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Biomedical Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Six Canadian Regions Meric S. Gertler Uyen Biomedical Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Six Canadian Regions Meric S. Gertler Uyen Quach Program on Globalization and Regional Innovation Systems Munk Centre for International Studies University of Toronto Presentation to the 7 th Annual ISRN Meeting Renaissance Toronto Hotel Downtown Toronto, Ontario May 5 -6, 2005 Innovation Systems Research Network

The Case Studies • • • Vancouver, British Columbia Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Toronto, Ontario Ottawa, The Case Studies • • • Vancouver, British Columbia Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Toronto, Ontario Ottawa, Ontario Montréal, Québec Halifax, Nova Scotia Innovation Systems Research Network

Definitions • Life Sciences – Broad definition that includes biotechnology, medical and assistive technologies, Definitions • Life Sciences – Broad definition that includes biotechnology, medical and assistive technologies, pharmaceuticals, contract research, bioinformatics, etc. • Biotechnology – OECD (2002): “The application of Science & Technology to living organisms as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or nonliving materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services. ” – Statistics Canada uses similar definition Innovation Systems Research Network

Key Questions • • Composition, specialization, strengths Scale Enabling and triggering forces Current challenges Key Questions • • Composition, specialization, strengths Scale Enabling and triggering forces Current challenges Innovation Systems Research Network

Key Questions II • Role of public intervention – Catalytic, enabling, impeding? – Deliberate, Key Questions II • Role of public intervention – Catalytic, enabling, impeding? – Deliberate, accidental (or both)? – Scale: local, provincial, federal? • Role of civic associations • Talent, finance: local, nonlocal • Importance of local (vs. global) K flows Innovation Systems Research Network

Vancouver: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – QLT Inc. (1981) & UBC’s University-Industry Liaison Vancouver: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – QLT Inc. (1981) & UBC’s University-Industry Liaison Office (UBCUILO) • Specialization – Over ½ of firms in sub-sectors of human health • Characteristics/strengths – – – Fastest growing in Canada based on core biotech firms (E&Y 2002) Represented 70% of all biotech firms in BC (2001) Presence of lead firm (QLT Inc. ) Strong R&D base General and specialized industry associations • Size – Life Sciences firms: 80 -140 – Cdn. biotech firms: 48 – Biotech employees: 1701 (Industry Canada Life Sciences Branch 2005) Innovation Systems Research Network

Vancouver 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Vancouver 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Pharma, toilet. , cosm. & sundries whole. -dist. Semiconductor & other electronic comp. mfg. 3261 3254 3391 3345 Plastic product manufacturing Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg. Medical equipment & supplies mfg. Nav. , measuring, med. & con. instruments mfg 6215 8132 5231 5416 Medical & diagnostic laboratories Grant-making & giving services Sec. & com. contracts intermediation & brok. Mgt, scientific & tech. Consult. serv. Employment Location Quotients 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 External Linkages Source: Data compiled and diagram created by Spencer and Vinodrai 2005. Innovation Systems Research Network

Vancouver: Current Challenges • Research-based cluster with little vertical or horizontal integration: – “…the Vancouver: Current Challenges • Research-based cluster with little vertical or horizontal integration: – “…the BC biotech sector does not manufacture commercial products – its product, if it has one, is intellectual property itself” (Holbrook et al 2004). • Industrial infrastructure – Lacks pharmaceutical base – Reference Drug Program (1995) identified as one factor discouraging pharma firms to come to Vancouver • Is the Vancouver cluster sustainable? – NO: Too dependent on one firm (87% of the cluster’s revenue generated from QLT Inc. ) – YES: “New ideas, new firms, new people will come” (Salazar and Holbrook 2004) Innovation Systems Research Network

Saskatoon: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Canola development (1940 s), Innovation Place (1981), Saskatoon: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Canola development (1940 s), Innovation Place (1981), NRC-PBI (1980 s) • Specialization – Agriculture and related areas • Characteristics/strengths – One of the leading ag-biotech centres in North America – 82% of all biotech firms in Saskatchewan located in Saskatoon (2001) – R&D collaborations between public & private actors – Infrastructural support for firm entrance (Innovation Place) – Presence of large, active and sophisticated group of farmers • Size – Life sciences firms: ~40 – Cdn. biotech firms: 14 (2001); 34 (Saskatchewan, 2003) – Biotech employment: 369 (Industry Canada Life Sciences Branch 2005) Innovation Systems Research Network

Saskatoon 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Saskatoon 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Pharma, toilet. , cosm. & sundries whole. -dist. Semiconductor & other electronic comp. mfg. 3261 3254 3391 3345 Plastic product manufacturing Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg. Medical equipment & supplies mfg. Nav. , measuring, med. & con. instruments mfg 6215 8132 5231 5416 Medical & diagnostic laboratories Grant-making & giving services Sec. & com. contracts intermediation & brok. Mgt, scientific & tech. Consult. serv. Employment Location Quotients 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 External Linkages Source: Data compiled and diagram created by Spencer and Vinodrai 2005. Innovation Systems Research Network

Saskatoon: Current Challenges • Financing a major challenge for firms – Lack of venture Saskatoon: Current Challenges • Financing a major challenge for firms – Lack of venture capital – Too many targeted/tailored government financial programs? • Some firms benefit more than others (Phillips et al 2004) • Cluster potentially in process of change – Major public investments in R&D infrastructure (e. g. CLSI) and various collaborative research projects – Emerging private sector involvement in various stages of product development (Phillips et al 2004) Innovation Systems Research Network

Toronto: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Diverse economy (sophisticated service industries & manufacturing Toronto: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Diverse economy (sophisticated service industries & manufacturing base) and human health research strengths, home to Canada’s pioneering biotechnology firm Allelix • Specialization – Human health ‘megacentre’ (Cooke 2002) • Characteristics/strengths – – – • Robust: diverse & range About 55% of Ontario’s biotech firms (2001) Strong R&D base Canada’s largest financial centre Diverse industry associations Size – Life sciences firms: ~400 – Cdn. biotech firms: 55 (2001) – Biotech employment: 2661 (Industry Canada Life Sciences Branch 2005) Innovation Systems Research Network

Toronto 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Toronto 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Pharma, toilet. , cosm. & sundries whole. -dist. Semiconductor & other electronic comp. mfg. 3261 3254 3391 3345 Plastic product manufacturing Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg. Medical equipment & supplies mfg. Nav. , measuring, med. & con. instruments mfg 6215 8132 5231 5416 Medical & diagnostic laboratories Grant-making & giving services Sec. & com. contracts intermediation & brok. Mgt, scientific & tech. Consult. serv. Employment Location Quotients 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 External Linkages Source: Data compiled and diagram created by Spencer and Vinodrai 2005. Innovation Systems Research Network

Toronto: Current Challenges • Financing Issues – Gap in mid-stage financing for biotech – Toronto: Current Challenges • Financing Issues – Gap in mid-stage financing for biotech – MAT firms are not well-understood by VC – Local VC firms investing internationally • Profile problem – Local: only recognized recently – Internationally: low visibility • Other Challenges – Slow regulatory approval process – dissatisfaction with technology transfer agencies (Gertler and Lowe 2004) Innovation Systems Research Network

Ottawa: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Civic championing for Ottawa Life Sciences Technology Ottawa: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Civic championing for Ottawa Life Sciences Technology Park, entry of MDS Nordion (1991), ICT bust in late 1990 s raises profile of life sciences • Specialization – Non-therapeutic areas: convergent technologies, bioproducts, medical & assistive technologies • Characteristics/strengths – Emergent cluster – ICT spillovers, biomedical applications – Strong R&D base & home to relevant regulatory & funding agencies in life sciences – Ottawa Life Sciences Council – organizational leader • Size – Life sciences firms: 100 -140 – Cdn biotech firms: 10 (2001) – Biotech employment: 736 (Industry Canada Life Sciences Branch 2005) Innovation Systems Research Network

Ottawa 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Ottawa 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Pharma, toilet. , cosm. & sundries whole. -dist. Semiconductor & other electronic comp. mfg. 3261 3254 3391 3345 Plastic product manufacturing Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg. Medical equipment & supplies mfg. Nav. , measuring, med. & con. instruments mfg 6215 8132 5231 5416 Medical & diagnostic laboratories Grant-making & giving services Sec. & com. contracts intermediation & brok. Mgt, scientific & tech. Consult. serv. Employment Location Quotients 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 External Linkages Source: Data compiled and diagram created by Spencer and Vinodrai 2005. Innovation Systems Research Network

Ottawa: Current Challenges • No life sciences-based VC headquarters/decision-makers located in Ottawa • Need Ottawa: Current Challenges • No life sciences-based VC headquarters/decision-makers located in Ottawa • Need to build up industrial infrastructure, lacks a pharmaceutical base • Weak local linkages – Low commercialization success: need linkages between universities, labs, firms – MDS Nordion: a potential anchor firm but lacks linkages to major local R&D actors Innovation Systems Research Network

Montréal: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Pharma base, NRC-BRI (1983), Bio. Chem Pharma Montréal: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Pharma base, NRC-BRI (1983), Bio. Chem Pharma (1986), creation of public/quasipublic VC funds (1990 s) • Specialization – Human health ‘megacentre’ with drug discovery/pharma strengths • Strengths – Home to 62% of biotech firms in Québec (2001) – Strong public support & coordination – VC/R&D funding, tax incentives, etc. (least expensive operating costs in Canada for biomedical R& D) – Strong presence of R&D and manufacturing pharma (local and MNCs) – Strong local R&D base – Presence of industry associations • Size – Life Sciences firms: >270 – Cdn. biotech firms: 80 (2001); 129 (Quebec, 2003) – Biotech employment: 3238 (Industry Canada Life Sciences Branch 2005) Innovation Systems Research Network

Montréal 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Montréal 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Pharma, toilet. , cosm. & sundries whole. -dist. Semiconductor & other electronic comp. mfg. 3261 3254 3391 3345 Plastic product manufacturing Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg. Medical equipment & supplies mfg. Nav. , measuring, med. & con. instruments mfg 6215 8132 5231 5416 Medical & diagnostic laboratories Grant-making & giving services Sec. & com. contracts intermediation & brok. Mgt, scientific & tech. Consult. serv. Employment Location Quotients 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 External Linkages Source: Data compiled and diagram created by Spencer and Vinodrai 2005. Innovation Systems Research Network

Montréal: Current Challenges • Historically strong government intervention and coordination – High dependence on Montréal: Current Challenges • Historically strong government intervention and coordination – High dependence on public support especially in venture capital financing • Less than 10% of investment in Québec from private sources – Government withdrawal is occurring but is the private sector stepping in? • Highlights future vulnerabilities – Private funds in Québec (e. g. pension plans & assurance companies) avoid Québec venture capital – Investments spread too thin? – Risky drug development depends on reliable injections of financing through various stages – Merck, Pfizer drug controversies • Affected biotech stocks • Stock value decline of large pharma felt especially in Montréal – Neurochem Inc. example • Private sector investors not as sympathetic with failures Innovation Systems Research Network

Halifax: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Biotech Working Group (1993), Ocean Nutrition Canada Halifax: Overview • Key triggers/enabling factors – Biotech Working Group (1993), Ocean Nutrition Canada (1997) Dalhousie University establishes Business Development Office (1999) • Specialization – Majority of firms in human health but diverse sub-sectors (e. g. marine) • Characteristics/Strengths – Very young – is it a cluster? – Site of majority of biotech activity in Atlantic provinces – 42% of biotech firms in region located in Halifax (2001) – Local R&D base – Growing public and private support: Bioscience Enterprise Centre (In. Novacorp), Med. Innova Partners Inc. , Life Sciences Development Association (LSDA) • Size – Life Sciences firms: ~60 – Cdn. biotech firms: 10 (2001) – Biotech employment: 558 (Industry Canada Life Sciences Branch 2005) Innovation Systems Research Network

Halifax 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Halifax 3259 4184 4145 3344 Other chemical product mfg Chem. & allied prod. wholesaler-distributors Pharma, toilet. , cosm. & sundries whole. -dist. Semiconductor & other electronic comp. mfg. 3261 3254 3391 3345 Plastic product manufacturing Pharmaceutical & medicine mfg. Medical equipment & supplies mfg. Nav. , measuring, med. & con. instruments mfg 6215 8132 5231 5416 Medical & diagnostic laboratories Grant-making & giving services Sec. & com. contracts intermediation & brok. Mgt, scientific & tech. Consult. serv. Employment Location Quotients 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 External Linkages Source: Data compiled and diagram created by Spencer and Vinodrai 2005. Innovation Systems Research Network

Halifax: Current Challenges • Financing – High dependency on local financing – But lack Halifax: Current Challenges • Financing – High dependency on local financing – But lack of VC main obstacle for growth (Rosson and Mc. Larney 2004) • Currently a collection of firms rather than cluster (Rosson and Mc. Larney 2004) – Relatively young, small & private firms – R&D and inward focused – Lack of “core” specialization/interests Innovation Systems Research Network

Comparative Summary Vancouver Saskatoon Toronto Ottawa Montréal Halifax Key Triggers/ Enabling Factors • QLT Comparative Summary Vancouver Saskatoon Toronto Ottawa Montréal Halifax Key Triggers/ Enabling Factors • QLT Inc. • UBC • Canola • Innovation Place • NRC-PBI • Diverse economy • Human health research strengths • Allelix • OLSTP • MDS Nordion • Tech bubble burst • Pharma base • NRC-BRI • Bio. Chem • Public VC funds • Biotech Working Group • ONC • Dalhousie University. BDO Specialization Human health – diverse areas Agriculture Human health ‘megacentre’ (robust) Nontherapeutics Human health ‘megacentre’ (pharma) Human health – diverse areas Key Cluster Characteristic Rapidly growing Ag-biotech centre Scale & diversity Emergent Drug discovery/ pharma A ‘collection’ of firms Strengths • High rate of firm entrance supported by UBC • Local R&D • Presence of lead/anchor firm • Strong public and private R&D collaborations • Infrastructure support for firm entry • Presence of large, active & sophisticated farmers • Robust and diverse • Local R&D • Largest financial centre • Presence of numerous industry associations • ICT • Local R&D base • Federal regulatory/ funding agencies • Strong government support • Pharma base • Major site for biotech activities in Atlantic provinces • Strong local R&D base • Emergent public & private support Innovation Systems Research Network

Comparative Summary (Continued) Vancouver Saskatoon Toronto Ottawa Montréal Halifax 80 -140 ~400 100 -140 Comparative Summary (Continued) Vancouver Saskatoon Toronto Ottawa Montréal Halifax 80 -140 ~400 100 -140 >270 ~60 48 14 55 10 80 10 Biotech Employmt. 1701 369 2661 736 3238 558 Challenges • Researchbased: ‘IP vendors’ • Weak industrial infrastructure • Sustainable? • Financing • Public financing programs too diverse and targeted? • Undergoing change • Profile problem: local and international • Weak commercialization systems • Weak domestic linkages • Weak industrial infrastructure • No local lifesciences VC fund • Government dependence • Risky drug discovery activities • Financing • Is it a cluster? • Most firms young, small, inward looking, R&D focused Size: LS Firms Core Biotech firms Innovation Systems Research Network

Explaining Cluster Formation and Evolution • Path Dependency – Origins of Toronto’s diverse life Explaining Cluster Formation and Evolution • Path Dependency – Origins of Toronto’s diverse life sciences cluster found in the breadth of its older economic activities (Lowe and Gertler 2005) – Vancouver: weak industrial infrastructure to support product development, modest pool of local venture capital, and absence of a local pharmaceutical base has influenced many firms to be ‘IP vendors’ • Role of key public research institute varies by cluster – Vancouver & Saskatoon: Continues to be important for firm creation (UBC) and R&D coordination (NRC-PBI) – Montréal: NRC-BRI co-evolved with private sector – Ottawa: Public research actors passive, though becoming more active recently Innovation Systems Research Network

Accounting for Change • Vancouver, Montreal, Halifax: – emergence of a lead firm sparked Accounting for Change • Vancouver, Montreal, Halifax: – emergence of a lead firm sparked latent entrepreneurialism/provided credibility & inspiration for the region • Saskatoon & Montreal: – policy-driven through federal decisions to locate national laboratories in each city • Ottawa: – ICT bust in late 1990 s raised profile of life sciences, attracting political and financial support Innovation Systems Research Network

Knowledge Base (1) • Identified as a critical factor firms to locate or remain Knowledge Base (1) • Identified as a critical factor firms to locate or remain in the region – R&D intensive, expertise, key actors in technology transfer (out-licensing and firm creation), research collaborations, consulting services, facilities, R&D infrastructure, etc. • Need to acknowledge interdependent relationship between local and global knowledge flows Innovation Systems Research Network

Knowledge Base (2) • Saskatoon case an extreme example of this: – Foreign proprietary Knowledge Base (2) • Saskatoon case an extreme example of this: – Foreign proprietary sources of knowledge (knowwhat and why) – Local knowledge base develops tacit dimensions of know-how and know-who to complement nonlocal knowledge flows • “…the generation and transmission of the non-codified knowledge in the regional system is the key factor holding things together. People develop skills and working relationships, which together convert bits of information into operable knowledge” (Phillips et al 2004) Innovation Systems Research Network

Skilled Labour/Talent • Importance of local supply of skilled labour/talent – Often drawn from Skilled Labour/Talent • Importance of local supply of skilled labour/talent – Often drawn from local research institutes and co-locating firms – Some crossovers in sectors (Toronto: pharma, Ottawa: ICT) • Consistent problems recruiting managers; diverse responses – Halifax: Hire retired CEOs that settled in the area (Rosson and Mc. Larney 2004) – Saskatoon: Recruit expatriates (Greenberg 1999, Spurgeon 2002) – Toronto: Diverse mix of sources (local and non-local) and methods • Gertler and Levitte (2003) – Innovative Biotech firms devote more resources, pursue diverse strategies, and tap into global networks for recruiting staff • Local and global sources once again important Innovation Systems Research Network

Summary (1) CLUSTER FORMATION • Cases present a complex causal chain to explain cluster Summary (1) CLUSTER FORMATION • Cases present a complex causal chain to explain cluster formation influenced by historical, region-specific context – Does not offer easily generalizable explanations for cluster formation Innovation Systems Research Network

Summary (2) LOCAL VS. GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE FLOWS • Local and global knowledge flows: cases Summary (2) LOCAL VS. GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE FLOWS • Local and global knowledge flows: cases confirm mutually beneficial, reinforcing nature of these two scales of flows (Bathelt et al 2004) Innovation Systems Research Network

Summary (3) SPECIALIZATION or DIVERSITY? TWO PATHS • Specialized: – Montreal, Vancouver, Saskatoon – Summary (3) SPECIALIZATION or DIVERSITY? TWO PATHS • Specialized: – Montreal, Vancouver, Saskatoon – High potential return – Risk, vulnerability? • Diverse: – Toronto, Ottawa, Halifax – Resilience – Larger E potential, more diverse mix of occupations, employment opportunities, higher average cluster income – Lower ‘coherence’, visibility? Innovation Systems Research Network

Thank you Meric S. Gertler and Uyen Quach Program on Globalization and Regional Innovation Thank you Meric S. Gertler and Uyen Quach Program on Globalization and Regional Innovation Systems Munk Centre for International Studies University of Toronto Presentation to the 7 th Annual ISRN Meeting Renaissance Toronto Hotel Downtown Toronto, Ontario May 5 -6, 2005 Innovation Systems Research Network