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Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers Dr. James JF Forest Director of Terrorism Studies U. S. Military Academy COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers Agenda: 1) The Two Professions 2) Education and the Study of Terrorism at West Point 3) Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism 4) Implications for the Education of Military Officers 5) Conclusion COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

1. The Two Professions Academic Profession Military Profession 1. The Two Professions Academic Profession Military Profession

1. The Two Professions The Academic Profession • “The Key Profession – the profession 1. The Two Professions The Academic Profession • “The Key Profession – the profession that educates other professions” • Global similarities in the conduct of academic work • Considerable autonomy, academic freedom • Highly respected; special place in society • Stronger loyalty to disciplinary affiliations than institutions • Benefit of time to think deep thoughts, explore questions of great complexity • Expectations from society in exchange for this benefit (teach, publish) COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point AB 95 -5. PPT // ##

1. The Two Professions The Military Profession • Neither a public service agency nor 1. The Two Professions The Military Profession • Neither a public service agency nor a private sector enterprise • Demands aptitude for leadership; leading soldiers in combat and peacekeeping missions • Highly respected; special place in society • Standard Operating Procedures, doctrines, • Intense loyalty, patriotism, service to the nation COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point AB 95 -5. PPT // ##

1. The Two Professions Important Differences Academic Profession Military Profession Explore new intellectual territories 1. The Two Professions Important Differences Academic Profession Military Profession Explore new intellectual territories Standard operating procedures Informal peer review/governance Formal ranking & promotion system Adherence to disciplines, theories Implementers of national policy Training for research, teaching Training for war, national defense COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point AB 95 -5. PPT // ##

1. The Two Professions Common Themes • In a profession, members are intrinsically motivated 1. The Two Professions Common Themes • In a profession, members are intrinsically motivated by their expert knowledge and dedicated to its application • In a profession, members are given a considerable amount of latitude with respect to making decisions about how to achieve pre-defined goals and objectives – The Academic Profession • maximizing student learning • contributing to a field of study – The Military Profession • managing the employment of violence to achieve political goals • And yet, both professions are in a battle to retain their traditional autonomy against the onslaught of an increasingly invasive bureaucracy COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point AB 95 -5. PPT // ##

1. The Two Professions Collaboration • Security studies, terrorism studies, etc. – vital collaboration 1. The Two Professions Collaboration • Security studies, terrorism studies, etc. – vital collaboration between academic and military professionals • The success we have had in the War on Terror is largely due to a mix of operational capabilities and intellectual capacity • Thucydides: “The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. ” • It is vital to link the scholars and the warriors; places like NSSC at Univ. of Haifa and the CTC at West Point serve this purpose COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point AB 95 -5. PPT // ##

2. Education of Military Officers at West Point 2. Education of Military Officers at West Point

Leader Development Army Strategic Vision Commissioned Officers: Junior Grade Officership Development Standards CADET LEADER Leader Development Army Strategic Vision Commissioned Officers: Junior Grade Officership Development Standards CADET LEADER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM MILITARY PROGRAM ACADEMIC PROGRAM PHYSICAL PROGRAM

CADET LEADER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM MILITARY PROGRAM ACADEMIC PROGRAM Cadet Leader Development System PHYSICAL PROGRAM CADET LEADER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM MILITARY PROGRAM ACADEMIC PROGRAM Cadet Leader Development System PHYSICAL PROGRAM The Academic Program Component Academic Program Multidisciplinary Academic Program Goals to Meet Army Needs Expected Student Outcomes Learning Models and Curriculum to Achieve these Outcomes Senior Military Academy Leadership General Committee Curriculum Committee Assessment Steering Committee Faculty Goal Teams Course Directors Instructors COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

The West Point Curriculum Army Officer Bachelor of Science Degree 10 - 13 Electives The West Point Curriculum Army Officer Bachelor of Science Degree 10 - 13 Electives for a Major 4 Military Science 1 Philosophy/Ethics 2 Foreign Language 3 Social Sciences 2 Leadership 3 English 4 History 1 Law 16 Courses Humanities and Social Science 4 Physical Education The Core Curriculum 3* Engineering Science/Design 2* Information Technology 1 Terrain Analysis 2 Chemistry 2 Physics 4 Math 14* Courses Math, Science, & Engineering * For cadets enrolled in non-ABET accredited majors only

The West Point Core Curriculum Year in School Coll Math 2 Psych History Comp The West Point Core Curriculum Year in School Coll Math 2 Psych History Comp Calculus I Chem IT 1 History Lit Calculus II 1 Chem Physics Philosophy Pol Sci For Lang Prob/Stats Physics Phys Geog Econ For Lang Engineering 3 Sequence #1 Engineering IT 2 Elective Sequence #2 Engineering Sequence #3 4 Elective Int’l Rel Elective for Major Elective Law Adv Comp Elective for Major Mil Art Elective for Major Integrative Experience Leadership Elective Mil Art Graduation and Commissioned as 2 nd Lieutenant in U. S. Army

CADET LEADER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM MILITARY ACADEMIC PROGRAM The Academic Program Component PHYSICAL PROGRAM 10 CADET LEADER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM MILITARY ACADEMIC PROGRAM The Academic Program Component PHYSICAL PROGRAM 10 Multidisciplinary Academic Program Goals Army Leaders must: demonstrate: Creativity Moral Awareness Commitment to Continued Intellectual Development Effective listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills understand: Culture History Patterns of Human Behavior Mathematics and Science Engineering and Technology Information Technology

2. Education at West Point Overall Goal Graduates of West Point will anticipate and 2. Education at West Point Overall Goal Graduates of West Point will anticipate and respond effectively to the uncertainties of a changing technological, social, political, and economic world. COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

3. The Study of Terrorism at West Point Mr. Vincent Viola (’ 77) GEN 3. The Study of Terrorism at West Point Mr. Vincent Viola (’ 77) GEN Wayne Downing COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point The Department of Social Sciences Weapons of The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point The Department of Social Sciences Weapons of Mass Destruction Homeland Security Counterterrorism Terrorism Dynamic Leaders Education, Research and Policy Analysis COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

3. Terrorism Education at West Point Courses we teach • Terrorism & Counterterrorism • 3. Terrorism Education at West Point Courses we teach • Terrorism & Counterterrorism • Advanced Terrorism Studies • Homeland Security Seminar • Intelligence and Terrorism • Information Warfare * Minor in Terrorism Studies COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

3. Terrorism Education at West Point Lesson topics include: • History of Terrorism – 3. Terrorism Education at West Point Lesson topics include: • History of Terrorism – Case studies • Individual Motivations – Psychological and social dimensions – Strategic/rational choice – Psychological driving forces • Group dynamics – – – Recruitment Training Goals, objectives, strategies, tactics Ideology and communication Organizational learning aspects of terrorist groups COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

3. Terrorism Education at West Point Lesson topics include: s ion ctat e Exp 3. Terrorism Education at West Point Lesson topics include: s ion ctat e Exp Opportu • Recent trends in terrorism – Madrid, Bali, London, Niger Delta • Local circumstances that support terrorism – Political, economic and social conditions before terrorism • Facilitators of terrorism – Financial & criminal networks • Combating terrorism – U. S. National Security Strategy, CT Strategy, HS Strategy, etc. – MIDLIFE dimensions of national power – Strategic implications of military action COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point nities

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism Comparative Studies of Terrorism and Counterterrorism 4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism Comparative Studies of Terrorism and Counterterrorism • National, regional, subregional levels • Comparing responses to terrorism in places like Ireland, Spain, Israel, Turkey, Cyprus, the UK, Sri Lanka, etc. . • Developing typologies of terrorism and the response to terrorism • What can we learn from successes in places like Mozambique? • What common political, social contexts can we identify that indicate a high likelihood that a group will engage in terrorist activity? COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism Multidisciplinary Studies (engaging new disciplines beyond 4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism Multidisciplinary Studies (engaging new disciplines beyond political science, sociology, psychology) For example: • Business (franchises, organizational learning theory, mergers, etc) • Medicine (viruses, antibodies) • Education (cognitive development, knowledge transfer) • Natural Sciences (chemistry, biology, etc. ) • Other Behavioral and Social Sciences (e. g. , economics) • Also, multidisciplinary collaboration in the study of terrorism COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism • Some multidisciplinary questions that need 4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism • Some multidisciplinary questions that need answers: • What are the vulnerabilities of a networked terrorist organization? • What are some ideological differences among key terrorist groups, and how can these differences be exploited by counterterrorists? • What new approaches for combating terrorism can be developed in an open, democratic society? • How can we improve the practice of counterterrorism? • How can we change the role of the media as “force multiplier”? • What about the “mysteries” of terrorism? COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism Other multidisciplinary issues that need further 4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism Other multidisciplinary issues that need further research: • Evolutions in terrorist strategies, weapons and tactics • • The dimensions of terrorism and WMD Future acts of terrorist “judo” Information warfare Electronic warfare • Potential terrorist group alliances • • • Common ideology? Complimentary goals/objectives? Common enemy / common hatred of a particular policy? Strategic sense (better potential for success by combining forces)? Complimentary strengths? Mutual Gain? • 5 th Generation Warfare – strategic surprises of tomorrow? COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers must have a total grasp of 5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers must have a total grasp of the struggle, not just the terrorist acts Why is terrorism being used as a tactic? What are the political goals? Part of an insurgency? What are the political, social, economic, cultural, information dimensions of the conflict as well as the security and military aspects. How do these interrelate? Training on tactics, techniques, and procedures can be developed but not until the leaders have the background COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: 5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: • Understand terrorists’ strategies (particularly at junior officer level) • Maintain a high level of adaptability/flexibility in their response to terrorism • Employ the discriminate yet decisive use of violence • Understand the political objectives of military operations • Have a full appreciation of many forms of technology and yet avoid over-reliance on technology vs. real situational awareness • Find ways for better collection and integration of human intelligence COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: 5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: • Anticipate and respond effectively to ambiguous situations • Develop the skills of indirect leadership/influence • Appreciate the cultural dimensions of local support for insurgencies • Recognize and understand local historical grievances • Develop a capacity for systems thinking – must understand the phenomena of second- and third-order effects • Be able to recognize telltale signs of chem/bio weapons development COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: 5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: • Understand the asymmetric warfare environment, strategy, tactics • Appreciate political history of any conflict to which they are deployed • Be a more effective communicator/messenger than the terrorists (expanded language capabilities are essential) • Understand how complex, networked, decentralized, loosely organized groups operate • Develop ways to exploit the seams within those networked organizations COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: 5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers The Military Officer of tomorrow must: • Organize strategic learning opportunities for each other & their soldiers • Learn from other militaries’ experiences with COIN and combating terrorism, particularly against an adversary that adopts the strategies and tactics of 4 GW/AW • Create networks among military officers of different countries, through which they can share ideas and lessons learned • Develop an interagency perspective • Gain an understanding of local law enforcement challenges, strategies, capabilities, etc. in any deployment • Work with the academic community to evaluate counterterrorism operations and identify reasons behind military successes and failures COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

Conclusion A Partnership of The Two Professions in Developing Better Responses to Terrorism Academics Conclusion A Partnership of The Two Professions in Developing Better Responses to Terrorism Academics engaged in the study of terrorism have a critical role to play in the challenges of the future global security environment. Comparative and multidisciplinary studies of terrorism are needed. Academic studies of military successes (and failures) in combating terrorism will be particularly important in the global struggle before us. A strategic learning partnership between the academic and military professions is needed. This partnership between the academic community and the military profession must be nurtured on a national, regional and global level. COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point

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COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point Questions/Discussion? COMBATING TERRORISM CENTER at West Point Questions/Discussion?