Скачать презентацию Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Towards a Framework Скачать презентацию Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Towards a Framework

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Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Towards a Framework for Managing Active Networks based on Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Towards a Framework for Managing Active Networks based on paper TFS_Openshaw_B 1 Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 1

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 UK Overview • Kyoto Protocol targets for UK – Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 UK Overview • Kyoto Protocol targets for UK – 10% renewables generation by 2010 (currently 3%) – plus 10 GW CHP by 2010 (current level - 4. 8 GWe) – (UK demand - winter max 50 GW / summer min 20 GW) • UK Government Energy White Paper – recommends doubling of these targets by 2020 – most of this generation will be embedded within UK distribution networks Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 2

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 LE Group UK Networks Branch 165, 000 km network Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 LE Group UK Networks Branch 165, 000 km network 14. 6 GW demand 7. 7 m customers b Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 3

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Three Important Areas • Technical • Commercial • Regulatory Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Three Important Areas • Technical • Commercial • Regulatory Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 4

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Technical Aspects • Key challenges for Network Operators – Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Technical Aspects • Key challenges for Network Operators – Voltage regulation and management – Fault levels – Transient stability • Probable impact of these factors – Network design / operational policy changes – Capital investment Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 5

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Voltage Regulation Example - 33 k. V rural network Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Voltage Regulation Example - 33 k. V rural network East England Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 6

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Voltage Regulation • Generator connected to weak 11 k. Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Voltage Regulation • Generator connected to weak 11 k. V rural network – Simple line drop compensation unable to compensate for voltage rise at remote connected generator (typically operating at unity p. f. ) AVC / LDC 33/11 k. V P-Q P+Q AG Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 7

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Voltage Regulation • Possible solutions: – curtailment (no. generators Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Voltage Regulation • Possible solutions: – curtailment (no. generators / size / output) – reinforce network – in-line voltage regulators – reactive power import / compensation – co-ordinated voltage control • real-time measurement • state estimation Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 8

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Fault Level Contribution I = sustained fault current 33/11 Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Fault Level Contribution I = sustained fault current 33/11 k. V I’ = transient fault current I’’ = subtransient fault current IM = induction motor AG = asynchronous generator 3 I 1’’ å (I+I’+I’’) SG = synchronous generator 1 IM X I 2’’ AG Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 X I 3+I 3’’ SG 9

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Fault Level Contribution • Possible Solutions: – reinforce network Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Fault Level Contribution • Possible Solutions: – reinforce network (higher switchgear ratings) – series reactors – run with open bus-sections - in conjunction with auto-close scheme – super-conducting fault current limiters – a. c. / d. c. / a. c. interface - e. g. voltage-sourced converter Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 10

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Transient Stability Transmission network connected generators – high fault Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Transient Stability Transmission network connected generators – high fault levels – high inertia high transient stability – high-speed protection Distribution network connected generators – low fault levels – low inertia low transient stability – slow-speed protection Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 11

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Transient Stability Case study: 5 MW 11 k. V Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Transient Stability Case study: 5 MW 11 k. V generator - pole slip initiated by voltage dip Current Angle -60 -500 0 500 1000 Time from network fault ms Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 8000 6000 4000 RMS Voltage Source Trip 10000 Generator Trip 0 12000 Pole Slip 60 Network Fault Phase Angle (+Lead - Lag) 120 Voltage 2000 1500 0 2000 12

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Transient Stability • Possible Solutions: – reinforce network (higher Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Transient Stability • Possible Solutions: – reinforce network (higher fault ratings) – faster / unit protection • Secondary benefits of higher fault levels – improved power quality • reduced voltage step effects • better protection co-ordination Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 13

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Commercial Aspects • Connection / Use of System charges Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Commercial Aspects • Connection / Use of System charges for distributed generators • Contracts for distribution network support services – voltage support – security support – constraining-on contracts Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 14

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Connection Charges Deep Shallowish 33/11 k. V x Shallow Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Connection Charges Deep Shallowish 33/11 k. V x Shallow 33/11 k. V x LV/11 k. V Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 x LV/11 k. V 15

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Contractual Framework • Voltage / Capacity / Security support Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Contractual Framework • Voltage / Capacity / Security support 33/11 k. V x SG – N-1 conditions – peak demand support – may obviate need for network reinforcement Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 16

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Regulatory Aspects UK regulatory model WACC Regulatory Return Opening Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Regulatory Aspects UK regulatory model WACC Regulatory Return Opening Value + Allowed Revenue x Asset Value + Operating Costs Investment + - Depreciation Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 17

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Regulatory Aspects • Network Operator requirements (options) – Generator Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Regulatory Aspects • Network Operator requirements (options) – Generator Use-of-System charges – Protection from stranded costs – Higher risk rates of return – Appropriate depreciation periods – Fully expensed provisions – Protection of Regulatory Asset Base Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 18

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Power Zones Proposed offshore wind farm - 100 MW Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Power Zones Proposed offshore wind farm - 100 MW KINGS LYNN SOUTH WALPOLE HEMPTON SALL KINGS LYNN PETERBOROUGH EAST PETERBOROUGH KINGS LYNN BRETTONPOWER STATION WALSOKEN SWAFFHAM PETERBOROUGH NORTH WEST PETERBOROUGH CENTRAL MARCH TO STAMFORD EARLHAM NORWICH THORPE GT. YARMOUTH NORWICH TROWSE GT. YARMOUTH power stn. NORWICH GORLESTON MAIN ILKETSHALL THETFORD DISS HUNTINGDON BURWELL HISTON EATON SOCON R. A. E. LT BARFORD MILTON A. R. A. FULBOURN BURY ST EDMUNDS TO GRENDON EDISON BEDFORD AUSTIN ROAD CANONS MELBOURN LETCHW'TH SIZEWELL WICKHAM MARKET STOWMARKET BELCHAMP THAXTED LOWESTOFT RUMBURGH HALESWORTH Proposed offshore wind farm - 70 MW BRAMFORD IPSWICH CLIFF QUAY WYMONDLEY LAWFORD SUNDON LUTON N PELHAM UGLEY COLCHESTER BRAINTREE HOUGHTON BISHOP'S STORTFORDABBERTON LUTON S REGIS STEVENAGE CLACTON AYLESBURY EAST CHELMSFORD ILMER NORTH BRADWELL OP. AT 33 k. V WELWYN PICOTTS END 0 HARLOW RYE HOUSE WEST CELL HATFIELD BARNES EPPING GRID CHELMSFORD EAST MALDON MW/km 2 Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 12 19

Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Conclusion • Active Networks will require – more sophisticated Barcelona 12 -15 May 2003 Conclusion • Active Networks will require – more sophisticated voltage management – faster / co-ordinated protection systems – some investment in reinforcement • Network Operators will require – new commercial contracts with generators – Regulatory incentives and/or protection – Power Zone concept Dave Openshaw UK Alpha 4 – Block 2 20