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BI Group Commitments and Major Issues for Distributed Systems E. B. Holzer, J. J. BI Group Commitments and Major Issues for Distributed Systems E. B. Holzer, J. J. Gras, O. R. Jones CERN AB/BI Third LHC Project Workshop - Chamonix XV January 24, 2006 Divonne-les-Bains Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 1

Outline § BI Responsibilities (J. J. Gras) § Beam Synchronous Timing (J. J. Gras) Outline § BI Responsibilities (J. J. Gras) § Beam Synchronous Timing (J. J. Gras) § Beam Position Monitor System (R. Jones) § Beam Loss Monitor System § Summary Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 2

BI Responsibilities Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 3 BI Responsibilities Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 3

Responsibility Limits § AB/BI will provide § § the monitors the electronics the front Responsibility Limits § AB/BI will provide § § the monitors the electronics the front end software the corresponding expert applications § to develop, test, deploy, diagnose and maintain the instruments produced by the group § AB/BI is NOT responsible for any software above the BI front end servers necessary to operate the machine, i. e. § § § BPM, BLM Concentrators RT Feed Back Loops and Fixed Displays Middle Tier Black Boxes Operational Applications Post-mortem and Logging Applications Video and Analog Signal Transmission Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 4

People in Charge Equipment Project Leader Monitor Electronics FE Software Exp. Appl. Commissioning BOB People in Charge Equipment Project Leader Monitor Electronics FE Software Exp. Appl. Commissioning BOB (BST) J. J. Savioz n. a. J. J. Savioz P. Karlsson BLM, BPM experts BPM R. Jones C. Boccard E. Calvo L. Jensen J. Wenninger (OP), W. Herr (ABP), Y. Papaphilippou (ABP) BLM B. Dehning E. B. Holzer C. Zamantzas, E. Effinger, J. Emery S. Jackson R. Assmann (ABP), H. Burkhardt (ABP), J. B. Jeanneret (ABP), S. Gilardoni (ABP) § All components of the BI mandate covered Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 5

Beam Synchronous Timing – BOBM and BOBR Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer Beam Synchronous Timing – BOBM and BOBR Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 6

Commitments § The BST (BOB) system based on TTC technology will provide to the Commitments § The BST (BOB) system based on TTC technology will provide to the LHC beam instrumentation § 40 MHz bunch synchronous clock § 11 k. Hz LHC revolution frequency § In addition, it will allow the encoding of beam synchronous messages § for LHC instrumentation triggering and § for broadcasting of machine status (mode, intensity, energy, turn number…) § can be updated on every LHC turn § BST system expected to be available at start-up (as soon as the RF signal is received) Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 7

Clients § The BPM rely on BST for orbit, trajectories, multi-turn acquisitions and post-mortem Clients § The BPM rely on BST for orbit, trajectories, multi-turn acquisitions and post-mortem triggering § BLM will rely on BST only for the post-mortem and logging trigger § BST will be used by other instruments to synchronise themselves (BTVM, BWS, BSRT…) or with each others § The machine status has proven to be of interest to the LHC experiments, which will receive this information using their standard TTC receivers and decoders [see EDMS 638899] Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 8

Testing Plans § BST system is a collaboration between AB/CO (Master HW and Firmware) Testing Plans § BST system is a collaboration between AB/CO (Master HW and Firmware) and AB/BI (Master Server/RT and Receiver HW/FM/SW) § Three systems are foreseen (SPS, LHC B 1 and B 2) § The recent v 2 functionality covers the need (currently being tested) § BOB system will be commissioned on SPS in 2006 and assessed during the LHC sector test (with the SPS BOB Master) Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 9

Beam Position Monitors - BPM § § Status Performance Commissioning Cuts proposed for Stage Beam Position Monitors - BPM § § Status Performance Commissioning Cuts proposed for Stage I Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 10

Status of BPM Electronic Components § Wide Band Time Normaliser (analogue front-end) § Successfully Status of BPM Electronic Components § Wide Band Time Normaliser (analogue front-end) § Successfully tested in TI 8 and SPS § Series Production (4500 units) launched by the end of January 2006 § Digital Acquisition Board (DAB 64 x - TRIUMF) § Series production (1800 units) started. BI standard for BPM, BLM, Fast BCT and Q measurement acquisition § Network Infrastructure in place § Fibre-optic, coaxial cable and World. FIP control links § The BPM acquisition hardware is expected to be fully functional for LHC start-up Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 11

BPM Performance Linearity versus Intensity BPM operating threshold ~1· 109 charges/bunch corresponds to 17% BPM Performance Linearity versus Intensity BPM operating threshold ~1· 109 charges/bunch corresponds to 17% nominal ion bunch intensity Nominal resolution (5 μm) for § single bunch: intensity > 2 -3· 1010 charges per bunch § global orbit: 43 pilot bunches Resolution (rms) Nominal intensity bunch Trajectory (single shot) 200 μm Orbit (224 turn average) 20 μm Trajectory (single shot, single bunch) Pilot bunch 50 μm Trajectory (average of all bunches) 5 μm Orbit (average of all bunches over 224 turns) 5 μm Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 12

Commissioning with the BPM System I § Before Beam § Test of the system Commissioning with the BPM System I § Before Beam § Test of the system in the SPS and TI 8 § Gives confidence in performance § Allows software development and debugging § Full calibration of the LHC acquisition chain § part of BPM hardware commissioning § First Turn § Asynchronous Mode § Auto-triggered - no dependence on external timing § Intensity Measurement – aim to have this operational BUT § currently concentrating on the position system § implies considerable amount of additional software as intensity measurement uses acquisition system of other ring § lack of intensity card DOES NOT affect position measurement Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 13

Commissioning with the BPM System II § First few to 1000 Turns § Timing-in Commissioning with the BPM System II § First few to 1000 Turns § Timing-in of BST system § Allows bunch/turn tagging § Can be done in parallel to asynchronous acquisition § Circulating Beam at 450 Ge. V § Global Orbit Mode § Available once BST is timed-in § Allows post-mortem to be used § Real-time orbit data available § Capture Mode § Triggered on request § Allows bunch to bunch and turn-by-turn data § Can generate a large amount of data § will require concentrators and powerful analysis software to be in place Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 14

Commissioning with the BPM System III § Snapback, Ramp and Squeeze § Real-time global Commissioning with the BPM System III § Snapback, Ramp and Squeeze § Real-time global orbit data available for feedback § Requires concentrator, feedback algorithms and real-time correction to be available to implement the feedback. Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 15

Cuts proposed for Stage I on Capture Mode § Multi turn acquisition up to Cuts proposed for Stage I on Capture Mode § Multi turn acquisition up to 100’ 000 turns on § one user selected bunch or § the beam average § Always on consecutive turns § Always on all BPMs at the same time Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 16

Beam Loss Monitors - BLM § § § Status System Tests Updating the Threshold Beam Loss Monitors - BLM § § § Status System Tests Updating the Threshold Tables Synchronization BLM for Ions Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 17

Status I § Network infrastructure: done § Detectors: almost all components received § Ionization Status I § Network infrastructure: done § Detectors: almost all components received § Ionization chambers (3800): Production at CERN started (40), Production in Prodvino will start in February. § Production rate 20/day, total production time: 1 year § Secondary emission monitors, SEM (320): Prototyping phase, working design. Production foreseen to start Q 1 2007, and take 2 months § Expected to be ready for LHC commissioning (not for sector test) Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 18

Status II § Electronics § Crates (456 in the tunnel and 105 on the Status II § Electronics § Crates (456 in the tunnel and 105 on the surface) and power supplies: installation started § Acquisition in the tunnel: pre-series production started (50 out of 750 cards) § Acquisition on the surface: series production started for DAB card, preseries production started for mezzanine card (30 out of 400 cards) § Interlock and testing (“combiner card”, 25 cards): under design § To be done – all expected to be ready for LHC commissioning § Addition to DAB card program § Post-mortem § Final communication tests with threshold tables § Combiner card § CFC program: implementation of additional high voltage tests Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 19

System ready for LHC and fulfill the Specifications? § Hardware expected to be ready System ready for LHC and fulfill the Specifications? § Hardware expected to be ready for LHC start-up § Plan B: possible to install smaller number of detectors - unlikely § Threshold tables (calibration of BLM) based on simulations. § Plan B: ask for beam tests in the LHC to calibrate the BLM system § Analysis effort of BLM logging and post-mortem data (sector test and LHC beam data, “parasitic” and dedicated tests) to be started in 2006! § Calibration of threshold tables § Interpretation of BLM signal patterns § Large amount of data to be analyzed § Extensive software tools for data analysis essential to fulfill the specifications! Start now to specify and implement! § Logging and post-mortem need to work for Sector Test! Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 20

BLMS Testing Procedures Detector Ph. D thesis G. Guaglio Tunnel electronics Surface electronics Combiner BLMS Testing Procedures Detector Ph. D thesis G. Guaglio Tunnel electronics Surface electronics Combiner Functional tests Barcode check Current source test (last installation step) Radioactive source test (before start-up) HV modulation test (implemented) Beam inhibit lines tests (under discussion) Threshold table beam inhibit test (under discussion) 10 p. A test (implemented) Double optical line comparison (implemented) Thresholds and channel assignment SW checks (implemented) Inspection frequency: Reception Installation and yearly maintenance Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer Before (each) fill Parallel with beam January 24, 2006 21

Updating the Threshold Tables § How to change threshold tables technically § Possibility to Updating the Threshold Tables § How to change threshold tables technically § Possibility to write them via VME interface: will be used in the lab and disabled by a hardware switch when installed in the LHC § During commissioning and during operation the threshold tables can only be changed locally via a dedicated interface § How to change them conceptually § Empirically define procedure § After analysis of loss data possibility to change the energy and loss duration dependence § Define needs and production of software tools § Generation of threshold tables § “Management of Critical Settings” (MCS) § Managing and Archiving of threshold tables § Group monitors according to magnet types for faster changing of threshold tables Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 22

Synchronization max. 82 ms time jitter BLM DAB 1 BLM DAB 2 time 1 Synchronization max. 82 ms time jitter BLM DAB 1 BLM DAB 2 time 1 s Logging Readout Frequency 1 Hz Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer 40 μs 80 μs 40 μs 0. 3 ms 40 μs 0. 6 ms 40 μs 2. 6 ms 80 μs 10 ms 80 μs 2. 6 ms 0. 3 s 2. 6 ms 1. 3 s 82 ms 21 s 5. 5 s Refreshing Rate 5. 5 s BLM DAB 1 BLM DAB 2 Moving Average 82 ms § For reliability reasons the BLM system does not use external timing (other than for post-mortem and logging triggering) § Synchronization of timing windows between different BLM DAB cards? § e. g. : update interval of 5. 5 s time window is 82 ms: 1. 3 s 84 s 1. 3 s January 24, 2006 23

BLM for Ions I § Considerably less simulations available than for protons at the BLM for Ions I § Considerably less simulations available than for protons at the moment much higher uncertainty for the BLM system § Simulations of ion loss maps done (H. Braun) additional monitors; Error studies still to be done (AB/ABP) H. Braun Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 24

BLM for Ions II § BFPP simulations for ALICE: loss positions (J. Jowett) and BLM for Ions II § BFPP simulations for ALICE: loss positions (J. Jowett) and showers through dipole magnet (R. Bruce) additional monitors § Main dipoles: ratio of energy deposited in magnet versus energy deposited in the BLM detector is roughly the same as for protons § Ratio of quench (damage) level to BLM signal about the same as for protons Similar threshold tables for protons and ions § standard BLMs (local aperture limitations) at right position § Future simulations (other EM processes) might lead to more requests for BLMs Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer Energy position in the hottest part of the coil and at the BLM location (FLUKA, LHC Project Note 379, R. Bruce et al. ) January 24, 2006 25

Summary § The BST, BPM (possibly excluding intensity measurement) and BLM hardware systems are Summary § The BST, BPM (possibly excluding intensity measurement) and BLM hardware systems are expected to be fully operational for LHC startup. § BPM various modes of acquisition should allow the necessary data to be available when required. § BLM calibration requires logging and post-mortem plus MCS starting from the Sector Test. Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 26

Some additional slides Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 27 Some additional slides Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 27

Functional Tests § Radiation tests of tunnel electronics (PSI) § Temperature test (tunnel electronics) Functional Tests § Radiation tests of tunnel electronics (PSI) § Temperature test (tunnel electronics) § Detector test in booster, T 2, H 6, PSI: uncertainty (up to a factor of 2) to be corrected for with the results of M. Stockner’s thesis. § Long term test of whole acquisition system: booster and DESY § Test of quench levels (threshold calibration): Laboratory, HERA, sector test, simulations Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 28

Required Accuracy for Damage Protection Arc Dipole Magnet Relative loss levels for fast losses Required Accuracy for Damage Protection Arc Dipole Magnet Relative loss levels for fast losses 3 103 3 3 Dump threshold Fast current transformer (DIDT) will protect against fast (1 turn) losses only from phase 2 of the LHC (absolute calibration by software during phase 1 too slow – phase two: hardware implemented) 103 Quench level Quench protection system (damage protection) 7 Te. V Damage level BLM system damage protection, no redundancy 450 Ge. V 1 1 Absolute precision (calibration) < factor 2 initially: < factor 5 Relative precision for quench prevention < 25% Accurately known quench levels will increase operational efficiency Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 29

Shower development in the Cryostat L. Ponce §Impact position varied along the MQ §Highest Shower development in the Cryostat L. Ponce §Impact position varied along the MQ §Highest signal from loss at the beginning of the MQ §Position of detectors optimized Beam § to catch losses: § Transition between MB – MQ § Middle of MQ § Transition between MQ – MB § to minimize uncertainty of ratio of energy deposition in coil and detector § Beam I – II discrimination Chamonix XV workshop, Divonne-les-Bains E. B. Holzer January 24, 2006 30