Скачать презентацию Bluetooth Idea q q q Universal radio interface Скачать презентацию Bluetooth Idea q q q Universal radio interface

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Bluetooth Idea q q q Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting computer Bluetooth Idea q q q Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting computer and peripherals, handheld devices, PDAs, cell phones – replacement of Ir. DA Embedded in other devices, goal: 5€/device (2005: 40€/USB bluetooth) Short range (10 m), low power consumption, license-free 2. 45 GHz ISM Voice and data transmission, approx. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate One of the first modules (Ericsson). Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 1

Bluetooth History q q q 1994: Ericsson (Mattison/Haartsen), “MC-link” project Renaming of the project: Bluetooth History q q q 1994: Ericsson (Mattison/Haartsen), “MC-link” project Renaming of the project: Bluetooth according to Harald “Blåtand” Gormsen [son of Gorm], King of Denmark in the 10 th century (was: ) 1998: foundation of Bluetooth SIG, www. bluetooth. org 1999: erection of a rune stone at Ericsson/Lund ; -) 2001: first consumer products for mass market, spec. version 1. 1 released 2005: 5 million chips/week Special Interest Group Original founding members: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba q Added promoters: 3 Com, Agere (was: Lucent), Microsoft, Motorola q > 2500 members q Common specification and certification of products q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 2

History and hi-tech… 1999: Ericsson mobile communications AB reste denna sten till minne av History and hi-tech… 1999: Ericsson mobile communications AB reste denna sten till minne av Harald Blåtand, som fick ge sitt namn åt en ny teknologi för trådlös, mobil kommunikation. Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 3

…and the real rune stone Located in Jelling, Denmark, erected by King Harald “Blåtand” …and the real rune stone Located in Jelling, Denmark, erected by King Harald “Blåtand” in memory of his parents. The stone has three sides – one side showing a picture of Christ. Inscription: "Harald king executes these sepulchral monuments after Gorm, his father and Thyra, his mother. The Harald who won the whole of Denmark and Norway and turned the Danes to Christianity. " Btw: Blåtand means “of dark complexion” (not having a blue tooth…) This could be the “original” colors of the stone. Inscription: “auk tani karthi kristna” (and made the Danes Christians) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 4

Characteristics 2. 4 GHz ISM band, 79 (23) RF channels, 1 MHz carrier spacing Characteristics 2. 4 GHz ISM band, 79 (23) RF channels, 1 MHz carrier spacing Channel 0: 2402 MHz … channel 78: 2480 MHz q G-FSK modulation, 1 -100 m. W transmit power q FHSS and TDD Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/s q Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion, determined by a master q Time division duplex for send/receive separation q Voice link – SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) q FEC (forward error correction), no retransmission, 64 kbit/s duplex, point-to -point, circuit switched Data link – ACL (Asynchronous Connection. Less) q Asynchronous, fast acknowledge, point-to-multipoint, up to 433. 9 kbit/s symmetric or 723. 2/57. 6 kbit/s asymmetric, packet switched Topology q Overlapping piconets (stars) forming a scatternet Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 5

Piconet Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion P One unit acts Piconet Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion P One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet S S M Master determines hopping pattern, slaves have to synchronize SB S P Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence P M=Master S=Slave SB P=Parked SB=Standby Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves (> 200 could be parked) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 6

Forming a piconet All devices in a piconet hop together q Master gives slaves Forming a piconet All devices in a piconet hop together q Master gives slaves its clock and device ID Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit, unique worldwide) l Phase in hopping pattern determined by clock l Addressing Active Member Address (AMA, 3 bit) q Parked Member Address (PMA, 8 bit) q SB SB SB SB S SB SB SB Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 P S M P S P SB 7. 7

Scatternet Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave Scatternet Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices q Devices can be slave in one piconet and master of another Communication between piconets q Devices jumping back and forth between the piconets P S S S P P M Piconets (each with a capacity of 720 kbit/s) M SB M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby S P SB Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ SB S MC SS 05 7. 8

Bluetooth protocol stack audio apps. NW apps. v. Cal/v. Card TCP/UDP telephony apps. OBEX Bluetooth protocol stack audio apps. NW apps. v. Cal/v. Card TCP/UDP telephony apps. OBEX AT modem commands IP BNEP PPP mgmnt. apps. TCS BIN SDP Control RFCOMM (serial line interface) Audio Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L 2 CAP) Link Manager Baseband Radio AT: attention sequence OBEX: object exchange TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification – binary BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ SDP: service discovery protocol RFCOMM: radio frequency comm. MC SS 05 7. 9 Host Controller Interface

Frequency selection during data transmission 625 µs fk M fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 fk+4 fk+5 Frequency selection during data transmission 625 µs fk M fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 fk+4 fk+5 fk+6 S M S M t fk fk+3 fk+4 fk+5 fk+6 M S M t fk fk+1 M fk+6 S M t Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 10

Baseband Piconet/channel definition Low-level packet definition q Access code l q Channel, device access, Baseband Piconet/channel definition Low-level packet definition q Access code l q Channel, device access, e. g. , derived from master Packet header l 1/3 -FEC, active member address (broadcast + 7 slaves), link type, alternating bit ARQ/SEQ, checksum 68(72) 54 0 -2745 access code packet header 4 preamble 64 sync. (4) 3 (trailer) AM address bits payload 4 1 1 1 8 type flow ARQN SEQN HEC Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 11 bits

SCO payload types payload (30) HV 1 audio (10) HV 2 audio (20) HV SCO payload types payload (30) HV 1 audio (10) HV 2 audio (20) HV 3 DV FEC (20) FEC (10) audio (30) audio (10) header (1) payload (0 -9) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) (bytes) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 12

ACL Payload types payload (0 -343) header (1/2) DM 1 header (1) DH 1 ACL Payload types payload (0 -343) header (1/2) DM 1 header (1) DH 1 header (1) DM 3 header (2) DH 3 header (2) DM 5 header (2) DH 5 header (2) AUX 1 header (1) payload (0 -339) payload (0 -17) 2/3 FEC payload (0 -27) payload (0 -121) CRC (2) (bytes) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) payload (0 -183) CRC (2) payload (0 -224) 2/3 FEC payload (0 -339) CRC (2) payload (0 -29) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 13

Baseband data rates SCO DM 1 1 0 -17 2/3 yes 108. 8 1 Baseband data rates SCO DM 1 1 0 -17 2/3 yes 108. 8 1 0 -27 no yes 172. 8 DM 3 2 0 -121 2/3 yes 258. 1 387. 2 54. 4 DH 3 2 0 -183 no yes 390. 4 585. 6 86. 4 DM 5 2 0 -224 2/3 yes 286. 7 477. 8 36. 3 DH 5 2 0 -339 no yes 433. 9 723. 2 57. 6 1 0 -29 no no 185. 6 na 10 1/3 no 64. 0 HV 2 na 20 2/3 no 64. 0 HV 3 na 30 no no 64. 0 DV 5 slot CRC HV 1 3 slot FEC AUX 1 1 slot Type Symmetric Asymmetric max. Rate [kbit/s] Forward Reverse DH 1 ACL Payload User Header Payload [byte] 1 D 10+(0 -9) D 2/3 D yes D 64. 0+57. 6 D Data Medium/High rate, High-quality Voice, Data and Voice Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 14

Baseband link types Polling-based TDD packet transmission q 625µs slots, master polls slaves SCO Baseband link types Polling-based TDD packet transmission q 625µs slots, master polls slaves SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) – Voice q Periodic single slot packet assignment, 64 kbit/s full-duplex, point-to-point ACL (Asynchronous Connection. Less) – Data q MASTER SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 Variable packet size (1, 3, 5 slots), asymmetric bandwidth, point-to-multipoint SCO f 0 ACL f 4 SCO f 6 f 1 ACL f 8 f 7 SCO f 12 f 9 ACL f 14 f 13 ACL f 20 f 19 f 17 f 5 Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ SCO f 18 MC SS 05 f 21 7. 15

Robustness Slow frequency hopping with hopping patterns determined by a master Protection from interference Robustness Slow frequency hopping with hopping patterns determined by a master Protection from interference on certain frequencies q Separation from other piconets (FH-CDMA) q Retransmission q Error in payload (not header!) ACL only, very fast Forward Error Correction q MASTER SLAVE 1 NAK SCO and ACL A C B C D F ACK H E SLAVE 2 Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ G MC SS 05 G 7. 16

Baseband states of a Bluetooth device unconnected standby detach inquiry transmit AMA park PMA Baseband states of a Bluetooth device unconnected standby detach inquiry transmit AMA park PMA page connected AMA hold AMA Standby: do nothing Inquire: search for other devices Page: connect to a specific device Connected: participate in a piconet sniff AMA connecting active low power Park: release AMA, get PMA Sniff: listen periodically, not each slot Hold: stop ACL, SCO still possible, possibly participate in another piconet Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 17

Example: Power consumption/CSR Blue. Core 2 Typical Average Current Consumption (1) VDD=1. 8 V Example: Power consumption/CSR Blue. Core 2 Typical Average Current Consumption (1) VDD=1. 8 V Temperature = 20°C Mode SCO connection HV 3 (1 s interval Sniff Mode) (Slave) 26. 0 m. A SCO connection HV 3 (1 s interval Sniff Mode) (Master) 26. 0 m. A SCO connection HV 1 (Slave) 53. 0 m. A SCO connection HV 1 (Master) 53. 0 m. A ACL data transfer 115. 2 kbps UART (Master) 15. 5 m. A ACL data transfer 720 kbps USB (Slave) 53. 0 m. A ACL data transfer 720 kbps USB (Master) 53. 0 m. A ACL connection, Sniff Mode 40 ms interval, 38. 4 kbps UART 4. 0 m. A ACL connection, Sniff Mode 1. 28 s interval, 38. 4 kbps UART 0. 5 m. A Parked Slave, 1. 28 s beacon interval, 38. 4 kbps UART 0. 6 m. A Standby Mode (Connected to host, no RF activity) 47. 0 µA Deep Sleep Mode(2) 20. 0 µA Notes: (1) Current consumption is the sum of both BC 212015 A and the flash. (2) Current consumption is for the BC 212015 A device only. (More: www. csr. com ) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 18

Example: Bluetooth/USB adapter (2002: 50€) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ Example: Bluetooth/USB adapter (2002: 50€) Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 19

L 2 CAP - Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Simple data link protocol L 2 CAP - Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Simple data link protocol on top of baseband Connection oriented, connectionless, and signalling channels Protocol multiplexing q RFCOMM, SDP, telephony control Segmentation & reassembly q Up to 64 kbyte user data, 16 bit CRC used from baseband Qo. S flow specification per channel q Follows RFC 1363, specifies delay, jitter, bursts, bandwidth Group abstraction q Create/close group, add/remove member Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 20

L 2 CAP logical channels Master Slave L 2 CAP 2 d 1 1 L 2 CAP logical channels Master Slave L 2 CAP 2 d 1 1 d d 1 baseband signalling L 2 CAP 1 baseband ACL baseband connectionless Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ connection-oriented MC SS 05 7. 21 d d 2

L 2 CAP packet formats Connectionless PDU 2 2 length 2 PSM CID=2 0 L 2 CAP packet formats Connectionless PDU 2 2 length 2 PSM CID=2 0 -65533 payload Connection-oriented PDU 2 2 length bytes 0 -65535 CID bytes payload Signalling command PDU 2 2 length CID=1 bytes One or more commands 1 1 2 0 code ID length data Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 22

Security User input (initialization) PIN (1 -16 byte) Pairing PIN (1 -16 byte) E Security User input (initialization) PIN (1 -16 byte) Pairing PIN (1 -16 byte) E 2 Authentication key generation (possibly permanent storage) E 2 link key (128 bit) Authentication link key (128 bit) E 3 Encryption key generation (temporary storage) E 3 encryption key (128 bit) Encryption encryption key (128 bit) Keystream generator payload key Ciphering payload key Cipher data Data Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 23

SDP – Service Discovery Protocol Inquiry/response protocol for discovering services q q q Searching SDP – Service Discovery Protocol Inquiry/response protocol for discovering services q q q Searching for and browsing services in radio proximity Adapted to the highly dynamic environment Can be complemented by others like SLP, Jini, Salutation, … Defines discovery only, not the usage of services Caching of discovered services Gradual discovery Service record format Information about services provided by attributes q Attributes are composed of an 16 bit ID (name) and a value q values may be derived from 128 bit Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID) q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 24

Additional protocols to support legacy protocols/apps. RFCOMM Emulation of a serial port (supports a Additional protocols to support legacy protocols/apps. RFCOMM Emulation of a serial port (supports a large base of legacy applications) q Allows multiple ports over a single physical channel q Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) Call control (setup, release) q Group management q OBEX q Exchange of objects, Ir. DA replacement WAP q Interacting with applications on cellular phones Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 25

Profiles Represent default solutions for a certain usage model Vertical slice through the protocol Profiles Represent default solutions for a certain usage model Vertical slice through the protocol stack q Basis for interoperability Applications Protocols q Generic Access Profile Service Discovery Application Profile Cordless Telephony Profile Intercom Profile Serial Port Profile Additional Profiles Headset Profile Advanced Audio Distribution Dial-up Networking Profile PAN Fax Profile Audio Video Remote Control LAN Access Profile Basic Printing Generic Object Exchange Profile Basic Imaging Object Push Profile Extended Service Discovery File Transfer Profile Generic Audio Video Distribution Synchronization Profile Hands Free Hardcopy Cable Replacement Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 26 Profiles

WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 -1 – Bluetooth Data rate Synchronous, connection-oriented: 64 kbit/s q WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 -1 – Bluetooth Data rate Synchronous, connection-oriented: 64 kbit/s q Asynchronous, connectionless Connection set-up time Depends on power-mode q Max. 2. 56 s, avg. 0. 64 s q l 433. 9 kbit/s symmetric l 723. 2 / 57. 6 kbit/s asymmetric Transmission range POS (Personal Operating Space) up to 10 m q with special transceivers up to 100 m q Quality of Service q Manageability q q Free 2. 4 GHz ISM-band Security q Challenge/response (SAFER+), hopping sequence Availability q Public/private keys needed, key management not specified, simple system integration Special Advantages/Disadvantages Frequency q Guarantees, ARQ/FEC Integrated into many products, several vendors Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ Advantage: already integrated into several products, available worldwide, free ISM-band, several vendors, simple system, simple ad-hoc networking, peer to peer, scatternets q Disadvantage: interference on ISM-band, limited range, max. 8 devices/network&master, high set-up latency q MC SS 05 7. 27

WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 1 802. 15 -2: Coexistance q Coexistence WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 1 802. 15 -2: Coexistance q Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area Networks (802. 15) and Wireless Local Area Networks (802. 11), quantify the mutual interference 802. 15 -3: High-Rate q q q q Standard for high-rate (20 Mbit/s or greater) WPANs, while still lowpower/low-cost Data Rates: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55 Mbit/s Quality of Service isochronous protocol Ad hoc peer-to-peer networking Security Low power consumption Low cost Designed to meet the demanding requirements of portable consumer imaging and multimedia applications Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 28

WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 2 Several working groups extend the 802. WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 2 Several working groups extend the 802. 15. 3 standard 802. 15. 3 a: Alternative PHY with higher data rate as extension to 802. 15. 3 q Applications: multimedia, picture transmission q 802. 15. 3 b: Enhanced interoperability of MAC q Correction of errors and ambiguities in the standard q 802. 15. 3 c: Alternative PHY at 57 -64 GHz q Goal: data rates above 2 Gbit/s q Not all these working groups really create a standard, not all standards will be found in products later … Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 29

WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 3 802. 15 -4: Low-Rate, Very Low-Power WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 3 802. 15 -4: Low-Rate, Very Low-Power q q q Low data rate solution with multi-month to multi-year battery life and very low complexity Potential applications are sensors, interactive toys, smart badges, remote controls, and home automation Data rates of 20 -250 kbit/s, latency down to 15 ms Master-Slave or Peer-to-Peer operation Up to 254 devices or 64516 simpler nodes Support for critical latency devices, such as joysticks CSMA/CA channel access (data centric), slotted (beacon) or unslotted Automatic network establishment by the PAN coordinator Dynamic device addressing, flexible addressing format Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability Power management to ensure low power consumption 16 channels in the 2. 4 GHz ISM band, 10 channels in the 915 MHz US ISM band one channel in the European 868 MHz band Basis of the Zig. Bee technology – www. zigbee. org Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 30

Zig. Bee Relation to 802. 15. 4 similar to Bluetooth / 802. 15. 1 Zig. Bee Relation to 802. 15. 4 similar to Bluetooth / 802. 15. 1 Pushed by Chipcon, ember, freescale (Motorola), Honeywell, Mitsubishi, Motorola, Philips, Samsung More than 150 members q Promoter (40000$/Jahr), Participant (9500$/Jahr), Adopter (3500$/Jahr) No free access to the specifications (only promoters and participants) Zig. Bee platforms comprise IEEE 802. 15. 4 for layers 1 and 2 q Zig. Bee protocol stack up to the applications q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 31

WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 4 Several working groups extend the 802. WPAN: IEEE 802. 15 – future developments 4 Several working groups extend the 802. 15. 4 standard 802. 15. 4 a: Alternative PHY with lower data rate as extension to 802. 15. 4 Properties: precise localization (< 1 m precision), extremely low power consumption, longer range q Two PHY alternatives q q l UWB (Ultra Wideband): ultra short pulses, communication and localization l CSS (Chirp Spread Spectrum): communication only 802. 15. 4 b: q q Extensions, corrections, and clarifications regarding 802. 15. 4 Usage of new bands, more flexible security mechanisms 802. 15. 5: Mesh Networking q q Partial meshes, full meshes Range extension, more robustness, longer battery live Not all these working groups really create a standard, not all standards will be found in products later … Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 32

Some more IEEE standards for mobile communications IEEE 802. 16: Broadband Wireless Access / Some more IEEE standards for mobile communications IEEE 802. 16: Broadband Wireless Access / Wireless. MAN / Wi. Max Wireless distribution system, e. g. , for the last mile, alternative to DSL q 75 Mbit/s up to 50 km LOS, up to 10 km NLOS; 2 -66 GHz band q Initial standards without roaming or mobility support q 802. 16 e adds mobility support, allows for roaming at 150 km/h q l Unclear relation to 802. 20, 802. 16 started as fixed system… IEEE 802. 20: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) Licensed bands < 3. 5 GHz, optimized for IP traffic q Peak rate > 1 Mbit/s per user q Different mobility classes up to 250 km/h and ranges up to 15 km q IEEE 802. 21: Media Independent Handover Interoperability q Standardize handover between different 802. x and/or non 802 networks IEEE 802. 22: Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) q Radio-based PHY/MAC for use by license-exempt devices on a noninterfering basis in spectrum that is allocated to the TV Broadcast Service Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 33

WLAN: Home RF – yet another standard, no success Data rate q 0. 8, WLAN: Home RF – yet another standard, no success Data rate q 0. 8, 1. 6, 5, 10 Mbit/s Transmission range q 2. 4 GHz ISM Security q q Strong encryption, no open access q q Like DECT & 802 -LANs Special Advantages/Disadvantages Advantage: extended Qo. S support, host/client and peer/peer, power saving, security q Disadvantage: future uncertain due to DECT-only devices plus 802. 11 a/b for data q Adapter 130€, base station 230€ Availability q Up to 8 streams A/V, up to 8 voice streams, priorities, best-effort Manageability Cost q 10 ms bounded latency Quality of Service 300 m outdoor, 30 m indoor Frequency q Connection set-up time Several products from different vendors, no more support Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 34

RF Controllers – ISM bands Data rate q Typ. up to 115 kbit/s (serial RF Controllers – ISM bands Data rate q Typ. up to 115 kbit/s (serial interface) Transmission range q 5 -100 m, depending on power (typ. 10 -500 m. W) Connection set-up time q Quality of Service q Typ. 27 (EU, US), 315 (US), 418 (EU), 426 (Japan), 433 (EU), 868 (EU), 915 (US) MHz (depending on regulations) q Some products with added processors Cost q Cheap: 10€-50€ Availability q Very simple, same as serial interface Special Advantages/Disadvantages Security q none Manageability Frequency q N/A Advantage: very low cost, large experience, high volume available q Disadvantage: no Qo. S, crowded ISM bands (particularly 27 and 433 MHz), typ. no Medium Access Control, 418 MHz experiences interference with TETRA q Many products, many vendors Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 35

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (1) Data rate Transmission of ID only (e. g. RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (1) Data rate Transmission of ID only (e. g. , 48 bit, 64 kbit, 1 Mbit) q 9. 6 – 115 kbit/s Connection set-up time q Transmission range Passive: up to 3 m q Active: up to 30 -100 m q Simultaneous detection of up to, e. g. , 256 tags, scanning of, e. g. , 40 tags/s q Frequency q q Quality of Service q q Very simple, same as serial interface Special Advantages/Disadvantages Security Application dependent, typ. no crypt. on RFID device q none Manageability 125 k. Hz, 13. 56 MHz, 433 MHz, 2. 4 GHz, 5. 8 GHz and many others q Depends on product/medium access scheme (typ. 2 ms per device) Very cheap tags, down to 1€ (passive) Cost Advantage: extremely low cost, large experience, high volume available, no power for passive RFIDs needed, large variety of products, relative speeds up to 300 km/h, broad temp. range q Disadvantage: no Qo. S, simple denial of service, crowded ISM bands, typ. oneway (activation/ transmission of ID) q Availability q Many products, many vendors Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 36

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (2) Function Standard: In response to a radio interrogation RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (2) Function Standard: In response to a radio interrogation signal from a reader (base station) the RFID tags transmit their ID q Enhanced: additionally data can be sent to the tags, different media access schemes (collision avoidance) q Features No line-of sight required (compared to, e. g. , laser scanners) q RFID tags withstand difficult environmental conditions (sunlight, cold, frost, dirt etc. ) q Products available with read/write memory, smart-card capabilities q Categories Passive RFID: operating power comes from the reader over the air which is feasible up to distances of 3 m, low price (1€) q Active RFID: battery powered, distances up to 100 m q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 37

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (3) Applications Total asset visibility: tracking of goods during RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (3) Applications Total asset visibility: tracking of goods during manufacturing, localization of pallets, goods etc. q Loyalty cards: customers use RFID tags for payment at, e. g. , gas stations, collection of buying patterns q Automated toll collection: RFIDs mounted in windshields allow commuters to drive through toll plazas without stopping q Others: access control, animal identification, tracking of hazardous material, inventory control, warehouse management, . . . q Local Positioning Systems GPS useless indoors or underground, problematic in cities with high buildings q RFID tags transmit signals, receivers estimate the tag location by measuring the signal‘s time of flight q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 38

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (4) Security q Denial-of-Service attacks are always possible l RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (4) Security q Denial-of-Service attacks are always possible l Interference of the wireless transmission, shielding of transceivers IDs via manufacturing or one time programming q Key exchange via, e. g. , RSA possible, encryption via, e. g. , AES q Future Trends RTLS: Real-Time Locating System – big efforts to make total asset visibility come true q Integration of RFID technology into the manufacturing, distribution and logistics chain q Creation of „electronic manifests“ at item or package level (embedded inexpensive passive RFID tags) q 3 D tracking of children, patients q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 39

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (5) Devices and Companies q q q q q RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (5) Devices and Companies q q q q q AXCESS Inc. , www. axcessinc. com Checkpoint Systems Group, www. checkpointsystems. com GEMPLUS, www. gemplus. com/app/smart_tracking Intermec/Intellitag, www. intermec. com I-Ray Technologies, www. i-ray. com RF Code, www. rfcode. com Texas Instruments, www. ti-rfid. com/id Where. Net, www. wherenet. com Wireless Mountain, www. wirelessmountain. com XCI, www. xci-inc. com Only a very small selection… Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 40

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (6) Example Product: Intermec RFID UHF OEM Reader q RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (6) Example Product: Intermec RFID UHF OEM Reader q q q Read range up to 7 m Anticollision algorithm allows for scanning of 40 tags per second regardless of the number of tags within the reading zone US: unlicensed 915 MHz, Frequency Hopping Read: 8 byte < 32 ms Write: 1 byte < 100 ms Example Product: Wireless Mountain Spider q q q Proprietary sparse code anti-collision algorithm Detection range 15 m indoor, 100 m line-of-sight > 1 billion distinct codes Read rate > 75 tags/s Operates at 308 MHz Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 41

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (7) Relevant Standards q American National Standards Institute l RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (7) Relevant Standards q American National Standards Institute l q Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques l q ISO TC 104 / SC 4, www. autoid. org/tc 104_sc 4_wg 2. htm, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/TC 104. htm Road Transport and Traffic Telematics l q JTC 1/SC 17, www. sc 17. com, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/sc 17. htm, Identification and communication l q ETSI, www. etsi. org, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/ETSI. htm Identification Cards and related devices l q ERO, www. ero. dk, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/ERO. htm European Telecommunications Standards Institute l q JTC 1/SC 31, www. uc-council. com/sc 31/home. htm, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/sc 31. htm European Radiocommunications Office l q ANSI, www. ansi. org, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/ANSIT 6. html CEN TC 278, www. nni. nl, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/CENTC 278. htm Transport Information and Control Systems l ISO/TC 204, www. sae. org/technicalcommittees/gits. htm, www. aimglobal. org/standards/rfidstds/ISOTC 204. htm Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 42

RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (8) ISO Standards q ISO 15418 MH 10. 8. RFID – Radio Frequency Identification (8) ISO Standards q ISO 15418 MH 10. 8. 2 Data Identifiers l EAN. UCC Application Identifiers l ISO 15434 - Syntax for High Capacity ADC Media q ISO 15962 - Transfer Syntax q ISO 18000 q l l l Part 2, 125 -135 k. Hz Part 3, 13. 56 MHz Part 4, 2. 45 GHz Part 5, 5. 8 GHz Part 6, UHF (860 -930 MHz, 433 MHz) ISO 18047 - RFID Device Conformance Test Methods q ISO 18046 - RF Tag and Interrogator Performance Test Methods q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 43

ISM band interference OLD Many sources of interference q q q Microwave ovens, microwave ISM band interference OLD Many sources of interference q q q Microwave ovens, microwave lightning 802. 11, 802. 11 b, 802. 11 g, 802. 15, Home RF Even analog TV transmission, surveillance Unlicensed metropolitan area networks … NEW Levels of interference q Physical layer: interference acts like noise Spread spectrum tries to minimize this l FEC/interleaving tries to correct l q MAC layer: algorithms not harmonized l © Fusion Lighting, Inc. E. g. , Bluetooth might confuse 802. 11 Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 44

802. 11 vs. (? ) 802. 15/Bluetooth may act like a rogue member of 802. 11 vs. (? ) 802. 15/Bluetooth may act like a rogue member of the 802. 11 network 100 byte 802. 15. 1 79 channels SIFS ACK 100 byte DIFS SIFS ACK DIFS 100 byte (separated by installation) 500 byte DIFS 100 byte SIFS ACK 500 byte SIFS ACK DIFS 2402 100 byte DIFS 500 byte SIFS ACK DIFS f [MHz] q Does not know anything about gaps, inter frame spacing etc. 802. 11 b 2480 3 channels 1000 byte (separated by hopping pattern) t IEEE 802. 15 -2 discusses these problems q Proposal: Adaptive Frequency Hopping l a non-collaborative Coexistence Mechanism Real effects? Many different opinions, publications, tests, formulae, … Results from complete breakdown to almost no effect q Bluetooth (FHSS) seems more robust than 802. 11 b (DSSS) q Prof. Dr. -Ing. Jochen Schiller, http: //www. jochenschiller. de/ MC SS 05 7. 45