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AWS New Welding Technologies June 15 -16, 2010 Salay Stannard CLADDING AND ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING USING LASER APPLIED POWDER® PROCESSES
Who Is Joining Technologies? • About 60 employees • 25, 000 SF, With Room to Expand At Current Location • 2, 000 SF Dedicated to Laser Cladding • Laser Applied Wire (LAW®) Additive Processing • Laser Applied Powder (LAP®) Additive Processing • Laser Welding • EB Welding • GTAW • Lasers Systems Design & Integration • Supply Chain Management • ISO 9001: 2000 • AS 9100 • NADCAP Certified for Welding
The Necessity for Component Repair and Surfacing Technologies Why repair technologies are needed: • Wear and Damage • Sealing Surfaces • Mounting / Fretting Surfaces • Bearing and Loaded Surfaces • Tools and Dies • Manufacturing Nonconformities • Under filled castings • Incorrect Machining • Design Changes • High Value Parts • Long Lead Times
Laser Based Repair Technologies • Pulsed Wire Cladding • CW Laser Wire Cladding • Laser Blown Powder Cladding
Pulsed Laser Wire Cladding • • Wire is positioned on top of substrate Wire is stationary relative to part Laser fuses wire to substrate by a series of spot welds Manual or automated processing Manual process is well suited to limited production or highly irregular repairs Not well suited to crack sensitive materials due to rapid heating and cooling rates Low deposition rates due to low average laser power, limited pulse rate and need to synchronize wire and part feed
Continuous Wave (CW) Laser Wire Cladding • • • Laser beam creates molten pool on part Filler wire is fed into pool by precision wire feed Wire is melted and incorporated into the pool to create a bead Process is nearly always automated Better for crack sensitive materials ~10 x higher deposition rates than pulsed wire
Laser Powder Cladding • • • Laser beam creates molten pool on part Metal powder is blown into pool by precision powder feed system Powder is melted and incorporated into the pool to create a bead Process is always automated Largest selection of available clad materials ~10 x higher deposition rates than CW wire feeding
Laser Powder Cladding Blown Powder Nozzle Schematic Multijet Nozzle Coaxial Nozzle
Need for Cladding and Additive Manufacture • Aerospace • Power Generation • Oil/Gas
Special Challenges in Aerospace Processing Need: Overhaul and Repair • Process: Limited industry specifications FAA & OEM barriers • Limited to repair and design work Document/Control Stringent metallurgical requirements Minimal heat input required Poor capture rate: 30 -40% detail, 12 -20% knife edges • Machine cannot be modified after source approval • Test pieces are rare due to high cost of part
Special Challenges in Power Generation Need: Hard facing, corrosion resistance • Longer processing times for large part surface areas JT: 9. 6 lb/hr approx 90% capture • Part geometry varies job to job • Less stringent on powder quality • Open metallurgy requirements Accepting of ↑HAZ, dilution, etc.
Special Challenges in Oil/Gas Need: Hard facing, corrosion resistance, wear resistance • Longer processing times for large part surface areas • Less stringent on powder quality • Accepting of ↑HAZ, dilution, etc.
Work Cell for Aerospace Processing Platform: • Cartesian CNC preferred • Beam quality is important Solid-state systems -Disk or fibre lasers JT: 2 k. W → 4 k. W Trumpf disk laser Clad Requirements: • Powder- Rotary vs. Atomized Quality is critical! • Accepting of additive with wire • Typical repair thickness < 0. 060” Materials deposited include: • Stellite 6, 21 • SS 410, 410 L • IN 100 • Inconel 625, 718 • 4047
Work Cell for Power Generation Processing Platform: • Flexible beam quality, direct diode systems possible • 3 -7 mm spot size • Coaxial system, He powder delivery Clad requirements: • Typical thickness 0. 040” – 0. 200” JT: deposited 0. 040” – 3+” • 30 -60 HRc, > 45 HRc cracking possible with carbide powders Materials deposited include: • Inconel 622, 625, 718 • Stellite 6, 21 • Ni-Cr • Carbides • Tool Steels
Work Cell for Oil/Gas Processing Platform: • Flexible beam quality, direct diode systems possible • 3 -7 mm spot size • Coaxial system, He powder delivery Clad requirements: • Typical thicknesses 0. 040” – 2” • > 0. 080” cracking possible Materials deposited include: • • Carbides • WC-Cr Ni-Cr • WC-Co-Cr Inconel 622, 625, 718 Stellite 6, 21
Advantages of Powder vs. Wire Laser Wire Cladding • • Welding with wire is a well established aerospace process Typically lower capital investment than for powder Crack and pore free deposition is attainable for many common aerospace materials using commercially available wire 100% utilization of filler material Laser Powder Cladding: • • • Higher maximum deposition rates Larger variety of possible clad materials Processing head is compact, omnidirectional and completely non contact Minimum feature size and heat input are limited only by minimum laser focus size and economics Lower dilution
Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems LAW ® Work Cell Equipment • Designed and built by Joining Technologies • Trumpf Tru. Disk 1000 Laser supply • 3 - Axis CNC control with rotary • Wire 0. 010” – 0. 025” diameter • Closed loop servo controlled wire feed • Real time power density control while welding • Non contact profile scanning with data storage • Highly efficient wire placement algorithms • Vision based wire tracking within 0. 003” • Real time work piece temperature control
Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems LAP ® Work Cell Equipment • Trumpf Tru. Disk 4002 (4 k. W) Laser Supply • KUKA KR 30/HA (High Accuracy) Robot Approx. 6 ft radius hemisphere range 66 lbs. payload • KUKA DKP 400. 1 Rotary/Tilt Table Approx. 880 lbs. load • Programmable Dual Powder Feeders • On the Fly Focus spot size control • Multi-jet or Coaxial powder delivery
Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems Equipment Acquisition • August installation of Trumpf 505 Powder Cladding system • 6 k. W CO 2 Laser • 6. 5 ft X 3. 2 ft X 2. 5 ft envelope • 5 Axis motion platform • High capacity rotary • Programmable spot size • High absolute and relative accuracy • Two hopper powder feed
Joining Technologies Laser Additive Systems Lab Expansion and LAP ® Upgrade • Additional 10, 000 sq ft cladding workspace • Accommodations for parts up to 3 ft dia x 40 ft long x 5 tons • 30 ft linear rail for robot positioning • Multi-ton capacity precision head stock, tail stock and steady rests
Conclusions • • • Both laser additive technologies, wire and powder, have many overhaul and repair applications for the aerospace, power generation, and oil/gas industries. When compared to traditional repair processes additive manufacturing maintains base metallurgy with low heat inputs and a high degree of control. Industry acceptance remains a challenge, but is sure to improve with continued research, development and testing.
Thank You! Salay Stannard Scott Poeppel Dave Hudson Process Development Engineer Manager of Additive Processes President Visit www. joiningtech. com for a detailed list of capabilities and to sign up for our industry video blog salays@joiningtech. com spoeppel@joiningtech. com dhudson@joiningtech. com