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Between the Wars: Europe and America in the 1920 s and the Great Depression Between the Wars: Europe and America in the 1920 s and the Great Depression

Europe in the aftermath of the War Germany, Austria, and Turkey were defeated powers, Europe in the aftermath of the War Germany, Austria, and Turkey were defeated powers, their empires destroyed and their governments being reorganized France and Britain had ‘won’ the War, but at great financial and human cost Russia was in the midst of a civil war The USA had rejected the Treaty of Versailles (and the League of Nations) and was withdrawing again from European affairs

The League of Nations Dominated by France and Britain, the League had little power The League of Nations Dominated by France and Britain, the League had little power to influence events if these two did not agree on what to do – they seldom did agree.

Britain’s Empire at Risk A foolish decision to fire on Indian civilians at Amritsar Britain’s Empire at Risk A foolish decision to fire on Indian civilians at Amritsar in 1919 leads to the growing movement for Indian independence.

Ireland in Revolt 1919 – British government divides Ireland into northern and southern sections, Ireland in Revolt 1919 – British government divides Ireland into northern and southern sections, sends troops to protect the largely Protestant section in Ulster – decades of terrorist war ensues. “Should the order ("Hands Up") not be immediately obeyed, shoot and shoot with effect. If the persons approaching (a patrol) carry their hands in their pockets, or are in any way suspicious-looking, shoot them down. ” -- British commander to troops in 1919

Fascism in Italy In the early 1920 s, Italy came under the control of Fascism in Italy In the early 1920 s, Italy came under the control of Benito Mussolini, a former socialist who created a doctatorship based on the idea that “unity” would create a new Roman empire. Anyone who did not want to be part pf Mussolini’s unity was either imprisoned or killed.

Russia under Stalin In the late 1920 s and early 1930 s Stalin used Russia under Stalin In the late 1920 s and early 1930 s Stalin used Russian agricultural crops to expand Soviet industry. Millions died in famines while the food was seized and sold to other countries. Stalin used the money to build new factories.

The German “Republic” The German government is stable only as long as war hero, The German “Republic” The German government is stable only as long as war hero, General von Hindenburg, is the president. Only he can induce the German army to support the republic.

Wild inflation in Germany The war damage and the billions owed in reparations ruins Wild inflation in Germany The war damage and the billions owed in reparations ruins the German economy – people use 20 billion Mark notes (like the one at right) to buy a loaf of bread and some milk.

The United States Election of Warren Harding in 1920 opens an era of U. The United States Election of Warren Harding in 1920 opens an era of U. S. withdrawal from most European affairs. Americans are angry that most European nations are not repaying their war debts. U. S. politics is dominated by prohibition and rising power of Wall Street. Farmers are having a very hard time.

The Dawes Plan The Dawes Plan

Disarmament The U. S. used its financial power to persuade Britain, Japan and others Disarmament The U. S. used its financial power to persuade Britain, Japan and others to reduce the size of their navies – the 1922 Naval Limitations agreement will remain in force for over 10 years.

No War? In the late 1920 s, U. S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg No War? In the late 1920 s, U. S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg joined the French foreign minister in persuading world leaders to sign a pact promising to “settle all differences without resorting to war. ” Every major nation signed it – and then ignored it.

Radical Parties in Germany Inflation and anger at the Versailles Treaty led many Germans Radical Parties in Germany Inflation and anger at the Versailles Treaty led many Germans to join either the Communist Party or one of the militant ring-wing groups, like the National Socialist German Workers Party – the Nazis.

Nazi Attempt to Seize Power In 1924 Hitler tried to take control of the Nazi Attempt to Seize Power In 1924 Hitler tried to take control of the government in Munich. Arrested, he and his followers were tried for treason, convicted – and sentenced to only two years in prison.

Nazi Ideology The Nazi’s were violently Anti-Semitic, blaming the Jews for Germany’s defeat in Nazi Ideology The Nazi’s were violently Anti-Semitic, blaming the Jews for Germany’s defeat in the Great War The Nazis believed in a racial hierarchy that placed “Aryans” (Germanic peoples) as the top and Jews & Slavs at the bottom

Nazi Ideology The Nazis believed that Germany has a “destiny” to rule over all Nazi Ideology The Nazis believed that Germany has a “destiny” to rule over all of Europe, even if this meant the deaths of millions The Nazis believed that violence was good in that it “allowed” the superior to thrive while the “inferior were destroyed in the competition for land, resources, etc. The Nazis believed that people needed a strong ruler (leader—Fuhrer) to lead society

Aryanism Nazi doctrine decreed that blond, blue-eyed, Central European “Aryans” were the superior race, Aryanism Nazi doctrine decreed that blond, blue-eyed, Central European “Aryans” were the superior race, which should dominate all others.

Prosperity on shaky ground Despite the rising stock market, American (and world) prosperity rested Prosperity on shaky ground Despite the rising stock market, American (and world) prosperity rested on very little more than public confidence World trade declined as many nations imposed high tariffs (taxes on foreign goods) The gold supply was not stabilizing prices Unemployment was slowly growing, as few people could afford modern luxury goods

THE CRASH THE CRASH

Bank Failures – 9000 banks failed in U. S. , holding $7 billion (there Bank Failures – 9000 banks failed in U. S. , holding $7 billion (there was no deposit insurance)

Unemployment High unemployment in both U. S. and Europe results in many people advocating Unemployment High unemployment in both U. S. and Europe results in many people advocating either a communist government or a right-wing government.

Unemployment Unemployment

Hitler Takes Power Appointed chancellor (prime minister) in 1934 to unify the nation, Hitler Hitler Takes Power Appointed chancellor (prime minister) in 1934 to unify the nation, Hitler took full power in 1934 after President Hindenburg died.

Anti-Jewish Laws Once Adolf Hitler gained power in Germany, the Nazis passed laws that Anti-Jewish Laws Once Adolf Hitler gained power in Germany, the Nazis passed laws that restricted Jewish life – the park bench has a sign: “Aryans only”

Repressing “non-German ideas” Nazis frequently burned the books of Jewish writers, of communists and Repressing “non-German ideas” Nazis frequently burned the books of Jewish writers, of communists and of non-Germans whose ideas were considered “weak, liberal, and pacifist”

Destroying Jewish businesses Nazi troopers used intimidation to prevent other Germans from shopping in Destroying Jewish businesses Nazi troopers used intimidation to prevent other Germans from shopping in Jewishowned businesses – the sign says “do not buy from Jews”

Camps for the “Reich’s enemies” Hitler ordered camps constructed for the “protective custody” of Camps for the “Reich’s enemies” Hitler ordered camps constructed for the “protective custody” of Jews, communists, socialists, intellectuals, and any critics of the Nazi state – the Third Reich.

Rearmament Both Italy and Germany began to enlarge their armies (in defiance of treaties Rearmament Both Italy and Germany began to enlarge their armies (in defiance of treaties that limited military growth). Germany began to experiment with fast-moving columns of tanks, supported by large numbers of bombers.

Populism – Urban Protest “[After waking on a park bench] I reached Fifth Avenue. Populism – Urban Protest “[After waking on a park bench] I reached Fifth Avenue. Near Madison my eyes lit on two bottles of milk on a doorstep. I took one and ducked into an alley to drink it. The doorways of grocery stores were just beginning to fill [with deliveries]. Drivers were leaving bread and rolls tied into gunny sacks. I found a chain store, made as though I were looking to see if they had opened, and tucked away a sweet rye. ” Edward Newhouse (New Masses staff) You Can’t Sleep Here (1934)

“Alphabet Soup” As US president from 1933 -41, Franklin Roosevelt relied on several new “Alphabet Soup” As US president from 1933 -41, Franklin Roosevelt relied on several new Federal agencies to combat unemployment and poverty.

Father Charles E. Coughlin “Shall we suffer while this money remains idle to fatten Father Charles E. Coughlin “Shall we suffer while this money remains idle to fatten the wallets of the bankers? ” (Radio Speech, 1935. ) By 1936, Coughlin was expressing admiration for Hitler and Mussolini in his calls for “destroying the Jews who created this financial panic. ”

German-American Bund, 1938 The German. American Bund pushed for a fascist-type government after 1934. German-American Bund, 1938 The German. American Bund pushed for a fascist-type government after 1934.

American Communism and the Depression The U. S. Communist Party’s presidential candidate received 103, American Communism and the Depression The U. S. Communist Party’s presidential candidate received 103, 000 votes in the 1932 election. This encouraged suspicion of ‘foreigners. ’

“The battle is on! Go this morning to the nearest picket line and put “The battle is on! Go this morning to the nearest picket line and put up a united front, mass struggle against the greedy landlords of New York. ” Quote from the Daily Worker, 1933

Francis Townsend – Father of Social Security Francis Townsend – Father of Social Security

Jews flee Germany While permitting Jews to leave, Hitler’s government seized up to 80% Jews flee Germany While permitting Jews to leave, Hitler’s government seized up to 80% of their property in taxes and marked their passports with a “J”.

US restrictions Because of high unemployment, President Hoover issued an executive order in 1930, US restrictions Because of high unemployment, President Hoover issued an executive order in 1930, requiring US officials in Europe to “refuse immigration papers” to any applicant who was "likely to become a public charge" (unemployed). Because artists, writers, actors, film-makers, scientists, and other intellectuals could more easily get work in colleges or in entertainment, many well-educated German and Austrian Jews found it easier to get to America. Their work in America would change both high-brow culture an popular culture.

EXILES Bruno Walter – conductor in Germany and US. EXILES Bruno Walter – conductor in Germany and US.

EXILES Bertolt Brecht – playwright and socialist EXILES Bertolt Brecht – playwright and socialist

EXILES Lotte Lenya -- actress EXILES Lotte Lenya -- actress

“From Russia With Love, ” 1962; Lotte Lenya as Rosa Kleb, Russian assassin. “From Russia With Love, ” 1962; Lotte Lenya as Rosa Kleb, Russian assassin.

EXILES Albert Einstein-physicist EXILES Albert Einstein-physicist

EXILES Josef Von Sternberg – director in both Europe and US. EXILES Josef Von Sternberg – director in both Europe and US.

Hungarian Jews From top – John von Neumann, Robert Capa, Leo Szilard, Michael Curtiz. Hungarian Jews From top – John von Neumann, Robert Capa, Leo Szilard, Michael Curtiz.

Rising Tensions The depression had made international cooperation less likely The depression had been Rising Tensions The depression had made international cooperation less likely The depression had been accompanied by an increase in violence in many countries Some states were threatening to resort to war to get what they wanted – Italy, Germany and Japan were seen as very aggressive Fears of “foreigners” intensified in US, but by 1945, immigrants would play key roles in changing culture, creating the computer, and building the atomic bomb.