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Content s History and origin Symbols and traditions Thanksgiving around the world Poems and songs Menu, recipes Cards
History and origin • In 1620 more than one hundred people sailed across the Atlantic ocean to settle in the New World. They left their old country England because they couldn’t pray the way they wanted. The people were called Pilgrims. The Pilgrims sailed to America from Plymouth, England, in September 1620.
The name of their ship was the Mayflower. It was approximately 25 feet wide and 90 feet long. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, in what is now the state of Massachusetts, in December 1620.
Their were people living in America before the pilgrims arrived. These people were the Native American Indians. The Indians began settling in America about 25, 000 years ago. They hunted, fished and farmed to survive. There were many regional groups, or tribes, each had its own customs and beliefs.
The Pilgrims’ first winter in the New World was difficult. They had arrived too late to grow any crops. Without fresh food half of the Pilgrims died. The following spring the Indians taught the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, plant and survive in America. The crops did well, and in the fall of 1621 the Pilgrims had a great harvest. They were thankful and decided to celebrate it with a Thanksgiving feast.
The first Thanksgiving lasted three days. Governor Bradford sent men to the forest to bring wild turkeys, geese, ducks. The Pilgrims invited the chief of the Wampanoag tribe, Massasoit, and 90 of his braves. The Indians brought five deer. Thy prepared dinner of meat, seafood, vegetables, wild fruits, corn. There was popcorn too! The work for preparing the feast – for 91 Indians and 56 settlers – fell to only 4 Pilgrim women and 2 teenage girls.
The militia under the leadership of Captain Myles Standish drilled and fired their muskets and cannon to entertain their guests, and in turn the Wampanoag delighted their hosts with demonstrations of their traditional dances. The men also competed in jumping, running and other athletic contests. And after the Indians displayed their accuracy with bow and arrow, the Pilgrim soldiers took part in a parade and exhibited their skills in shooting. The women and girls spent most of their time cooking and serving.
The Pilgrims had so much to be thankful for. The long, hard, terrible year was over. They gave thanks for good friends, new homes, and plenty of food. They gave thanks for the new life they had begun in Plymouth.
Symbols and traditions
Turkey is a part of the traditional Thanksgiving dinner, since it is believed that the Pilgrims and the Native Americans had turkey at their feast.
Sweet-sour cranberry sauce, or cranberry jelly, was on the first Thanksgiving table and is still served today. The cranberry is a small, sour berry. It grows in bogs, or muddy areas, in Massachusetts and other New England states. The Indians used the fruit to treat infections. They used the juice to dye their rugs and blankets. They taught the colonists how to cook the berries with sweetener and water to make a sauce. The Indians called it "ibimi" which means "bitter berry. " When the colonists saw it, they named it "crane-berry" because the flowers of the berry bent the stalk over, and it resembled the long-necked bird called a crane. The berries are still grown in New England. Very few people know, however, that before the berries are put in bags to be sent to the rest of the country, each individual berry must bounce at least four inches high to make sure they are not too ripe!
The horn of plenty, or the cornucopia, is a familiar Thanksgiving symbol. It is a symbol of the earth bounty, and reminds us that our food comes from the earth.
Indian corn is used as a decoration. The American Indians taught the Pilgrims how to plant corn, which the Pilgrims used to survive their first winter.
This holiday has such national entertainment as Thanksgiving Day Parade and a professional football game broadcast on TV. The Gimbel Brothers started the parade tradition with a parade of toys in Philadelphia in 1920. Macy’s department store holds famous Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City. Celebrities, Floats, bands and balloons shaped like famous storybook and cartoon characters appear in the parade. Santa Claus arrives at the end. His coming marks the beginning of the Christmas season.
Throughout history many cultures have given thanks for a bountiful harvest. They might differ The First in their forms and presentations. But their spirit Americans - setting aside a date to reflect on life's blessings, remains the same. Catch a glimpse of the spectra of colors and shades that tinge the The Greeks thankful celebrations from around the world! The Hebrews As evident from most of the cultures people would associate these with harvest festivals in The Egyptians gratitude of the God who protects them and their crops. Harvest festivals and thanksgiving celebrations held by the ancient Greeks, the The Romans, the Hebrews, the Chinese, and the Egyptians all reflect the similar spirit. The Kaleidoscope here depicts the spectra of celebration as practiced by these different cultures.
Even in prehistoric times, the first Americans observed many rituals and ceremonies to express gratitude to a higher power for life itself. A Seneca Indian ritual, for example, states, "Our Creator. . . Shall continue to dwell above the sky, and this is where The First Americans those on the earth will end their thanksgiving. " Another quotation of the American Indians attributed to a later period. But that too was well before the day the Europeans came to know about America. It was: "The plant has its nourishment from the earth and its limbs go up this way, in praise of its Maker. . . like the limbs of a tree. "
The Greeks The ancient Greeks worshipped Demeter as their goddess of all grains. Each autumn the festival of Thesmosphoria was held to honor the goddess. On the first day of the festival married women would build leafy shelters and furnish them with couches made with plants. On the second day they fasted. On the third day a feast was held and offerings to the goddess Demeter were made - gifts of seed corn, cakes, fruit, and pigs. It was hoped that Demeter's gratitude would grant them a good harvest.
For over 3000 years Jewish families have been celebrating an autumnal harvest festival called Sukkoth begins on the 15 th day of the Hebrew month of Tishri, The Hebrews 5 days after Yom Kippur the most solemn day of the Jewish year. Sukkoth has derived its name from the huts (succots) that Moses and the Israelites lived in as they wandered the desert for 40 years before they reached the Promised Land. These huts were made of branches and were easy to assemble, take apart, and carry as the Israelites wandered through the desert. The festival coprises two main events Hag ha Succot - the Feast of the Tabernacles and Hag ha Asif - the Feast of Ingathering. Part II
During this 8 -day long festival the Jews build small huts of branches which recall the tabernacles of their ancestors. These huts are constructed as temporary shelters, as the branches are not driven into the ground and the roof is covered with foliage which is spaced to let the light in. Inside the huts are hung fruits and vegetables, including apples, grapes, corn, and pomegranates. On the first two nights of Sukkoth the families eat their meals in the huts under the evening sky. The Hebrews
The celebration of the spring-time harvest festival by the ancient Egyptians was dedicated to the honor of Min, their god of vegetation and fertility. Spring being the harvest season of the Egyptian's the festival was held during this season. The festival featured a parade in which the Pharaoh took part. After the parade a great feast was held. Music, dancing, and sports were also part of the celebration. The Egyptians When the Egyptian farmers harvested their corn, they wept and pretended to be grief-stricken. This was to deceive the spirit which they believed lived in the corn.
The Romans The Roman celebration of Cerelia, a harvest festival, was dedicated to the honor of Ceres was their goddess of corn (from which the word cereal comes). It was also an autumnal festival held each year on October 4 th. Offerings of the first fruits of the harvest and pigs were made to Ceres. The celebration included music, parades, games and sports and a thanksgiving feast.
POEMS AND SONGS
All Things Bright and Beautiful Refrain: All things bright and beautiful, All creatures great and small, All things wise and wonderful: The Lord God made them all. Each little flower that opens, Each little bird that sings, God made their glowing colors, And made their tiny wings. (Refrain) The cold wind in the winter, The pleasant summer sun, The ripe fruits in the garden: God made them every one. (Refrain) The purple-headed mountains, The river running by, The sunset and the morning That brightens up the sky. (Refrain) God gave us eyes to see them, And lips that we might tell How great is God Almighty, Who has made all things well. (Refrain)
Faith of Our Fathers Faith of our fathers! living still O how our hearts beat high with joy In spite of dungeon, fire, and sword; When e're we hear that glorious word! Faith of our fathers, holy faith! We will be true to thee till death. Faith of our fathers! we will strive To win all nations unto thee; And through the truth that comes from God Mankind shall then be truly free. Faith of our fathers, holy faith! We will be true to thee till death. Lyrics Frederick W. Farber, 1814 -1863 Music: Henry F. Hemy, 1818 -1888 Faith of our fathers! we will love Both friend and foe in all our strife; And preach thee, too, as love knows how By kindly words and virtuous life Faith of our fathers, holy faith! We will be true to thee till death.
MENU AND RECIPES appetizer entree PORQUEROLLES ISLAND, TOASTED ALMONDS Turkey with stuffing sides Smashed potatoes sauce Cranberry sauce Chocolate pecan dessert pie White Bordeaux wine Chateau Olivier
From Patricia Wells at Home in Provence , by Patricia Wells Serves 12, as appetizer One summer while dining on the French Mediterranean island of Porquerolles, we were served a glass of the easygoing local white wine along with a small bowl of these fragrant almonds, roasted with dried and fresh thyme, coarse salt, a touch of olive oil, and a bit of egg white, which helps the thyme cling to the nuts. I instantly added the almonds to my repertoire at Chanteduc, anticipating the day I could make them with a crop from my newly planted almond trees. In the winter time I prepare these just as guests are arriving: The toasted thyme fills the house with a heady aroma that shouts Provence! loud and clear. RECIPE
TOSTED ALMONDS Ingredients: 4 ounces (125 g) unblanched almonds 2 teaspoons extra-virgin olive oil 1 egg white 1 1/2 teaspoons coarse sea salt 3 teaspoons dried thyme 1 teaspoon fresh thyme, leaves only Method: 1. Preheat the oven to 400°F (200°C; gas mark 6/7) 2. In a large, shallow bowl, combine the almonds, oil, egg white, salt and dried thyme and toss with your hands to coat the nuts thoroughly. Transfer to a nonstick baking sheet and spread the nuts out in a single layer, so that no two almonds touch. Sprinkle each with fresh thyme leaves. 3. Place in the center of the oven and toast until the nuts are lightly browned and a fragrant aroma wafts from the oven, about 4 minutes. Remove the baking sheet from the oven. Allow to cool, then break apart any almonds that touch. Remove any excess "crust" formed and discard. The almonds can be stored, well sealed, for up to 2 weeks.
HERB STUFFING (For a 12 -Pound Turkey) Ingredients: 1 Large Onion; Chopped 1 cup Butter 1 cup Celery; Finely Chopped 2 tsp. Granulated Chicken Bouillon 1 tsp. Poultry Seasoning 1/2 tsp. Salt 1/4 tsp. Pepper 1 1/4 cup Water 12 cups White Bread; Cubed (Approximately 24 -slices) 3/4 cup Parsley In a large pan sautй chopped onion in butter until soft. Add celery, broth, poultry seasoning, salt, pepper and water and heat to a boil. Place bread and parsley in a large mixing bowl. Pour sautйed ingredients over bread mixture and toss lightly until moisture is evenly distributed. Stuff well cleaned turkey with mixture and bake.
Serves 4 - 6 Smashed Potatoes After the fad of creamy mashed potatoes began to fade, Parisian palates moved to what I called "smashed" potatoes and the French called pommes écrasées. Rather than reducing the potato to a puree, they are simply crushed with a fork and enriched with butter and oil. The dish shows up everywhere, from bistro tables to grand palaces, and plays a versatile role as a warming accompaniment to roast pork, chicken, lamb, or fish. It's a method that flatters the fragrance and flavor of very nutty, fruity, earthy yellow fleshed potatoes. In France we use the fingerling ratte or yellow-fleshed Charlotte. Try this with fingerlings, such as bananas or ruby crescents, or Yukon Golds. Be sure to have a large well-heated bowl on hand in which to crush the potatoes. The glory of this dish is the fragrance that wafts from the rising steam, so prepare and serve at the very last moment. RECIPE
Ingredients: 2 pounds (1 kg) firm, yellow-fleshed potatoes, scrubbed and peeled Coarse sea salt to taste 8 tablespoons (4 ounces; 120 g) unsalted butter 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil Fine sea salt to taste 2 tablespoons fresh flat-leaf parsley, leaves only, snipped with scissors Method: 1. Place the potatoes in a large pot and fill with cold water to cover by at least 1 inch (93 cm). For each quart (l) of water, add 1 tablespoon (10 g) of coarse sea salt. Simmer, uncovered, over moderate heat until a knife inserted in a potato comes away easily, 20 to 30 minutes. Make sure the potatoes are fully cooked, or they will not mash properly. Drain the potatoes as soon as they are cooked. (If allowed to cool in the water, the potatoes will taste reheated. ) 2. Transfer the potatoes to a warmed large serving bowl and dot with the butter and oil. With a large fork or potato masher, coarsely crush the mixture to blend. Do not let it form a puree. Season with fine sea salt and parsley, and serve immediately
Cranberry Sauce Ingredients: 2 cups packed light brown sugar 2 cups granulated sugar Grated rind of 3 oranges 1 cup orange juice 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon 3 pounds fresh cranberries Method: In a large saucepan, over medium heat, combine sugars, orange rind, orange juice, and cinnamon. Bring to a boil. Add cranberries, cover and cook until cranberries burst (approximately 4 to 5 minutes). Refrigerate. The sauce gels when cold.
Ingredients: For the crust: 1 1/2 (6 3/4 ounces) all-purpose flour (measured by scooping and leveling) 6 tablespoons (3 ounces) chilled unsalted butter, cut into 1/2 inch bits 3 tablespoons vegetable shortening or rich-tasting lard, chilled and cut into 1/2 inch bits 3/4 teaspoon sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 egg yolk, beaten slightly For the filling: 2 cups (about 6 ounces) pecan halves (make sure they're fresh and richly flavorful) 6 ounces semisweet or bittersweet chocolate 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour 3/4 cup (6 ounces) room-temperature unsalted butter 1 cup firmly packed dark brown sugar 5 large eggs, room temperature 3/4 cup light corn syrup 1/4 cup molasses 1 1/2 tablespoons kahlua or brandy 2 1/4 teaspoons pure vanilla extract GO ON 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 cups Sweetened Whipped Cream (see below) flavored with kahlua for serving Chocolate Pecan Pie
Method: 1. The dough. Measure the flour, butter and shortening (or lard) into a bowl or a food processor fitted with the metal blade. Quickly work the fats into the flour with a pasty blender or pulse the food processor until the flour looks a little damp (not powdery) but tiny bits of fat are still visible. If using the food processor, transfer the mixture to a bowl. Mix together the sugar, salt and 3 tablespoons and ice water. Using a fork, little by little work the ice-water mixture into the flour mixture. The dough will be in rough, rather stiff clumps; if there is unincorporated flour in the bottom of the bowl, sprinkle in a little more ice water and use the fork to work it together. Press the dough together into a flat disk, wrap in plastic and refrigerate at least 1 hour. On a lightly floured surface, roll the dough into a 12 inch circle. Transfer to a deep 10 inch glass pan (I find it easiest to roll the dough onto a rolling pin, then unroll it onto the pie pan). Decoratively crimp the edge and trim excess dough. Refrigerate 30 minutes. Chocolate pecan pie GO ON
2. Prebaking the crust. Heat the oven to 400 degrees. Lightly oil a 15 inch piece of foil and lay it, oiled side down, into the crust (heavy duty foil is too stiff to work here); press down to line the crust snugly. Fill with beans or pie weights and bake about 15 minutes, until beginning to brown around the edges. Reduce the oven temperature to 350 degrees. Carefully remove the beans or weights and foil, return the crust to the oven and bake 8 to 10 minutes, until it no longer looks moist. (If it bubbles at this point, gently press it down with the back of a spoon. ) Brush the beaten egg yolk over the crust, then let it cool completely. 3. The nuts and the chocolate. While the crust is cooling, spread the pecans on a baking sheet and toast in the 350 degree oven until fragrant, about 10 minutes. Cool, then break into small pieces and transfer to a large bowl. Chop the chocolate into rough, 1/2 inch pieces and add to the bowl, along with the flour. Stir until everything is well coated. GO ON
4. The filling. In a food processor (or in the large bowl of an electric mixer), cream the butter and brown sugar until light and fluffy, about 3 minutes in the processor, 5 minutes in the mixer. With the machine still running, add the eggs one at a time, letting each be completely incorporated before adding the next. Beat in the corn syrup, molasses, Kahlua or brandy, vanilla and salt. 5. Baking. Pour the filling over the chocolate and pecans and stir well to combine. Pour the mixture into the prebaked pie shell, set onto the lower shelf of the oven and bake until a knife inserted into the center in withdrawn clean, about 1 hour. Cool completely on a wire rack. Serve slices of the pie at room temperature or slightly warm, topped with a dollop of Kahluaspiked, sweetened whipped cream. Chocolate pecan pie GO ON
The pie can be made several days ahead, wrapped in plastic and refrigerated. It freezes well. Because the pie is easiest to cut when cold, I suggest making it ahead, refrigerating it, cutting it, then warming just before serving. Variations and improvements: Other nuts can be substituted for the pecans. Honey can replace the molasses for a lighter flavor. If you like the crystalline crunch of Mexican chocolate, reduce the semisweet chocolate to 5 ounces and sprinkle the pie with 1/3 cup rather finely chopped Mexican chocolate before baking. Two 9 -inch pies: Prepare 1 1/2 times the dough, divide it and roll out each half to line 2 shallow 9 -inch pie pans; crimp and refrigerate. Divide the filling between the crusts and bake at 325 degrees for 45 to 50 minutes.
White Bordeaux: Chateau Oliver Bordeaux stands apart from every other wine-growing area. It is not only supreme for quality; it produces gigantic quantities. The vineyards cover a large part of the land for about fifty miles in one direction by about seventy in another. They have been known to produce over a hundred and thirty million gallons of wine in a good year, while the top figure for Burgundy (including Beaujolais) is about fifty million. The best wines of Bordeaux are the great red wines, known to forty generations of Englishmen as claret. Almost equal to them in a completely different way are the supremely lucious sweet wines of Sauternes. However, under the heading of white wines for the table, for drinking with food, we are restricted to the dry or medium-sweet wines which we think of under the broad heading of Graves, but which are grown in almost all districts of Bordeaux. GO ON
Bordeaux Graves is a district name. The Graves country, in which the city of Bordeaux itself lies, and which stretches away to the south among old buried sand dunes and straggling pine woods, makes better red wine than white. It makes some of the finest of all clarets. Yet, curiously enough, the name of Graves is only used on labels to indicate the district's less important white wine. A list of good white Graves Châteaux should be headed by Châteaux Olivier and Carbonnieux, both more famous for white wine than red.
CARDS GO ON