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Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC): Research Overview Christine M. Belcastro, Ph. Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC): Research Overview Christine M. Belcastro, Ph. D. IRAC Principal Investigator Phone: (757) 864 -4035 e-mail: christine. m. belcastro@larc. nasa. gov October 2006

Presentation Outline Aviation Safety Program • IRAC Long-Term Mission and Goals – – IRAC Presentation Outline Aviation Safety Program • IRAC Long-Term Mission and Goals – – IRAC Research Problem Mission & Goals Technology Vision Key Technical Challenges • IRAC 5 -Year Research Plan – Objectives – Research Approach & Technical Areas – Research & Technology Integration • IRAC Project Summary Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

IRAC Research Problem: Aircraft Loss of Control Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control IRAC Research Problem: Aircraft Loss of Control Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) Events Result From Numerous Causal & Contributing Factors Off-line Crew Training On-line Assisted, Crew Notification Semi-Automated, & Cueing and Automatic Control under Adverse Conditions: • Control System Component Failures (e. g. , Sensors, Actuators, Propulsion System) • Vehicle Impairment & Damage (e. g. , Control Surfaces, Fuselage & Lifting Surfaces) • Vehicle Configuration Incompatibilities • System Errors (e. g. , SW/HW errors, HIRF) • Crew Input Errors (e. g. , PIO, Mode Confusion) • Atmospheric Disturbances (e. g. , Wake Vortices) • Weather (e. g. , Wind Shear, Turbulence, Icing) Prevention/Recovery from Upset Conditions: Aircraft Modeling & Simulation Vehicle State Assessment Validation & Verification Recovery & Control • Operation Beyond Normal Flight Envelope • Unstable Modes of Motion • Stall and/or Departure from Controlled Flight • Uncommanded Motions due to - Asymmetric Thrust - Failures • Out-of-Control Motions - Falling Leaf - Stall/Spin

IRAC Long-Term Mission & Goals Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Mission: Develop IRAC Long-Term Mission & Goals Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Mission: Develop technologies to prevent or recover from aircraft loss of control and ensure safe flight under flight/safety-critical adverse, upset, and hazard conditions in the current and next-generation air transportation system Goals: • Reduce aircraft loss-of-control accidents by detecting, characterizing, and mitigating the historical and emerging precursors to loss-of-control events • Provide onboard control resilience functions for continuously assessing and managing vehicle performance and control capability to ensure flight safety and recoverability under multiple and cascading adverse, upset, and hazard conditions

IRAC Technology Vision Aviation Safety Program Multidisciplinary Characterization of Abnormal Conditions Commands Integrated Resilient IRAC Technology Vision Aviation Safety Program Multidisciplinary Characterization of Abnormal Conditions Commands Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Diagnostics & Prognostics for Abnormal Condition Effects on Flight Safety Safe Flight & Mission Management Vehicle-Based Mission Management & Autonomous Collision Avoidance Validation Uncertainties Verification Disturbances Software Assurance Stuck Rudder Damaged Aileron Control Recovery from Loss-of-Control Conditions Failure / Damage / Impairment Mitigation Robustness to Atmospheric Disturbances

IRAC Key Technical Challenges Aviation Safety: IVHM & IRAC • Technology Verification & Validation IRAC Key Technical Challenges Aviation Safety: IVHM & IRAC • Technology Verification & Validation Integrated Modeling & Simulation – Multidisciplinary Characterization of Abnormal Condition Effects on Vehicle Dynamics » Upsets » Failures/Damage » External Hazards (Icing, Turbulence, Wind Shear, Wakes) – • Characterization of Coupled Effects of Multiple Abnormal Conditions Integrated Recovery & Control – Integrated Robust/Adaptive Multi-Objective Control Methods for Abnormal Conditions » Flight / Propulsion / Structural Control » Failure / Damage Accommodation » Upset Recovery – Complexity of Structural Damage for Detection/Prediction & Accommodation » Static & Dynamic Loads Effects » Aeroelastic Effects – Capability to Effectively Handle Multiple LOC Causal/Contributing Factors » Natural Hazards Prediction/Detection & Mitigation » Human-Induced Error Detection & Mitigation – Autonomous Navigation and Control Capability for Abnormal Conditions » Trajectory Generation » Self-Separation » Collision Avoidance – Vehicle/Crew Integration » Effective Crew Involvement under Abnormal Conditions » Variable Levels of Autonomy • Integrated Validation & Verification – – – Verification, Validation, and Certification of Nondeterministic, Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Predictive Capability Assessment for Abnormal Application Domains that Cannot be Fully Tested Verification & Safety Assurance of Software-Intensive Safety-Critical Systems

IRAC Project Objectives: First 5 -Years Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Objectives: IRAC Project Objectives: First 5 -Years Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Objectives: • Develop and Evaluate integrated/multidisciplinary methods, tools, and techniques for the: – Characterization, detection, and/or prediction of icing, upset, and damage conditions and their effects on aircraft safety of flight – Loss-of-Control prevention, mitigation, recovery, and trajectory management under icing, upset, and/or damage conditions – Assessment of complex integrated systems » analytical, simulation, and experimental validation – Application of methods that currently exist or are currently under development – Development of preliminary analytical methods for adaptive systems (NRA) » predictive capability assessment (initial methods) » software verification and safety assurance (preliminary methods) • Establish pathways to facilitate and/or enable future technology transition – Integration with IVHM & IIFD – Leveraging with AAD – Collaborations with Industry, the FAA, and OGAs – Participation on RTCA Committees and other Rule/Procedure-Making Organizations for Software Certification

IRAC Research Approach & Technical Areas Aviation Safety: IVHM & IRAC Fatal Accident Distribution IRAC Research Approach & Technical Areas Aviation Safety: IVHM & IRAC Fatal Accident Distribution 60% Safety Challenges Commercial Transports US General Aviation 30% 0% Lo. C CFIT Wx Technology Verification & Validation Comp. Runway Other Failures Incur. Enable NGATS Unknown Loss of Control significant IRAC Research Deliverables Multi-Disciplinary Modeling, Design, Analysis, & Optimization Tools for Resilient Integrated Control of Aircraft in Off-Nominal Conditions Aircraft Modeling & Simulation for Off Nominal Conditions Aerodynamics Aeroservoelasticity Vehicle State Assessment, Recovery and Control Propulsion Flight Control V&V of Complex Adaptive Systems Human / Autonomy Integrated V&V Physics-Based Modeling Control Experimental Methods Validation & Verification (Fluid, Structural & Engine Dynamics) (Off-Nominal Conditions) (Adaptive & Learning Systems)

IRAC Research & Technology Integration Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control IRAC Research & Technology Integration Aviation Safety Program Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

IRAC Project Summary Aviation Safety Program • Comprehensive Research & Technology Development for Adverse, IRAC Project Summary Aviation Safety Program • Comprehensive Research & Technology Development for Adverse, Upset, and External Hazard Conditions – – • Dynamics Modeling & Simulation Vehicle State Assessment Control Recovery & Trajectory Management Integrated Technology Validation & Verification Process IRAC Research Key Attributes – – – • Integrated Multidisciplinary Modeling & Control Methods Diagnostics & Prognostics from a Safety-of-Flight & Control Perspective Integrated Control Mitigation & Recovery for Off-Nominal Conditions (Including Trajectory Management & Collision Avoidance) Variable Autonomy Capability and Interfaces with Human Operator Integrated V&V Process for Adaptive Safety-Critical Control Systems Integration of IRAC with other Av. SAFE Projects and ARMD Programs – Integrated Vehicle Health Management Technologies – Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck – Aircraft Aging and Durability – Fundamental Aeronautics Program – • Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Airspace Program » Integrated Flight/Engine/Airframe Control for Extended Life and Degradation/Failure Accommodation » Variable Autonomy and Effective Crew Involvement under Off-Nominal Conditions » Leveraging of Structural Modeling Methods and Tools (especially aging effects for damage growth prediction) » Application and Development of IRAC technologies for future aircraft operating in all flight regimes » Leveraging of external hazards (e. g. , wake vortex) models and development of advanced IRAC technologies for supporting NGATS (especially under off-nominal conditions) Broad Range of Industry Participation Anticipated – – – RFI Released in January 2006 Resulted in Many Responses Anticipate Partnerships through Space Act Agreements Would Like to Facilitate Development of Consortia for Collaborations