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BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY • • A brief history of psychology A. before psychology B. BASICS OF PSYCHOLOGY • • A brief history of psychology A. before psychology B. the emergence of psychology C. early schools of psychology Theoretical approaches (Disciplines/Schools) • • • Behaviourist Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Physiological (Bio-Medical) Socio-cultural (But now Evolutionary)

AP Psychology Learn why people. . . AP Psychology Learn why people. . .

A Brief History of Psychology n ‘Psychology has a long past, but its real A Brief History of Psychology n ‘Psychology has a long past, but its real history is short. ’ Ebbinghaus (1908)

A. Before Psychology n Does psychology go back to the Ancient Greeks? n Certainly A. Before Psychology n Does psychology go back to the Ancient Greeks? n Certainly it was shaped by Enlightenment philosophy (e. g. Descartes, Locke, Hobbes) n However, others also asked about human nature, for example theologians and educators n These questions were all forms of reflexive discourse (viewing human behavior as lacking in volition or conscious control) n Psychology emerged as a new kind of reflexive discourse, using science, instead of philosophy, to find answers

The first two major schools of psychology were A. behaviorism and Gestalt psychology B. The first two major schools of psychology were A. behaviorism and Gestalt psychology B. structuralism and functionalism C. functionalism and behaviorism D. behaviorism and psychoanalysis

B. The Emergence of Psychology n Psychology is usually described as beginning with the B. The Emergence of Psychology n Psychology is usually described as beginning with the opening of an experimental lab by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig in 1879 n However, it’s more realistic to see psychology as emerging gradually over the course of the 19 th century n Psychology emerged as a logical progression from attempts to use science to answer questions about human nature

B. The Emergence of Psychology “On the origin of species by Natural Selection” (1850) B. The Emergence of Psychology “On the origin of species by Natural Selection” (1850) 1809 -1882

B. The Emergence of Psychology n Scientific psychology became possible with the acceptance of B. The Emergence of Psychology n Scientific psychology became possible with the acceptance of evolutionary thought, particularly Darwin’s The Origin of Species n This located humanity within the animal kingdom, and hence in the realm of natural science n Evolutionary thought led particularly to forms of adaptational psychology, individual difference psychology, and comparative psychology

B. The Emergence of Psychology • Darwin • Theory of Evolution • Natural Selection B. The Emergence of Psychology • Darwin • Theory of Evolution • Natural Selection • Human Brain • Genetics

B. The Emergence of Psychology Theory of Evolution • And the development of Psychology B. The Emergence of Psychology Theory of Evolution • And the development of Psychology

B. The Emergence of Psychology “Old Brain” to “New Brain” B. The Emergence of Psychology “Old Brain” to “New Brain”

B. The Emergence of Psychology Genetics Humans have 46 chromalids (23 pair) Chance involved B. The Emergence of Psychology Genetics Humans have 46 chromalids (23 pair) Chance involved in Meiosis means…. Gregor Mendel

B. The Emergence of Psychology Mutations n A change in genetic material that results B. The Emergence of Psychology Mutations n A change in genetic material that results from an error in replication of DNA. Mutations can be: n beneficial, n harmful, n neutral. or

B. The Emergence of Psychology Experimental Psychology n Most historians believe that experimental psychology B. The Emergence of Psychology Experimental Psychology n Most historians believe that experimental psychology began in Germany in the mid- to late 1800 s n Fechner, von Helmholtz, Weber, and Wundt all played an important role in the birth of psychology.

C. The Early Schools of Psychology n Psychology quickly diversified from the late 19 C. The Early Schools of Psychology n Psychology quickly diversified from the late 19 th century, leading to a number of distinct schools: 1. Structuralism, attempted to investigate the structure of the mind by people’s description of sensations 2. Functionalism, which investigated the adaptive functions of the mind 3. Behaviourism, which emphasised the role of the environment in guiding behaviour 4. Gestalt, which emphasised holistic aspects of mental processing 5. Psychoanalysis, which emphasised the role of unconscious forces in shaping behaviour

History of Psychology (Brief!): Beginnings AFTER DARWIN n Wilhelm Wundt: “Father” of Psychology n History of Psychology (Brief!): Beginnings AFTER DARWIN n Wilhelm Wundt: “Father” of Psychology n 1879: Set up first lab to study conscious experience n Introspection: Looking inward (i. e. , examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc. ) n Experimental Self-Observation: Incorporates both introspection and objective measurement; Wundt’s approach

1. Structuralism n Wundt’s ideas brought to the U. S. by Tichener and renamed 1. Structuralism n Wundt’s ideas brought to the U. S. by Tichener and renamed Structuralism n Structuralists often disagreed, and no way to prove who was correct! n Structuralists: Introspection was a poor way to answer many questions

2. Functionalism n William James (American) and Functionalism n How the mind functions to 2. Functionalism n William James (American) and Functionalism n How the mind functions to help us adapt and survive n Functionalists admired Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection: Animals keep features through evolution that help them adapt to environments n Educational Psychology: Study of learning, teaching, classroom dynamics, and related topics

3. Behaviorism n Behaviorism: Watson and Skinner n Psychology must study observable behavior objectively 3. Behaviorism n Behaviorism: Watson and Skinner n Psychology must study observable behavior objectively n Watson studied Little Albert with Rosalie Raynor; Skinner studied animals almost exclusively n Learning - The primary tool for adaptation n “The Science of behavior”

William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was most heavily William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism, was most heavily influenced by A. B. F. Skinner B. Charles Darwin C. John Watson D. Sigmund Freud

4. Gestalt n Gestalt Psychology: “The whole is greater than the sum of its 4. Gestalt n Gestalt Psychology: “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. ” n Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analyzing experiences into parts (which is what structuralism tried to do) n Key names: Wertheimer, Perls

Fig. 1. 2 The design you see here is entirely made up of broken Fig. 1. 2 The design you see here is entirely made up of broken circles. However, as the Gestalt psychologists discovered, our perceptions have a powerful tendency to form meaningful patterns. Because of this tendency, you will probably see a triangle in this design, even though it is only an illusion. Your whole perceptual experience exceeds the sum of its parts.

The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of behavior was A. Psychoanalysis The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of behavior was A. Psychoanalysis B. Behaviorism C. Functionalism D. Neodynamism

According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by A. self-actualizing tendencies According to Sigmund Freud, an individual's personality is largely determined by A. self-actualizing tendencies B. forces in the environment C. strivings for superiority D. forces in the unconscious

5. Psychoanalytic: Freud Our behavior is largely influenced by our unconscious wishes, thoughts, and 5. Psychoanalytic: Freud Our behavior is largely influenced by our unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, especially sex and aggression n Freud performed dream analysis and was an interactionist (combination of our biology and environment makes us who we are) n Repression: When threatening thoughts are unconsciously held out of awareness n Recent research has hypothesized that our unconscious mind is partially responsible for our behaviors n

5. Psychoanalysis “Humans function from the same motivations as animals” • Sigmund Freud • 5. Psychoanalysis “Humans function from the same motivations as animals” • Sigmund Freud • Jung • Adler

5. Psychoanalysis n Id - Primitive Instincts n Ego -Necessary adaptation to social needs 5. Psychoanalysis n Id - Primitive Instincts n Ego -Necessary adaptation to social needs of humans. Mediates b/w Id and Superego. n Superego -Necessary adaptation to social needs of human. The overly moral aspects of people.

Before we continue: n Put into 6 groups n Assign one school to each Before we continue: n Put into 6 groups n Assign one school to each group n Create School banner n DO NOT PUT SCHOOL NAME ON BANNER n DO PUT: n n SLOGAN 5 KEY TERMS (DEFINED) SYMBOL KEY PEOPLE (IF ANY ARE GIVEN)

CURRENT Theoretical Approaches (Disciplines/Schools) n n Since the 1950 s, psychologists have adopted a CURRENT Theoretical Approaches (Disciplines/Schools) n n Since the 1950 s, psychologists have adopted a number of diverse approaches to understanding human nature and behaviour These SIX different approaches include: I. III. IV. V. VI. Behaviorist Psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Biological (Physiological/Pharmaceutical) Evolutionary (from the ashes of the Sociocultural school)

Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a Janet trained her dog to sit on command by following this behavior with a reward of a dog biscuit and praise. Janet used principles of A. behaviorism B. humanism C. functionalism D. psychoanalysis

Ways of Explaining n Different approaches exist because there are different ways of explaining Ways of Explaining n Different approaches exist because there are different ways of explaining phenomena n For example, emotions can be explained in terms of the thoughts associated with them or the physiological changes they produce (ex: explain blushing) n Psychologists try to explain psychological phenomena from a range of different perspectives, and so use different approaches n As an example, what are some different ways in which we might explain shaking hands?

I. The Behaviorist Approach Watson, Skinner, Pavlov Key features: n Rejects the investigation of I. The Behaviorist Approach Watson, Skinner, Pavlov Key features: n Rejects the investigation of internal mental processes n Emphasises the investigation of observable behaviour n Emphasises the importance of the environment n Behaviour is the result of learned associations between stimuli and responses to them n The main theories are of classical (Pavlov) and operant (Skinner) conditioning

I. The Behaviorist Approach Evaluation: n Its practical focus has led to useful applications I. The Behaviorist Approach Evaluation: n Its practical focus has led to useful applications n It has influenced theory development, e. g. in the area of learning n It developed a standard scientific methodology, through the use of hypothesis testing and experimental control n It’s criticized for being mechanistic (ignoring mental processes) and overly environmentally determinist

Which of the following groups of psychologists would be most likely to focus on Which of the following groups of psychologists would be most likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person? A. humanists B. behaviorists ts -is nma Hu C. Gestalt psychologists D. psychoanalysts

II. The Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud Key features: n Mind has 3 parts: conscious, II. The Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud Key features: n Mind has 3 parts: conscious, unconscious and preconscious n n n conscious: thoughts and perceptions preconscious: available to consciousness, e. g. memories and stored knowledge unconscious: wishes and desires formed in childhood, biological urges. Determines most of behaviour n Personality has 3 components - id, ego & superego n n n id: unconscious, urges needing instant gratification ego: develops in childhood, rational. Chooses between id and external demands superego: conscience, places restrictions on behaviour

The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called A. applied psychology The branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems is called A. applied psychology B. cognitive psychology C. abnormal psychology D. developmental psychology E. Research psychology

The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is A. cognitive psychology B. evolutionary psychology C. humanism D. behaviorism

The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance The basic premise of evolutionary psychology is that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms' success A. locating a source of food B. passing on their genes to the next generation C. aggressive interactions with members of other species D. establishing a territory

II. The Psychodynamic Approach Key features (cont): n Ego mediates conflict between id, ego, II. The Psychodynamic Approach Key features (cont): n Ego mediates conflict between id, ego, superego defense mechanisms include repression, displacement, denial, reaction formation n repression pushes stuff into unconscious, but it exerts influence from there, may cause problems n n Cure neuroses by bringing material from unconscious to conscious free association n dream analysis n

II. The Psychodynamic Approach Key features (2): • Freud’s ‘mental iceberg’ view of the II. The Psychodynamic Approach Key features (2): • Freud’s ‘mental iceberg’ view of the mind

II. The Psychodynamic Approach Evaluation: Significant impact: • • • theories of personality, motivation, II. The Psychodynamic Approach Evaluation: Significant impact: • • • theories of personality, motivation, development therapeutic techniques in clinical and counselling psychology captured the popular imagination, providing an accessible framework for everyday understanding Unscientific!!! n methodologically poor n untestable (e. g. concept of denial)

III. The Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers Key features: n Rejects determinism, and emphasises free III. The Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers Key features: n Rejects determinism, and emphasises free will n Rejects the positivism of science (investigating others as detached objective observers) n Investigates phenomena from the subjective experience of individuals n An emphasis on holism: the need to study the whole person

III. The Humanistic Approach Key features (Cont): n People strive for ‘actualization’ n Rogers: III. The Humanistic Approach Key features (Cont): n People strive for ‘actualization’ n Rogers: the self-concept consists of a perceived self and an ideal self. Psychological health is achieved when the two match n Maslow: people have a hierarchy of needs. The goal of psychological growth is to meet the need to achieve self-actualisation

2 possible interpretations Of Zidanes behavior 2 possible interpretations Of Zidanes behavior

Now for a few ideas that Humanists would NEVER agree with Now for a few ideas that Humanists would NEVER agree with

III. The Humanistic Approach Evaluation: n Considerable influence on counselling n development of client-centred III. The Humanistic Approach Evaluation: n Considerable influence on counselling n development of client-centred therapy n helped establish counselling as an independent profession n development of research techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment n Unscientific n Limited impact on mainstream psychology n Limited evidence for theories

IV. The Cognitive Approach Jean Piaget Key features: n The main approach to experimental IV. The Cognitive Approach Jean Piaget Key features: n The main approach to experimental psychology n cognitive psychology investigates memory, language, perception, problem solving n but also used for other areas, e. g. social, developmental n Emphasises active mental processes n the brain is seen as an information processor, using the analogy of mind to computers n mental processes are based on discrete modules n Uses experimental methods, but also computer modelling and neuropsychology

IV. The Cognitive Approach Evaluation: n Has had a significant impact across experimental psychology IV. The Cognitive Approach Evaluation: n Has had a significant impact across experimental psychology n Has led to useful applications, e. g. cognitive therapy n Has introduced a range of rigorous research methods n can compare results from different methods, and so have more faith in research findings

IV. The Cognitive Approach Evaluation (Cont): n Lacks ‘ecological validity’ n based on artificial IV. The Cognitive Approach Evaluation (Cont): n Lacks ‘ecological validity’ n based on artificial laboratory research n but do the results apply to the ‘real world’? n Has no overall framework n there are separate theories in different areas, but there is no one framework for explaining cognition

V. The Biological Approach neuroscientist Wilder G. Penfield Key features: n Investigates: n brain V. The Biological Approach neuroscientist Wilder G. Penfield Key features: n Investigates: n brain function in healthy and impaired individuals n brain chemistry and psychology, e. g. serotonin & mood n genes and psychology, e. g. twin studies & intelligence n The common assumption is that biology underlies behaviour n Works closely with Evolutionary School n Reductionist and deterministic n reductionist: explanations at a more basic level n deterministic: behaviour directly determined by biology

V. The Biological Approach Evaluation: n Productive n has provided explanations in a range V. The Biological Approach Evaluation: n Productive n has provided explanations in a range of areas of psychology, e. g. mental health, individual differences, social behaviour n has provided therapeutic interventions, e. g. drug treatments for depression n Popular n has caught the public imagination n Its EASY. Just take this and…

VI. Evolutionary Psychology: Richard Dawkins (Cosmides & Tooby) n Our neural circuits were designed VI. Evolutionary Psychology: Richard Dawkins (Cosmides & Tooby) n Our neural circuits were designed by natural selection to solve problems. Different neural circuits are specialized for solving different adaptive problems. n Consciousness is just the tip of the iceberg; most of what goes on in your mind is hidden. n Our modern skulls house a stone age mind, adapted to the environment of evolutionary ancestry.

VI. EP – Case Study I ABSTRACT: If a person has a D rating, VI. EP – Case Study I ABSTRACT: If a person has a D rating, then his files must be marked 3. Which TWO do you check out? D Case Study Social F 3 Case Study Social ANSWER 7 Case Study Abstract Answer

VI. EP – Case Study I Social If a person is drinking vodka, then VI. EP – Case Study I Social If a person is drinking vodka, then he must be over 20 years old. Which TWO do you check out? Orders vodka Case study abstract Orders coke 75 years old Case Study Social ANSWER 16 years old Case Study Abstract Answer

VI. EP – Case Study I: Abstract Problem Continued If a person has a VI. EP – Case Study I: Abstract Problem Continued If a person has a D rating, then his files must be marked 3. If P then Q D F 3 7 P ~P Q ~Q Case study abstract Case Study Social ANSWER

VI. EP – Case Study I: Familiar Social Contract If a person is drinking VI. EP – Case Study I: Familiar Social Contract If a person is drinking vodka, then he must be over 20 years old. If P then Q 16 years old drinking vodka drinking coke 25 years old P ~P Q Case study abstract Case Study Social ~Q Case Study Abstract Answer

VI. The Evolutionary Approach Humans are social creations n Survival through ever larger groups VI. The Evolutionary Approach Humans are social creations n Survival through ever larger groups (130) n Individuals MUST be able to keep track of who they can trust and who they can’t n Individuals must form networks of other people for mutual support n Grooming others (as chimps do) takes too long (30% of available time to be effective) n Language is the only solution n Language sparks growth of a larger more complex brain. n This allows larger groups to form, etc.

VI. The Evolutionary Approach Evaluation: n Overly reductionist n It works backward: If this VI. The Evolutionary Approach Evaluation: n Overly reductionist n It works backward: If this behavior exists it must have been caused by _______ n Problems with evolutionary explanations they may underplay the effects of the environment n they may ‘naturalize’ behaviours that should be discouraged, e. g. sexual violence n Explains behavior w/o fixing it n