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Barry Wellman Director, Net. Lab Centre for Urban & Community Studies University of Toronto, Barry Wellman Director, Net. Lab Centre for Urban & Community Studies University of Toronto, Canada M 5 S 1 A 1 [email protected] utoronto. ca www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Net. Lab Studies Social Networks as: n Networked Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Net. Lab Studies Social Networks as: n Networked Communities n n *** The Internet in Everyday Life – Connected Lives “Netville” – The Wired Suburb Yamanashi (Japan) Study of Webphone & PC Email Communities of Practice at Work n n n Scholarly Networks On and Offline Trans-National Chinese Entrepreneurs: Beijing, Toronto, L. A *** Knowledge Access in Hierarchical & Networked Organizations 2

The Multiple Ways of Network Analysis n Method – The Most Visible Manifestation n The Multiple Ways of Network Analysis n Method – The Most Visible Manifestation n n Data Gathering n n n Add a Few Network Measures to a Study Integrated Approach n n n Community, Organizational, Inter-Organizational, Terrorist, World System An Add-On: n n Focus on Links, not Individual Characteristics Theory – Pattern Matters Substance n n Misleading to Confuse Appearance with Reality A Way of Looking at the World: Theory, Data Collection, Data Analysis, Substantive Analysis Links to Structural Analyses in Other Disciplines 3

Groups > Networks n n n Densely Knit > Sparsely-Knit Impermeable (Bounded) > Permeable Groups > Networks n n n Densely Knit > Sparsely-Knit Impermeable (Bounded) > Permeable Broadly-Based Solidarity > Specialized Multiple Foci Not a decline of community/work, but a transformation Moving from a hierarchical society bound up in groups to a network – and networking – society Multiple communities / work networks n n Multiplicity of specialized relations Management by networks More alienation, more maneuverability Loosely-coupled organizations / societies n n Less centralized The networked society 4

Bounded Groups Glo. Calization: Unit to Unit Individualized Networking: Person-to. Person 5 Bounded Groups Glo. Calization: Unit to Unit Individualized Networking: Person-to. Person 5

Barry’s Rules For Dealing with Social Networks n n Don’t Assume Groups or Boundaries Barry’s Rules For Dealing with Social Networks n n Don’t Assume Groups or Boundaries A Priori: Discover Them Empirically Keep Info Distinct about Different Relationships n n n Take Account of Social Demographics: SES, Gender Allow for Membership in Multiple Networks n n Online & Offline Scale Up from Small Networks to Large: n n Often Partial, Fragmentary Membership Take Multiple Means of Contact into Account n n Relate/Combine Analytically Interpersonal > Intergroup Dream/Represent in Graphs; Analyze in Matrices 6

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Models of Community and Work Groups 7 Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Models of Community and Work Groups 7

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The “Fishbowl” Group Office: Door-to-Door n n n Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The “Fishbowl” Group Office: Door-to-Door n n n All Work Together in Same Room All Visible to Each Another All have Physical Access to Each Other All can see when a Person is Interruptible All can see when One Person is with Another n n No Real Secrets No Secret Meetings Anyone can Observe Conversations & Decide to Join Little Alert to Others Approaching 8

Barry Wellman n n www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Neighbors have Hi Visual & Aural Barry Wellman n n www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Neighbors have Hi Visual & Aural Awareness Limited Number of Participants Densely-Knit (most directly connected) Tightly Bounded (most interactions within group) Frequent Contact Recurrent Interactions Long-Duration Ties Cooperate for Clear, Collective purposes Sense of Group Solidarity (name, collective identity) Social Control by Supervisor & Group 9

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The “Switchboard” Network Office: Person-to-Person n n n Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The “Switchboard” Network Office: Person-to-Person n n n Each Works Separately Office Doors Closable for Privacy Glass in Doors Indicate Interruptibility If Doors Locked, Must Knock If Doors Open, Request Admission Difficult to learn if Person is Dealing with Others Unless Door is Open Large Number of Potential Interactors n n Average Person knows > 1, 000 Strangers & Friends of Friends May also be Contacted 10

Barry Wellman n Sparsely-Knit n n n n Most Don’t Know Each Other Or Barry Wellman n Sparsely-Knit n n n n Most Don’t Know Each Other Or Not Aware of Mutual Contact No Detailed Knowledge of Indirect Ties Loosely-Bounded n n www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Many Different People Contacted Many Different Workplaces Can Link with Outside Organizations Each Functions Individually Collective Activities Transient, Shifting Sets Subgroups, Cleavages, Secrets Can Develop 11

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Door To Door (Solidary Groups) § Old Workgroups/ Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Door To Door (Solidary Groups) § Old Workgroups/ Communities Based on § Propinquity, Kinship Pre-Industrial Villages, Wandering Bands All Observe and Interact with All n Deal with Only One Group n Knowledge Comes Only From Within the Group – and Stays Within the Group n 12

Place To Place (Phones, Networked PCs, Airplanes, Expressways, RR, Transit) Home, Office Important Contexts, Place To Place (Phones, Networked PCs, Airplanes, Expressways, RR, Transit) Home, Office Important Contexts, n n Ramified & Sparsely Knit: Not Local Solidarities n n n n n Not Intervening Space Not neighborhood-based Not densely-knit with a group feeling Partial Membership in Multiple Workgroups/ Communities Often Based on Shared Interest Connectivity Beyond Neighborhood, Work Site Household to Household / Work Group to Work Group Domestication, Feminization of Community Deal with Multiple Groups Knowledge Comes From Internal & External Sources “Glocalization”: Globally Connected, Locally Invested 13

Person-to-Person: Individualized Networking (Mobile Phones, Wireless Computing, Lonely Car) n Individualized Networking n Little Person-to-Person: Individualized Networking (Mobile Phones, Wireless Computing, Lonely Car) n Individualized Networking n Little Awareness of Context n Private Desires Replace Public Civility n Multiple Specialized Relationships n Partial Membership in Multiple Networks n Long-Distance Relationships § More Transitory Relationships n Online Interactions Linked with Offline n More Uncertainty, More Maneuverability n Less Palpable than Traditional Solidarities: Alienation? n Sparsely-Knit: Fewer Direct Connections Than Door-To-Door n Possibly Less Caring for Strangers n More Weak Ties n Need for Institutional Memory & Knowledge Management 14

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Implications of the Models Social Structure Phenomena Groups Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Implications of the Models Social Structure Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Metaphor Fishbowl Core-Periphery Switchboard Unit of Analysis Village, Band, Shop, Office Household, Work, Unit, Multiple Networks Networked Individual Social Organization Groups Home Bases Network of Networks Networked Individualism Era Traditional Contemporary Emerging 15

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Boundaries Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Physical Context Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Boundaries Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Physical Context Dominance of immediate context Relevance of immediate context Ignorance of immediate context Modality Door-to-Door Place-to-Place Person-to-Person Predominant Mode of Communication Face-to-Face Wired phone Internet Mobile phone, Wireless modem Spatial Range Local Glo. Cal = Local + Global Locale All in common household and work spaces Common household and work spaces for core + external periphery External Awareness and Availability All visible and audible to all High awareness of availability Core immediately visible, audible; Little awareness of others’ availability -must be contacted Little awareness of availability Must be contacted Visibility and audibility must be negotiated Access Control Doors wide open to in-group members Walled off from others External gate guarded Doors ajar within and between networks Look, knock and ask Doors closed Access to others by request Knock and ask Physical Access All have immediate access to all Core have immediate access Contacting others requires a journey or telecommunications Contact requires a journey or telecommunications Permeability Impermeable wall around unit Household and workgroup have strong to weak outside connections Individual has strong to weak connections 16

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Boundaries (continued) Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Interruptibility Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Boundaries (continued) Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Interruptibility High: (Open Door) Norm of Interruption Mixed: Core interruptible Others require deliberate requests Answering machine Knocking on door that may be ajar or closed Norm of Interruption within immediate network only Low: Contact must be requested May be avoided or refused Prioritizing voice mail Internet filter Knocking on door that may be ajar or closed Norm of interruption within immediate network only Observability High: All can see when other group members are interacting Mixed: Core can observe core Periphery cannot observe core or interactions with other network members Low: Interactions with other network members rarely visible Privacy Low information control: Few secrets Status/Position becomes important capital Low information control: Few secrets for core Variable information control for periphery Material resources and network connections become important capital High information control: Many secrets Information and ties become important capital Joining In Anyone can observe interactions Anyone can join Interactions outside the core rarely observable Difficult to join Interactions rarely observable Difficult to join Alerts Little awareness of others approaching Open, unlocked doors High prior awareness of periphery’s desire to interact Telephone ring, doorbell High prior awareness of others’ desire to interact Formal requests 17

Interpersonal Interactions Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Predominant Basis of Interaction Ascription (What you Interpersonal Interactions Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Predominant Basis of Interaction Ascription (What you are born into) e. g. , Gender, ethnicity “Protect Your Base Before You Attack” (attributed to Mao) Free agent Frequency of Contact High within group Moderate within core; Low to moderate outside of core Variable, low with most; Moderate overall Recurrency Recurrent interactions within group Recurrent interactions within core; Intermittent with each network member Low with most others; Moderate overall Duration Long duration ties: cradle-to-grave; employed for life Long duration for household core (except for divorce); Short duration otherwise Short duration ties Domesticity Cradle-to-grave Mom and Dad Dick and Jane Long-term partners Serial monogamy Dick lives with divorced parent Changing partners; Living together; Singles; Single parents; Nanny cares for Jane Scheduling Drop-In anytime Drop-in within household, work core; Appointments otherwise Scheduled appointments Transaction Speed Slow Variable in core; Fast in periphery Fast Autonomy & Proactivity Low autonomy High reactivity Mixed: Autonomy within household & work cores High proactivity & autonomy with others High autonomy High proactivity Tie Maintenance Group maintains ties Core groups maintain internal ties; Other ties must be actively maintained Ties must be actively maintained, one-by-one Predictability, certainty and security within group interactions Moderate predictability, certainty and security within core; Interactions with others less predictable, certain and secure Unpredictability, uncertainty, insecurity, contingency, opportunity Latency Leaving is betrayal; Re-Entry difficult Ability to reestablish relationships quickly with network members not seen in years 18

Social Networks Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Number of Social Circles Few: Household, kin, Social Networks Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Number of Social Circles Few: Household, kin, work Multiple: Core household, work unit; Multiple sets of friends, kin, work associates, neighbors Multiple: Dyadic or network ties with household, work unit, friends, kin, work associates, neighbors Maneuverability Little choice of social circles Choice of core and other social circles Choice of social circles Trust Building Enforced by group Betrayal of one is betrayal of all Core enforces trust Networked members depend on cumulative reciprocal exchanges and ties with mutual others Dependent on cumulative reciprocal exchanges and ties with mutual others Social Support Broad (“multistranded”) Broad household and work core; Specialized kin, friends, other work Specialized Social Integration By groups only Cross-cutting ties between networks integrate society; Core is the common hub Cross-cutting ties between networks integrate society Cooperation Group cooperation Joint activity for clear, collective purposes Core cooperation; Otherwise: short-term alliances, tentatively reinforced by trust building and ties with mutual others Independent schedules Transient alliances with shifting sets of others Knowledge All aware of most information Information open to all within unit Secret to outsiders Core Knows Most Things Variable awareness of and access to what periphery knows Social Control Superiors and group exercise tight control Moderate control by core household and workgroup, with some spillover to interactions with periphery Fragmented control within specialized networks Adherence to norms must be internalized by individuals Subgroups, cleavages Partial, fragmented control within specialized networks Adherence to norms must be internalized by individuals Resources Conserves resources Acquires resources for core units Acquires resources for self Basis of Success Getting along Position within group Getting along Position within core; Networking Filling structural holes between networks 19

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Norms and Perceptions Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Norms and Perceptions Phenomena Groups Glocalization Networked Individualism Socialization Obey group elders Obey your parents; cherish your spouse; nurture your children; Defer to your boss; work and play well with colleagues and friends Develop strategies and tactics for self-advancement Sense of Solidarity High group solidarity Collective identity Collective name Moderate solidarity within core household and workgroup, Vitiated by many ties to multiple peripheries Sense of being an autonomous individual Fuzzy identifiable networks Loyalty Particularistic: High group loyalty Public and private spheres: Moderate loyalty to home base takes precedence over weak loyalty elsewhere Self Global weak and divided loyalties Conflict Handling Revolt, coup Irrevocable departure Back-biting Keeping distance Avoidance Exit Commitment to Network Members High within groups High within core; Variable elsewhere Variable Zeitgeist Communitarian Conflicted Existential 20

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Earlier Net. Lab Community of Practice Studies n Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Earlier Net. Lab Community of Practice Studies n Introduction of Email, Videoconferencing n n “Cerise” “Indigo” Scholarly Networks On and Offline n Easy to Measure Communication, Productivity Tele. Work – in Large Organizations n Guanxi – as Social Networks n 21

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Findings From Earlier Studies n Away from Individual Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Findings From Earlier Studies n Away from Individual Choice, Congruency n n Email Used for All Roles: n n Work, Knowledge, Sociability and Support Roles Remain Specialized on Email Lowers Status Distances Email Network Not a Unique Social Network n n n Social Affordances Only Create Possibilities Intermixed with Face-to-Face (low use of phone, video, fax) Reduces Temporal as well as Spatial Distances Need for Social (Network) Software to Foster: n n Awareness, Reachability, Knowledge Transfer IKNOW 22

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Earlier Findings (continued) n n n The More Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Earlier Findings (continued) n n n The More Email, the More F 2 F Contact Email Use Increases Decentralization The More Intense Work & Friendship Tie n n n The More Frequent Email Independent Predictors: Friendship a bit Stronger The More Types of Media Used to Communicate Independent Predictors: Friendship Stronger F 2 F the Medium of choice in weaker ties. n In Stronger Ties, Email Supplements F 2 F 23

Capitalizing On Hyperconnected Net Work Barry Wellman Net. Lab Director Centre for Urban & Capitalizing On Hyperconnected Net Work Barry Wellman Net. Lab Director Centre for Urban & Community Studies University of Toronto, Canada M 5 S 1 A 1 [email protected] utoronto. ca www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Anabel Quan Haase Information & Media Studies London, Ontario, Canada University of Western Ontario [email protected] ca

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The KME Study n n High Tech Organization Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The KME Study n n High Tech Organization of 200 Studied Software & Client Services Dept Multiple Media User Look at CMC In Context of: n n n All Media Used Work & Socializing Relationships Social Structure of Organization Survey, Interviews, Observations Anabel Quan-Haase’s Dissertation 25

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Research Questions How Does CMC Fit in a Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Research Questions How Does CMC Fit in a Routinized, Normalized Media Ecology ? n How Does CMC Affect Work Practices? n What are Social Networks Like? n Within Group and Beyond Group n Work and Socializing n n How Do CMC & Nets Affect: n n Community, Trust (and Productivity)? Is There a Networked Organization? n Or Networks within Hierarchical Bureaucracy? 26

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Methods n Case Study: 25 employees, high-tech firm Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Methods n Case Study: 25 employees, high-tech firm 11 software developers n 14 virtual community maintainers n n Computerized survey: n 3 distances: workgroup, organization, outside org. 3 media: face-to-face, instant messaging, email n Interviews and observations of 10 employees n 27

 Industry Tasks Software Development Client Services -Time-to-market pressures -Cost pressures -Success measures: profit, Industry Tasks Software Development Client Services -Time-to-market pressures -Cost pressures -Success measures: profit, market share -Success measures: satisfaction, acceptance -Staff assigned to specific tasks -User is distant and less involved -Process is immature -Coordinated software development - Cultural Milieu -Entrepreneurial -Individualistic -Long work hours -Less likely to have matrix structure Group -Involved in entire development cycle -More cohesive, motivated, jelled -Opportunities for large financial rewards -Large discrepancies in income -Small, co-located -Staff assigned to specific projects -User is involved and provides input -Process is more mature -Task accomplishment independent -More bureaucratic -Less individualistic -More set working hours -Matrix managed and project focused -People assigned to multiple projects -Work-together as needed -Salary-based -Rely on formal specifications -Larger, somewhat dispersed 28

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Media Use by Distance Daily IM * Email Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Media Use by Distance Daily IM * Email FTF + Never 29

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Communication at KME (Days per Year) FTF & Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Communication at KME (Days per Year) FTF & Phone Email IM Within Department 240 (28%) 306 (36%) Elsewhere in Organization 99 (19%) 213 (40%) 215 (41%) Outside Organization 21 (11%) 103 (53%) 72 (37%) 30

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Sources of Information Rely on both human & Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Sources of Information Rely on both human & documentary sources n Both human and documentary sources are accessed predominantly online n 31

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Coordinate/Socialize 9. 20 Linda emails Desmond asking him Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Coordinate/Socialize 9. 20 Linda emails Desmond asking him to meet (they sit across from each other). They email back and forth a couple of times to arrange a good time. n 12. 02 Anna received an instant messaging from Brian asking her to meet for lunch. They arrange to meet for lunch in 5 minutes in the hallway. n 32

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Problem Solving n John: “I investigated the product Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Problem Solving n John: “I investigated the product by trying various things and to do that I IM some people that it had impact, Brian and Sally they were experts. And then, it happened to be in this case Steve and Denise who were emailing and Brian. They were in this email threat that was going back and forth. It is very specific to what the problem is, though. ” 33

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Social Distance Andy: “Internally, I use IM a Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Social Distance Andy: “Internally, I use IM a fair amount because there are times where I want to know something, but I don’t want the other person to know how I am reacting or responding. Like I know he is going to tell me to do X and I don’t think that is the right way to go, but I have to ask him and he is going to tell me that and then he doesn’t see my face going AH. And then I can have a moment to think …and composing myself and figuring out how to respond. ” 34

Information Network – Weekly Exchanges Software Development Client Services 37 Information Network – Weekly Exchanges Software Development Client Services 37

Socializing Network – Weekly Exchanges Software Development Client Services 38 Socializing Network – Weekly Exchanges Software Development Client Services 38

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Information Brokering Information brokers are central in information Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Information Brokering Information brokers are central in information network n Measured as information network centrality n Social Network Technological Network Information network 39

Findings n Hyperconnectivity: Instant Availability n n n n Local Virtuality: CMC-Based Neighboring Glo. Findings n Hyperconnectivity: Instant Availability n n n n Local Virtuality: CMC-Based Neighboring Glo. Calization: Dispersed, but Local Stays Important Individualized Networking: n n F 2 F, IM, Email, Some Phone Overloading & Overwhelming ***** Hyperconnectivity Builds Trust ***** Organic Solidarity – Interdependent Interdependencies Each Switches among Multiple, Specialized Partial Networks Interact with Diverse Partners: Simultaneously, Sequentially Rather than Full-Blown Networked Organization Direct Ties Rule: Indirect Ties At Most One Step 40

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Ù End Hyperconnected KME Study Ú Implications of Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Ù End Hyperconnected KME Study Ú Implications of Social Network Analysis 41

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The Person is the Portal n Individual is Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman The Person is the Portal n Individual is the Primary Unit of Connectivity n n n Not the Household, Work group, Tribe Each Person Operates a Personal Community Each Person is the Portal of Communication n Mobile Phone, Email Address, Instant Messaging • Versus Letter, Landline Phone, Home Address n Each Person is the Portal of Resource Mobilization n Specialized Ties; Divisions of Labor Control of Property & Control of Networks Bridges Important n Connect Individuals; Connect Clusters; Integrate Societies 42

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Autonomy and Identity Multiple Loyalties n Partial Commitments Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Autonomy and Identity Multiple Loyalties n Partial Commitments to Networks n n n And Vice-Versa Individuals May Have Discretion about Whom They Deal With n How They Interact n Time and Place of their Interaction n n Software Needed For Knowledge Management n Small Worlds – Most People Don’t Know their Nets 43

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Consequences for Trust n Trust Has Been Built Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Consequences for Trust n Trust Has Been Built on Hierarchical Sets of Loyalty and Control to: n n n Bounded Groups Hhold > Neighbourhood > Region > Country > Bloc People Now Often Participate as: n n n n As Individuals More Weak Ties – But Easier to Connect with Strong Ties Partially Involved in any One Group Shifting, Sometimes Divided Loyalties Really, but Partially Local Easy to Shift Allegiance with Mouse Clicks Information is Only Google Away. Knowledge? 44

Summary: The Glo. Calization Paradox n n Surf and Email Globally Stay Wired at Summary: The Glo. Calization Paradox n n Surf and Email Globally Stay Wired at Office/Home to be Online Desire for Local/Distant Services and Information Internet Supplements/Augments F 2 F n n Doesn’t Replace It; Rarely Used Exclusively Media Choice? By Any Means Available Many Emails are Local – Within the Workgroup or Community n Local Becomes Just Another Interest Evidence: Netville, National Geographic, Small Cities, Berkeley, Netting Scholars, Cerise, Indigo, Telework 45

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Summary: Social Network Structure n Internet Aids Both Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Summary: Social Network Structure n Internet Aids Both Direct & Indirect Connections n Knowledge Acquisition & Management • Accessing Friends of Friends • Forwarding & Folding In: Making Indirect Ties Direct Ties n n Social and Spatial Peripheries Closer to the Center Shift from Spatial Propinquity to Shared Interests Shifting, Fluid Structures Networked, Long-Distance Coordination & “Reports” 46

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Implications of a Networked Society 47 Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Implications of a Networked Society 47

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman How a Network Society Looks n Multiple Communities Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman How a Network Society Looks n Multiple Communities / Work Networks Multiplicity of Specialized Relations n Management by Networks n More Uncertainty, More Maneuverability n Find Resources in Specialized Tie Boutiques – Not in General Relationship Stores n Networks Less Palpable than Traditional Solidarities Need Navigation Tools n 48

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Linkages Volume Up: Adds On Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Linkages Volume Up: Adds On to Phone, Face-to-Face n Velocity Up n Quality OK, with Some Flaming n Household Relations Stressed n 49

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Capital Specialized Support n From Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Capital Specialized Support n From Ties More than From Groups / Networks n Emotional Aid Supplied Online and Offline n Online Useful for Arranging Material Aid n 50

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Cohesion Networked Individualism n Glocalization Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Cohesion Networked Individualism n Glocalization n Multiple, Partial Communities n Focused Messaging within Group n May be Counterbalanced by: Forwarding, Listservs, Chats n Homogeneity in One Area Doesn’t Mean Homogeneity on Others n 51

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Mobilization Easy for Shared Interests Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Mobilization Easy for Shared Interests to Find Each Other n Chats, Searches, Forwards n Easy for Formal/Informal Groups to Form & Sustain n Websites, Listservs n Online & Offline Interpenetrate n Easy Linkages Between Groups n Web Links; Members of Multiple Groups n 52

Networked Individualism: Social Control n n Helps Social Control Institutions to Surveillance Partially Automated Networked Individualism: Social Control n n Helps Social Control Institutions to Surveillance Partially Automated n n n Cycle between Cryptography and Code-Breaking Move away from Densely-Knit Groups n n n Lower Cost and Broader Reach Socially-Controlling Good for Conserving Resources Move Towards Multiple, Partial Communities n n Reduced Informal Control Good for Acquiring New Resources 53

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Exclusion n Digital Divide: n Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Networked Individualism: Social Exclusion n Digital Divide: n Socioeconomic, Non-English Language Global Digital Divide: n (Almost) Entire Countries Not Connected n Few Phone Lines; High Cost n Much Variation Between Countries n Public Access Terminals Fill Gaps Digital Penalty: n Exclusion from Jobs, Information, Discussion 54

Bounded Groups Ramified Networks ** Each in its Place Mobility of People and Goods Bounded Groups Ramified Networks ** Each in its Place Mobility of People and Goods ** n United Family Serial Marriage, Mixed Custody n Shared Community Multiple, Partial Personal Nets n Neighborhoods Dispersed Networks n Voluntary Org’zations Informal Leisure n Face-to-Face Computer-Mediated Communication n Public Spaces Private Spaces n Focused Work Unit Networked Organizations n Job in a Company Career in a Profession n Autarky Outsourcing n Office, Factory Airplane, Internet, Cellphone n Ascription Achievement n Hierarchies Matrix Management n Conglomerates Virtual Organizations/Alliances n Cold War Blocs Fluid, Transitory Alliances 55

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Key Design Principles for CSCW Glo. Calization: Core Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Key Design Principles for CSCW Glo. Calization: Core Local Unit + Ramifying Ties n Groups > Unit-to-Unit > Person-to-Person n Networked Individualism n Internet Embedded in Everyday Life n Internet Communication Adds on to F 2 F, Phone n Similar Networks in Work, Leisure n 56

Resources n Sunbelt Social Network Conf. n n Redondo Beach (L. A. ) mid Resources n Sunbelt Social Network Conf. n n Redondo Beach (L. A. ) mid February International Network for Social Network Analysis www. insna. org n Socnet List Serve n Social Networks – journal; Connections – informal journal n n Software: UCINet (incl listserve), Pajek (Slovenian) 57

Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Books n n n Stanley Wasserman & Kathryn Barry Wellman www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman Books n n n Stanley Wasserman & Kathryn Faust, Social Network Analysis (Cambridge U Press, 1994) Barry Wellman & S. D. Berkowitz (eds. ), Social Structures: A Network Approach (Elsevier, 1998) Peter Carrington, et al. (eds. ) Models & Methods in Network Analysis (Cambridge U Press, 2004). More Focused: Nan Lin, Social Capital (Jossey Bass, 2002) Barry Wellman & Caroline Haythornthwaite (eds. ), The Internet in Everyday Life (Blackwell 2002) Barry Wellman (ed. ) Networks in the Global Village (Westview, 1999) 58

Thank You – Barry Wellman & Anabel Quan-Haase Net. Lab Centre for Urban & Thank You – Barry Wellman & Anabel Quan-Haase Net. Lab Centre for Urban & Community Studies University of Toronto, Canada M 5 S 1 A 1 [email protected] utoronto. ca www. chass. utoronto. ca/~wellman