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«Bologna process» as trigger for changes at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek Prof. dr. sc. Vladimir Sigmund Doc. dr. sc. Sanja Lončar-Vicković Doc. dr. sc. Ivica Guljaš University of Osijek Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek, Croatia
Civil Engineering Studies at the University of Osijek, Faculty of Civil Engineering University post-graduate studies 3 years, 180 ECTS Doctor of Technical Sciences in CE Post-graduate specialist studies 1 year, 60 ECTS University graduate studies Specialist work 20 ECTS Professional improvement studies Pro. points + seminar+exam=40 ECTS 2 years, 120 ECTS Master of CE Differential year 1 year, 60 ECTS University undergraduate studies 3 years, 180 ECTS Univ. bacc. in CE Professional studies 3 years, 180 ECTS Professional bacc. In CE
Engineering Education • Engineering is a technical activity that creates systems in the form of artifacts in which science and art meet. Holistic • Science is a discovery oriented intellectual activity, that produces theories of predictive value as well as new experimental techniques. Reductionist. • Technology is the rational approach to the design of artifacts. Quantification, modeling and simulation • Traditional basic skills: language, mathematics, drawing
How we followed Bologna. . . Bologna 1999 Faculty of CE Osijek accepting a comparable and easily mutual recognition of CE diplomas recognizable HE system in Croatia, diploma supplement accepting a HE system consisting of two cycles study defined as 3+2 (+3) introducing a credit system ECTS system introduced promoting mobility ? introducing and promoting QA ISO 9001 since September 2007, QA system at Osijek’s University promoting the european dimension ? of HE information dissemination students, teachers, highschool
Broad perspectives of HE EU and Croatia EU - The Lisbon Declaration of March 2000 EU should become the world’s most competitive knowledge-based economy by 2010, key factor: quality of education Croatia - Ministry of SES MSES 2005 - 2010 aims percentage of drop-out students number of graduates number of academic staff current 2010 69, 5% 50% 30% 20 -25%
Facts on Bologna 1 First generation year of study academic year students success rate % I 2005/06 135/ 12 - II 2006/07 56 / 4 41 % (33 %) III 2007/08 26 / 0 46 % ( 0 %) Second generation year of study academic year students success rate % I 2006/07 155/ 41 - II 2007/08 82 / 21 53 % (51 %) 2004/05 success rate 42% 1 – university studies
Facts on Bologna 2 First generation year of study academic year students success rate % I 2005/06 56/ 7 - II 2006/07 14 / 0 25 % (0 %) III 2007/08 3/0 21 % (0 %) Second generation year of study academic year students success rate % I 2006/07 58/ 11 - II 2007/08 20 / 3 34 % (27 %) 2004/05 success rate 18% 2 – professional studies
Introducing and Promoting QA ISO 9001 at the Faculty of CE in Osijek – TÜV certificate issued in September 2007 – applied in every activity at the faculty (except accounting) QA system within the University* – – – yearly student evaluations collecting data on 8 education quality indicators (since 2006) workshops for students, teachers and staff QA committee at the Faculty a project on learning outcomes (upcoming) *initiated at the Faculty of CE in 2006
We are Student Oriented • Transparently informing students at faculty level – written materials (student guide) – introductory lectures, periodical student tribunes – a mentor for every student • Transparently informing students at subject level* – written and oral presentation of required activities – defined credit structure (grading) • Semestral teaching report – uniformed report questionnaires – defined success indicators at subject and academic year level • Colloquia – currently introduced at a vast majority of subjects, obligatory for all subjects starting in 2008 * Transparent for students and presented to faculty management
Questions to discuss • How to include employers in the process of defining learning outcomes for professional profiles? • How to educate the labor market on competencies of our graduates? • What are the competencies and responsibilities of different types of graduates? • How to actively include students in defining a desirable study environment? • How to measure and accept knowledge acquired outside the higher education system? • How to improve the mobility of students and teachers? • How to deal with the increased number of students? • How to attract students while keeping the 24 ECTS minimum necessary to continue studies at UNIOS? • How to improve the quality of professional studies?
University postgraduate doctoral studies of Civil Engineering for earning the academic degree Doctor of technical sciences in the field of Civil Engineering in one of the following branches: - Structural Engineering - Construction Management and Technology - Hydraulic Engineering.
Structure and organization of the studies • Modular system of teaching- Project oriented • The study consists of three elements: – Regular classes – Independent research work – Doctoral thesis • Student can choose other courses, which are offered by University Josip Juraj Strossmayer constituents or by other Faculties of CE in Croatia Course Optional ECTS credits List of courses Total of all courses ( 6 to 8 courses ) 36 – 48 Independent research work 42 - 54 Specialist thesis 90 Total 180
University postgraduate specialist studies of Civil Engineering for earning the academic degree Specialist of Civil Engineeering in one of the following branches: - Specialist of earthquake engineering - Specialist of project management - Specialist of environment protection in civil engineering.
Structure and organization of the studies • Modular system of teaching • The study consists of three elements: – Regular classes – Independent research work – Specialist thesis • All the courses are compatible with courses in long life education of civil engineers where engineers earn professional points • Admission policy: persons who have finished university graduate or undergraduate studies in the domain of technical sciences, achieving at least 60 ECTS credits in the field of Civil Engineering. Course Optional Total ECTS credits 66 + 134 = 200 40 20 List of courses Total of all courses (min) Specialist thesis Hours (lecture+seminars) 60
Postgraduate studies_lessons learned 1. Interest for postgraduate studies at technical faculties -There is a high interest for continuation of studies -Enrolment quota has been achieved 2. The actual study Regular classes-the main interest of students Independent research work- must be encouraged constantly Obligation for progress-year by year Study must be finished in seven years 3. Study completion Problems with specialization field for doctoral thesis Lack of employer’s support Employment of a future doctor of technical sciences?
CONSTATATIONS Still not enough interaction between : Science-Technology-Economy-Society ü Links between Education & Industry : Academic & Professional mobility üStill not enough Autonomy & Flexibility
Teacher’s expertise 1 • Engineering faculties should teach students to be good engineers! – Is a teacher without engineering experience capable of educating good engineers? • Faculties and industry need the interaction! – It could be achieved if professor has been working for the industry (or if faculties are better equipped). – Industry and Technical faculties need to work in close cooperation and students should be taught on real problems by doing (project based learning, student associations, practical trainings, … with feedback & coaching • Do teachers without practical experience broaden the gap between university and industry?
Teacher’s expertise 2 • Teacher at the university is promoted on the basis of his scientific achievements – In the same way as scientists at research institutes whose only job is research! Bologna requires more work with the students that is not valued for teacher’s promotion. • Technical sciences and our industry are placed in unfavorable position as the promotional criteria are developed for fundamental and biomedical sciences for the people working at the research institutes! • Research projects are required for education of the research novices and for the renewal of the schools – In order to get a research project scientific achievements are required (published papers); – The experience at the industry (inventions) is neither required nor valued;
Teacher’s expertise 3 • Is the only relevant criteria for a good teacher at the technical university publication of CC or SCI paper? – Is internationally referred article more valued than design and construction of the most complex products (machines, buildings, bridges, . . . ) • What are the benefits of the published papers for Croatia and its industry when we have none internationally recognized journals (in CE)? • If we want to maintain the connection with industry we should value the practical experience as advantageous for teachers reelection!
Tacher’s expertise 4 • Is it good to educate your own professors (student at Uni -OS, Ph. D. At Uni-Os, teacher at Uni-Os)? – The mobility of teachers should be promoted/requested! • How to attract the best students to work at the university when their income in industry is bigger through the whole life? • Why is it not possible to work at the university, get out and work for industry (collect some invaluable experience) and come back and work at the university again? – The system should be more flexible! • Today we have a situation that a scientific novice, who has started to work at the university, already sees himself as a full professor. His practical experience (important in engineering) is rather limited! – We promote bureaucrats (collecting papers) instead of innovation driven researchers !
Scientific work at the technical facultiesproblems 1 • Fundamental and applied research (industry supported) at universities is impossible without modern equipment and without funding! • The research projects and equipment for teaching and research are distributed based on the previous research records (published papers) – That makes the advancement of new universities impossible! • If you have no previous research record, you are not going to get a support, and without equipment you cannot improve your record which closes the circle.
Scientific work at the technical facultiesproblems 2 • Universities are government owned and industry is mostly private! – Private firms in Croatia invest only in what is required by the law (standard tests and certificates)! For these jobs faculties are not prepared! • There has been large investment in the Croatian infrastructure in the past years! – Which part of it is invested in fundamental or applied research through the universities and how many new materials, technologies and inventions were made? • How many big construction companies invest in new technologies!
Devising Strategies To Be At The Forefront Of Knowledge Creation. . . In The FUTURE • A multi-tier mechanism for monitoring quality on a continuous basis: • Tier 1: International benchmarking through accreditation. Community of self-motivated high-caliber constituents is the core element of the design but monitoring quality is essential for benchmarking the results and preventing digressions at every level • Tier 2: Discipline of the market place as measured by ability to attract best students, faculty, entrepreneurs, international partners. Transparency as a disciplining device. Market demand to gauge its quality. Generating the metrics for measuring market assessment of quality is a key policy • Tier 3: Faculty administration as the last resort supervisor of quality. Administration itself is responsible for monitoring the quality of education, research and services provided within the university and to the outside world
We are Student Oriented