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Biomethane as a road transport fuel Steve Carroll Cenex September 2009 Biomethane as a road transport fuel Steve Carroll Cenex September 2009

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Introduction • What is it? • How do Biomethane as a road transport fuel Introduction • What is it? • How do we make it? • How do we store and dispense it into vehicles? • Vehicle technology • Biomethane vehicle emissions • Vehicle availability • Camden biomethane trial • Vehicles in the UK • Cenex biomethane toolkit and calculator capabilities • EU and UK legislation and incentives

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Definition & terminology • Biogas - is used Biomethane as a road transport fuel Definition & terminology • Biogas - is used to describe the gas made in anaerobic digesters or land fill sites typically 65% methane and 35% carbon dioxide, with contaminants in the form of water, hydrogen sulphide and siloxanes CH 4 CO 2 • Biomethane – is upgraded biogas. the upgrade process removes the contaminants and the majority of the carbon dioxide removed. Biomethane is typically 97% methane, 2% carbon dioxide and 1% oxygen CH 4 • Natural gas – is used to describe a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane • Petroleum gas (LPG) - is used to describe a gas produced when refining petroleum, typically supplied as a variable mix of propane and butane. C 3 H 8

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Anaerobic digestion process • Conversion of organic matter Biomethane as a road transport fuel Anaerobic digestion process • Conversion of organic matter to methane and CO 2 -Sewage -Manure -Slurry -Food waste -Slaughter house waste -Organic fraction on municipal solid waste (OFMSW) -Green waste -Energy crops Pre-processing Delivery Photos courtesy of Monsal

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biogas upgrading • Biogas from AD contains ~60% Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biogas upgrading • Biogas from AD contains ~60% methane and 40% CO 2 plus N, O 2, CO, Moisture and contaminants of H 2 S & Siloxanes • Biomethane typically > 96% methane Also, • Pressure swing adsorption • Cryogenic separation

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biomethane storage and dispensing • Station types • Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biomethane storage and dispensing • Station types • Compressed gas (CNG, CBM) Fast fill: Refilling station has a large compressor and storage tanks to hold pre-compressed gas at rising pressures (storage cascades) Slow fill: Overnight fill station compressing gas directly into vehicle tanks • Liquefied gas (LNG, LBM) Refilling station holds liquefied gas in a cryogenic container, Liquid is passed to a similar container on the vehicle • Liquefied and Compressed gas (LCNG or LCBM) Liquefied gas is stored as above, the station

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Vehicle technologies • Dedicated engine SI engine optimised Biomethane as a road transport fuel Vehicle technologies • Dedicated engine SI engine optimised for running on gas. Low noise, low air quality emissions, limited to SI combustion efficiency. • Bi-fuel engine SI engine modified to operated on gas but maintains the ability to run on petrol as a back-up fuelling system • Dual fuel CI engine, vehicle modified to operate on a mixture of gas and diesel. Up to ~ 80% gas substitution achievable. Maintains CI efficiency and ability to operate on diesel fuel. Available as retrofit. Limited CO 2 and noise benefit. Heavy duty applications Light duty applications Heavy duty applications Current use of technologies by vehicle type

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biomethane energy density Relative energy density of road Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biomethane energy density Relative energy density of road fuels

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Carbon emissions • TTW (Tank-to-wheel) considers tail pipe Biomethane as a road transport fuel Carbon emissions • TTW (Tank-to-wheel) considers tail pipe emissions from vehicles • WTW (Well-to-wheel) considers emissions associated with fuel extraction, processing, delivery and dispensing Emission data from CONCAWE, Gasrec analysis from CENEX Camden biomethane study

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Air quality and noise emissions 70 d. B(A) Biomethane as a road transport fuel Air quality and noise emissions 70 d. B(A) Vacuum cleaner 50 d. B(A) Gentle rainfall 60 d. B(A) Dishwasher

Biomethane as a road transport fuel EU Vehicle availability • Light duty • Medium Biomethane as a road transport fuel EU Vehicle availability • Light duty • Medium duty • Heavy duty • Buses

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Worldwide vehicle availability Biomethane as a road transport fuel Worldwide vehicle availability

Biomethane as a road transport fuel UK Vehicle availability and cost Vehicle Example Technology Biomethane as a road transport fuel UK Vehicle availability and cost Vehicle Example Technology Price premium Cars None - - Vans Iveco Daily Mercedes Sprinter Bi fuel Dedicated £ 5000 HGVs Mercedes Econic 18 -26 t Iveco Eurotech 18 -26 t Dedicated £ 21000 £ 23000 HGVs Hardstaff (OIGI) Volvo/DAF/MB/CAT/DE Clean Air Power (Genesis) Dual fuel £ 20000 £ 25000 Buses 2009 Optare solo Dual fuel £ 13000 £ 18000

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Summary • Low carbon fuel • Air quality Biomethane as a road transport fuel Summary • Low carbon fuel • Air quality benefits • Vehicle noise reduction • Reduces waste to landfill • Reduces cost? • dependent on application (annual mileage and mpg) • cost of biomethane vs diesel • asset life

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Performance and reliability • Performance CNG Daily Fuel Biomethane as a road transport fuel Performance and reliability • Performance CNG Daily Fuel consumption 86 km / day 53 km / day (9642 km total) Trial mileage CBG Daily (5590 km total) 26. 3 kg / 100 km 24. 7 kg / 100 km • Reliability • Sustainability

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Sustainability • Performance • Reliability Carbon dioxide emissions Biomethane as a road transport fuel Sustainability • Performance • Reliability Carbon dioxide emissions Emissions kg. CO 2/MJ Emissions Kg CO 2 / kg fuel used WTW kg CO 2 / 100 km CBG 0. 031 1. 40 34. 5 CNG 0. 062 2. 80 76. 0 • Sustainability Air quality emissions G 25 CNG HD g/kwhr Euro VI % reduction CO 1. 15 4 62% NMHC 0. 019 0. 16 88% CH 4 0. 193 0. 5 61% NOx 0. 28 0. 4 30% HC 0. 199 PM 0. 0047 0. 01 53%

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Conclusions • Performance • Reliability • Sustainability • Biomethane as a road transport fuel Conclusions • Performance • Reliability • Sustainability • BM CO 2 saving 56% WTW over CNG • Engine wear and contaminants within normal levels except 2% WC • Reduction in PM and NOx of 30% and 53% against Euro VI legislation • New Iveco Daily displayed 6% improvement in fuel consumption

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Vehicles UK Biomethane as a road transport fuel Vehicles UK

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Toolkit Biomethane as a road transport fuel Toolkit

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Calculator Allows initial bespoke analysis of AD facility Biomethane as a road transport fuel Calculator Allows initial bespoke analysis of AD facility capacity and feedstock required to fuel a transport fleet on biomethane, outputs environmental and cost benefit information Detailed business case. Omits capital and maintenance cost for plant operation and any income generated from landfill tax avoidance • Calculate methane yields from a given type and quantity of feedstock from anaerobic digestion plants • Calculate the heat, power and revenues available from CHP systems • Calculate biomethane available for use as a vehicle fuel accounting for parasitic energy demands of the anaerobic digester and upgrading and compression facilities • Calculate biomethane required to power transportation fleets (dedicated or dual fuel technologies) • Compare environmental and cost implications of running a fleet on biomethane compared with fossil diesel or petrol

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biomethane calculator sample output Biomethane as a road transport fuel Biomethane calculator sample output

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Policy drivers and market instruments • European legislation Biomethane as a road transport fuel Policy drivers and market instruments • European legislation • EU Biofuels Directive - 5. 75% by energy content for 2010 • The Renewable Energy Directive – 10% bio-fuel content by 2020 • European Emissions Trading Scheme – include surface transport post 2012 • EU Landfill Directive – sets landfill reduction target across member states • Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation 2008 (RTFO) • UK Legislation and incentives criteria apply) ~ 9 p/kg 3. 25 % Biofuels April 2010 (Sustainability • Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) Cap and trade system, buy out price £ 150/tonne • Fuel Duty – 19. 2 p/kg biomethane vs 54. 2 p/litre (45. 2 p/kg) for diesel • Bus Service Operators Grant (BSOG) – 6 p/km • • Other fiscal incentives The competition • Biogas can be used to generate electricity – 2 x ROCs = ~10 p/k. Whe • Renewable Heat Incentive due 2011 (consultation) = ~ £ 2. 25 per therm ~ £ 7. 7 p/k. Wh

Biomethane as a road transport fuel Information available from Cenex • Camden biomethane trial Biomethane as a road transport fuel Information available from Cenex • Camden biomethane trial report • www. cenex. co. uk Projects - Biomethane Vehicle Trial • Feasibility study for the installation of a regional AD facility producing biomethane as a road transport fuel • www. cenex. co. uk Consultancy – Regional Anaerobic Digestion Facility • Cenex biomethane toolkit and calculator • www. cenex. co. uk Enquiry form • Request your free copy

Thank you for your attention www. cenex. co. uk Thank you for your attention www. cenex. co. uk