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Bilingual Speech Community Language contact, language use and language maintenance in bilingual and multilingual Bilingual Speech Community Language contact, language use and language maintenance in bilingual and multilingual communities.

Language Contact • Described according to: – *Influence on Linguistic Systems (e. g. , Language Contact • Described according to: – *Influence on Linguistic Systems (e. g. , borrowing) – * The social relationship of the speakers (high or low intensity contact) Adstratal Superstratum Substratum – *Linguistic outcome: Language convergence, shift and death. Pidgin and Creole languages.

Language Variation • Dialect: Any variety of a language spoken by a group of Language Variation • Dialect: Any variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences from other varieties of the same language in structural or lexical features. – Standard Non standard – Speech communities (ethnicity, socioeconomic status, region) – Overt and Covert Prestige.

Language and Social Identity • The individual creates for himself the patterns of his Language and Social Identity • The individual creates for himself the patterns of his linguistic behavior so as to resemble those of the group or groups with which from time to time he wishes to be identified, or so as to be unlike those from whom he wishes to be distinguished. (181) – Conditions: • 1) We can identify the group • 2) We have both adequate access to the groups and ability to analyze their behavioral patterns. • 3) The motivation to join the groups is sufficiently powerful, and is either reinforced or reversed by feedback from the groups. • 4) We have the ability to modify our behavior. (182) (Le Page, R. B. and Andrée Tabouret-Keller, Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. )

Bilingualism as a societal phenomenon • NATION STATE ----> Point of departure for • Bilingualism as a societal phenomenon • NATION STATE ----> Point of departure for • • • the studies of societal bilingualism. Nation ---> Process -----> symbols, values and feelings of belonging to a community unique in its traditions, ethnic background, language, and other integrating factors that form a collective identity. State ---> centralized ruling institution, separated from society and functioning within a fixed territorial space => ability to extract and redistribute taxation and other means within this territory, enforce the law, and control the instruments of coercion. National entities ---> Linguistic integrity?

Bilingual and Multilingual Societies • Bil de facto and de jure (Mackey) • 4 Bilingual and Multilingual Societies • Bil de facto and de jure (Mackey) • 4 different social circumstances for children to become bilingual • • Elite bilinguals Children from linguistic majorities Children from bilingual families Children from linguistic minorities (Skutnabb. Kangas)

Sociolinguistic Composition of Multilingual Countries. • Ferguson (1966) General Patterns: function, status, number of Sociolinguistic Composition of Multilingual Countries. • Ferguson (1966) General Patterns: function, status, number of speakers. • Stewart (1972) Typology of languages: standard, vernacular, pidgin, creole artificial, marginal, classical • Census Data Problems: • self reports (prestige, ethnicity, political affiliation) • conception of mother tongue • differences between dialect and language. • degree of bilingualism not specified.

Domains of language use • Domain: Abstraction ---> sphere of activity representing a combination Domains of language use • Domain: Abstraction ---> sphere of activity representing a combination of specific time, setting and roles. • 5 domains (Fishman et al. ) : family, friendship, religion, employment, education. • Inner functions: Counting, praying, reckoning, cursing, dreaming, diary writing, note taking, thinking aloud.

Diglossia • Diglossia: Two or more varieties of the same language in use of Diglossia • Diglossia: Two or more varieties of the same language in use of a speech community with different functions • High and Low varieties: Function, prestige, literary heritage, acquisition, standardization, stability, grammar, lexicon. phonology – Societal arrangement in which individual bilingualism is not only widespread but institutionally buttressed. (Ferguson, 1972)

Diglossia and Bilingualism • Fishman: Diglossia =|= Bilingualism • Enduring social arrangement Stable Diglossia Diglossia and Bilingualism • Fishman: Diglossia =|= Bilingualism • Enduring social arrangement Stable Diglossia + + 1. Diglossia + Bilingualism 3. Bilingualism without Diglossia Bilingualism _ 2. Diglossia without bilingualism 4. Neither diglossia nor bilingualism

Language Shift and Death • External factors: – 1) numerical strength of the group Language Shift and Death • External factors: – 1) numerical strength of the group in relationship to other minorities or majorities – 2) social class – 3) religious and educational background – 4) settlement patterns – 5) ties with homeland – 6) degree of similarities between majority and minority languages – 7) extent of exogamous marriage – 8) attitudes of majority and minority – 9) government policies towards language and education – 10) patterns of language use

Borrowing and Interference • Borrowing: Collective and Systematic =|= Interference: Contingent and Individual. (Mackey) Borrowing and Interference • Borrowing: Collective and Systematic =|= Interference: Contingent and Individual. (Mackey) • Switching=|= Interference =|= Integration (Haugen)

Borrowing • Haugen : • Loan words (phonology and morphology not identified as foreign) Borrowing • Haugen : • Loan words (phonology and morphology not identified as foreign) • Loan blend • Loan shift Semantic extension, creation by translation or calque – 3 stages of adaptation: new word, increase use by speakers, use by monolinguals • Core lexical borrowing is linked to advanced societal bilingualism Bilinguals = locus of most intensive contact.

Sources • Ferguson, C. F. “National sociolinguistics profile formulas. ” In Bright, W. ed. Sources • Ferguson, C. F. “National sociolinguistics profile formulas. ” In Bright, W. ed. , Sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 1966: 309 -315. • ---. ” Diglossia”. In Gigliolo, P. , ed. Language and Social Context. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972: 232 -252. • Jannedy, Stefanie, Robert Poletto and Tracey. L. Weldon, eds. Language files : materials for an introduction to language & linguistics. Columbus : Ohio State University Press, 1994 • Mackey, W. F. Bilingualism as a World Problem/ Le bilinguisme: phenomene mondial. Montreal: Harvest House, 1967. • Romaine, Suzanne. Bilingualism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell, 1989.