual ruin by a flaw in his/her character. – Example: Macbeth’s tragic flaw is his ambition which leads him into a series of bloody and increasingly indefensible acts.

Shakespearean Tragedy Good always triumphs in the end.  Although the hero has pulledShakespearean Tragedy Good always triumphs in the end. Although the hero has pulled down the world around him, there is someone who restores order at the end of the tragedy. Tragedies contain the supernatural, such as witches and ghosts. Tragedies contain characters who experience abnormal psychological states, such as Macbeth’s visions.

Major tragedies  were composed in the darkest period of Shakespeare’s life and areMajor tragedies were composed in the darkest period of Shakespeare’s life and are permeated by a profound sense of gloom

Romeo and Juliet the most persuasive and impressive representation of a young woman inRomeo and Juliet the most persuasive and impressive representation of a young woman in love, or indeed, of any woman in love with a man My bounty is as boundless as the sea, My love as deep; the more I give to thee, The more I have, for both are infinite

 not a tragic flaw Juliet’s tragedy is, in fact, her very greatness as not a tragic flaw Juliet’s tragedy is, in fact, her very greatness as a human being. Her tragedy is the fact that she loves without reservation. not surpassed ever since

an art of language Shakespeare’s art is an art of language, of an enormousan art of language Shakespeare’s art is an art of language, of an enormous control over the resources of language; Shakespeare can be said to have reinvented the English language. He has the largest vocabulary of any author who has ever written. Of that vocabulary, he invented fully 1, 800 words himself, and 1, 200 of those words are still common usage in England

An Unprecedented Character creation of personality added to the representation of character Before Shakespeare,An Unprecedented Character creation of personality added to the representation of character Before Shakespeare, character and what we would now call personality were not very different entities. he found a way of integrating a superb personality with a deep and immensely moving character

Hamlet The play was probably begun in 1599 a subtle personal family background toHamlet The play was probably begun in 1599 a subtle personal family background to Shakespeare’s tragedy of Hamlet — his only son, Hamnet, died at the age of eleven, three years before the play was written Hamlet is the most brilliant mind in the entire history of literature

Othello is very much the tragedy of Othello,  the African commander of mercenariesOthello is very much the tragedy of Othello, the African commander of mercenaries for Venice, a figure with a fabulous past, who rose from being an outcast prince of Africa to a boy soldier and has fought his way into the esteem of all of Europe as a great mercenary captain Desdemona is an extraordinary person, wonderfully capable of a selfless love. Othello has won her heart without meaning to by telling her of his exploits, and she’s frantically carried away by this.

 based on Holinshed’s Chronicles of England,  Scotland, and Ireland was written around based on Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland was written around 1605 -07 but was not published in the first Folio until 1623 Set in Scotland Written for King James I (formerly of Scotland, now England)

Macbeth/'The Scottish Play' Based on a true story.  Much of the factual contentMacbeth/’The Scottish Play’ Based on a true story. Much of the factual content was altered to please King James I. Play is about James’s ancestors, Banquo and Fleance, and how they inherited the throne of Scotland. Shakespeare altered the fact that Banquo actually helped Macbeth kill Duncan because it would have been a huge insult to insinuate to James that his ancestors gained the throne through murder.

The Real Macbeth Duncan was an unpopular king.  In 1040, after Duncan’s death,The Real Macbeth Duncan was an unpopular king. In 1040, after Duncan’s death, possibly by Macbeth, Macbeth was elected High-King. Ruled for 17 years. Duncan’s son, Malcolm, invaded Scotland. Macbeth was killed in August of 1057.

Macbeth James wrote a book about witchcraft,  Daemonologie , and participated in severalMacbeth James wrote a book about witchcraft, Daemonologie , and participated in several trials of witchcraft. Shakespeare’s inclusion of the witchcraft motif is an appeal to James’s interests.

Curse of Macbeth for the opening scene of Macbeth's Act IV WSh reproduced aCurse of Macbeth for the opening scene of Macbeth’s Act IV WSh reproduced a 17 th century black-magic ritual, & provided his audience with step-by-step instructions in the art of spell casting: «Round around the cauldron go; In the poison’d entrails throw. Toad, that under cold stone Days and nights has thirty-one Swelter’d venum sleeping got. Boil thou first i’ the charmed pot». . . detailed public exposure of witchcraft, as punishment practitioners cast an everlasting spell on the play, turning it into the most ill-starred of all theatrical productions.

 King Duncan of Scotland - honest and good Malcolm & Donalbain - Sons King Duncan of Scotland — honest and good Malcolm & Donalbain — Sons of the King Macbeth — the Thane of Glamis (nobleman/military guy) — Duncan’s most courageous general Banquo — General and Macbeth’s best friend Lady Macbeth — ambitious as her husband Macduff — Scottish general the Witches

“ Life’s but a walking shadow; a poor player, That struts and frets his“ Life’s but a walking shadow; a poor player, That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, And is heard of no more: it is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. ” — Act V; s.

Macbeth is a tragic hero because of a flawed character:  he is ambitious.Macbeth is a tragic hero because of a flawed character: he is ambitious. His over ambition causes him to make poor decisions which eventually lead to his death. Written in blank verse In general, written in iambic pentameter