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Biscuitroot, Beardtongue, Buckwheat and Beyond Ann De. Bolt and Nancy L. Shaw USDA-FS Rocky Biscuitroot, Beardtongue, Buckwheat and Beyond Ann De. Bolt and Nancy L. Shaw USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID Greg H. Lowry Idaho Crop Improvement Association

USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project Supported USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project Supported by: USDI BLM Great Basin Restoration and Native Plant Initiatives Objective: Increase seed supplies of native plant species, particularly forbs, for the Great Basin

The Great Basin BLM 75 million acres FS 20 million acres (Cronquist et al. The Great Basin BLM 75 million acres FS 20 million acres (Cronquist et al. 1972)

RMRS - Boise Penstemon - BEARDTONGUE • P. acuminatus – sand • P. deustus RMRS - Boise Penstemon - BEARDTONGUE • P. acuminatus – sand • P. deustus – scabland • P. speciosus – sagebrush Lomatium - BISCUITROOT • L. dissectum - fernleaf • L. grayi - Gray’s • L. triternatum – nineleaf Eriogonum – BUCKWHEAT • E. umbellatum – sulfur

Penstemon - BEARDTONGUE • 3 rd largest genus in Intermountain region (Scrophulariaceae) • Approx. Penstemon - BEARDTONGUE • 3 rd largest genus in Intermountain region (Scrophulariaceae) • Approx. 250 species • Showy tubular flowers • 4 fertile stamens & 1 bearded stamen (“beardtongue”) • Common forb in rangelands • Insect pollinated, particularly bees • Wildlife forage

Cultural Practices • Cultivated for many years • Generally easy to grow, harvest, and Cultural Practices • Cultivated for many years • Generally easy to grow, harvest, and manage • Seed production by 2 nd year, earlier than some forbs • Seed dormancy; sow in fall for cold stratification • Seed easily cleaned to a purity of 90+ percent • 225, 000 – 500, 000+ seeds/lb • Can be seeded in mixtures with most other herbs • Will hybridize

Penstemon acuminatus Sand penstemon Sandy soils at low elevations (650 -1400 m) Short-lived perennial Penstemon acuminatus Sand penstemon Sandy soils at low elevations (650 -1400 m) Short-lived perennial (2 -6 dm) Flowers pale blue (April, May) Capsules open soon after ripening (550, 000/lb)

Penstemon speciosus (Sagebrush penstemon) Distribution, Habitat, and Collection Sites Boise Burns OREGON NEVADA Loamy Penstemon speciosus (Sagebrush penstemon) Distribution, Habitat, and Collection Sites Boise Burns OREGON NEVADA Loamy soils from 1200 -3300 m Short-lived perennial (4 dm) Wide-ranging species Blue-violet flowers (May-June) Capsules retain seed longer than previous sp. (508, 000/lb)

Penstemon deustus Scabland or hot-rock penstemon Variable sites and habitats, often rocky (800 -2, Penstemon deustus Scabland or hot-rock penstemon Variable sites and habitats, often rocky (800 -2, 550 m) Perennial with woody base (4 dm) Small white flowers (May, June) Wide ecological amplitude; 2 vars. in Intermountain Region Capsules remain closed at maturity (2, 900, 000/lb)

RESULTS Common gardens in ID, OR, NV - 2003 -2006 Well drained soils essential RESULTS Common gardens in ID, OR, NV - 2003 -2006 Well drained soils essential due to damping off Developed TZ testing, cleaning protocols

 • Long stratification required: deustus 10% acuminatus 14% speciosus 33% with 12 week • Long stratification required: deustus 10% acuminatus 14% speciosus 33% with 12 week treatment • Dormancy related to environmental conditions • GA 3 reduces dormancy • P. deustus more responsive to GA 3 than P. acuminatus • Pollinators not limited

Lomatium spp. ØL. dissectum ØL. grayi ØL. triternatum Fernleaf biscuitroot Gray’s biscuitroot Nineleaf biscuitroot Lomatium spp. ØL. dissectum ØL. grayi ØL. triternatum Fernleaf biscuitroot Gray’s biscuitroot Nineleaf biscuitroot

Lomatium - BISCUITROOT – 70 species in west/central N. America (Apiaceae) – Perennial herb, Lomatium - BISCUITROOT – 70 species in west/central N. America (Apiaceae) – Perennial herb, taproot often highly thickened – Individual flowers small, united in umbel – Flowers yellow (white); early spring growth – Pollinators - solitary bees – Common forb in rangelands – High forage value

Cultural Practices – Still learning how to grow & manage for seed production – Cultural Practices – Still learning how to grow & manage for seed production – Large seed, easily harvested, easily cleaned w/uniform ripening* – 30, 000 -50, 000 seeds/lb – Early phenology - short irrigation season – Seed dormancy; sow in fall for cold stratification – Hybridization uncommon

Lomatium dissectum Fernleaf biscuitroot Large perennial (1. 5 m) with large, thickened woody taproot Lomatium dissectum Fernleaf biscuitroot Large perennial (1. 5 m) with large, thickened woody taproot Widespread on variable soils, medium to coarse 700 -2600 m Leaves dissected Yellow (purple) flowers; early phenology (April-May)

Lomatium grayi Gray’s biscuitroot Rocky sites to moderately heavy soils 700 -2800 m Strong, Lomatium grayi Gray’s biscuitroot Rocky sites to moderately heavy soils 700 -2800 m Strong, parsley-like odor; fly pollinated Highly dissected leaves (100 s-1000 s segments) Yellow flowers (April, early May) Harvest seed May/June

Lomatium triternatum Nineleaf biscuitroot Highly variable soils (600 -2700 m) Perennial w/elongate, slightly thickened Lomatium triternatum Nineleaf biscuitroot Highly variable soils (600 -2700 m) Perennial w/elongate, slightly thickened taproot Leaves with minimal dissection Yellow flowers (April) Harvest seed (May/June)

RESULTS • Common garden seeded – fall 2004 • Developed TZ testing, cleaning protocols RESULTS • Common garden seeded – fall 2004 • Developed TZ testing, cleaning protocols – easily cleaned • Seed ripening - L. grayi < L. triternatum < L. dissectum • Early dormancy – no water after dormant • Susceptible to aphids in greenhouse • Long stratification required – immature embryos responsible • Good seed production by 2 nd year

Eriogonum - BUCKWHEAT • 150 species, chiefly in the W. U. S. (Polygonaceae) • Eriogonum - BUCKWHEAT • 150 species, chiefly in the W. U. S. (Polygonaceae) • > 50 species in UT; many endemics • Annual, perennial forb, or subshrub • Flowers small, simple to compoundly umbellate (white, cream, yellow, or pink) • Common rangeland plant • Important nectar source for bees

Cultural Practices • Moderate to well-drained soil • Seed is a 3 -angled achene Cultural Practices • Moderate to well-drained soil • Seed is a 3 -angled achene (120, 000 – 145, 000 seeds/lb) • Easy to collect and clean to 90% purity • Seed matures August/September • At least 2 species have been grown for landscaping • Pollinated by bees, wasps, flies • Ripening uniformity • Seed predators

Eriogonum umbellatum Sulfur buckwheat Common, widespread species with numerous varieties 500 -3100 m on Eriogonum umbellatum Sulfur buckwheat Common, widespread species with numerous varieties 500 -3100 m on variable soil types Yellow flowers – July/August; Harvest – August/Sept. Pollinators various - bees, wasps, flies, others

Erigonum umbellatum collection sites Still in the seed collection phase Common gardens – 2005/2006 Erigonum umbellatum collection sites Still in the seed collection phase Common gardens – 2005/2006 Germination studies A prolific spreader from seed Seed quality and insect predators are problematic

BEYOND? Cooperative Native Seed Increase Program To accelerate development of native forb seed supplies, BEYOND? Cooperative Native Seed Increase Program To accelerate development of native forb seed supplies, RMRS is collaborating with AOSCA & State Foundation Seed agencies in the GB to facilitate seed distribution to private growers.

 • Multi-state, multi-agency effort - facilitates collaboration across state lines with a greater • Multi-state, multi-agency effort - facilitates collaboration across state lines with a greater number of species • Coordinate w/BLM to identify forb species & populations • Coordinate w/State Foundation Seed Agencies to distribute seeds to interested growers

SEED INCREASE PROGRAMS - Cooperative Native Seed Increase Program (RMRS coordinates with BLM on SEED INCREASE PROGRAMS - Cooperative Native Seed Increase Program (RMRS coordinates with BLM on identification of plant materials for increase and w/AOSCA for program admin) - Buy-back Program (RMRS coordinates w/UCIA in Logan, UT for seed increase of plant materials generated by the Great Basin Native Plant Project)

 • Ann De. Bolt adebolt@fs. fed. us • Nancy Shaw nshaw@fs. fed. us • Ann De. Bolt [email protected] fed. us • Nancy Shaw [email protected] fed. us • Greg H. Lowry [email protected] com