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Autonomous Mobility for Military Scout Vehicles and Potential Driver Assistance System Spinoffs Scott Myers, Autonomous Mobility for Military Scout Vehicles and Potential Driver Assistance System Spinoffs Scott Myers, President General Dynamics Robotic Systems Richard Bishop Consulting May 1, 1999 @ ITSA Boston

Military Needs • Unmanned vehicles: core resource for 21 st century armed forces • Military Needs • Unmanned vehicles: core resource for 21 st century armed forces • Robots act as force multipliers • Robots replace humans in high-risk situations • Soldiers supervise several robotic systems, leveraging available (and scarce) manpower 2

Demo III Program • Focus: develop, demonstrate, and experiment with unmanned scout vehicles • Demo III Program • Focus: develop, demonstrate, and experiment with unmanned scout vehicles • Sponsor: US DOD Joint Robotics Program • Manager: US Army Research Lab (ARL) & Tank-automotive Research, Engineering, and Development Center (TARDEC) • Funding: $50 M during 1998 -2001 • Follows Demo I (1980’s) and Demo II (early 1990’s) 3

Demo III Technical Elements • (1) Concerted Technology Thrust -developing advanced technology for autonomous Demo III Technical Elements • (1) Concerted Technology Thrust -developing advanced technology for autonomous mobility • (2) Modeling/Simulation/Experimentation -examining the impact of this technology on military operations • (3) Technology Integration -- Integrate technology into 4 testbed platforms: Experimental Unmanned Vehicles (XUVs) 4

General Dynamics Robotics Systems • Advanced manufacturing / engineering, automation/sortation/process control electronics, image processing General Dynamics Robotics Systems • Advanced manufacturing / engineering, automation/sortation/process control electronics, image processing inspection, & robotic-content products for commercial customers • Leader in the development of robotic and autonomous systems for Do. D tactical and security applications – MDARS-E system: advanced autonomous vehicle for perimeter security • Robust Obstacle Avoidance System • Precision GPS-based Navigation System • Intrusion Detection System ( radar and image based target acquisition and tracking) • Interconnected via Controller Area Network (CAN) Local Area Bus • Prime Contractor / System Integrator for Demo III 5

Demo III Supporting Team • • Sarnoff Laboratories SAIC Center for Intelligent Systems NASA Demo III Supporting Team • • Sarnoff Laboratories SAIC Center for Intelligent Systems NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 6

Demo III Program Goals • Enable small, survivable unmanned vehicles (XUVs) to tactically maneuver Demo III Program Goals • Enable small, survivable unmanned vehicles (XUVs) to tactically maneuver over rugged terrain • Maneuver at speeds comparable to manned vehicles, employing similar behaviors as manned missions – Implies significant obstacle detection smarts (both positive and negative obstacles) 7

Demo III Technology: Perception for Autonomous Mobility • Requirements call for: – – – Demo III Technology: Perception for Autonomous Mobility • Requirements call for: – – – on-road mobility (40 mph) off-road mobility (20 mph) day / night operations inclement weather stealthy operation (hug tree lines, etc. ) • Must detect, classify, and intelligently respond to positive/negative obstacles: – Examples: • On-road: vehicles, people, animals, road edges • Off-road: trees, bushes, rocks, ravines, wire fences, overhanging branches 8

Demo III Autonomous Mobility Requirements 9 Demo III Autonomous Mobility Requirements 9

Intelligent Perception: Sensors • Passive: – – Color CCD camera Stereo high resolution monochrome Intelligent Perception: Sensors • Passive: – – Color CCD camera Stereo high resolution monochrome cameras Stereo infrared cameras Both on pan/tilt mechanism • Active – Laser Scanner / LADAR (high speed, high resolution ranging) – Foliage Penetrating Radar (2. 5 - 3. 5 GHz) – Millimeter-wave FMCW scanning radar • (product of NHTSA research!) 10

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Demo III Technology: Software Architecture • Intelligent software architecture – Enables complex, real-time decision Demo III Technology: Software Architecture • Intelligent software architecture – Enables complex, real-time decision making combined with a priori knowledge (maps, etc) • NIST 4 -D / RCS Reference Architecture – All intelligent activity broken down into: • • observation (sensory processing) registration of observations into knowledge database value judgement (compute costs/risk of alternatives) behavior generation 12

Demo III Technology • Navigation – using P/Y code military GPS, inertial referencing, and Demo III Technology • Navigation – using P/Y code military GPS, inertial referencing, and wheel encoders • Vetronics (vehicle electronics) – plug-n-play approach – fly-by-wire vehicle controls – standard Controller Area Network (CAN) bus structure • Reconaissance Module – Enables detection of targets and target designation – Sensor suite includes camera, FLIR, laser rangefinder, acoustic sensors 13

Demo III: Demo Alpha • September 1999 -- initial program demo • Aberdeen Proving Demo III: Demo Alpha • September 1999 -- initial program demo • Aberdeen Proving Ground (modest terrain) • Capabilities shown to military VIPs: – Two XUV vehicles operated by troops – 20 mph on-road, 10 mph off-road required (exceeded) – Successful detection / avoidance of rocks, poles, trees, roadside signs – Negative obstacle detection not implemented – Stereo vision (using active gaze control) very effective 14

Demo III: Demo Bravo • October 2000 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky – Very challenging Demo III: Demo Bravo • October 2000 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky – Very challenging terrain, more realistic military situations – Extensive troop usage; engineers “in the background” • New capabilities: – Road following, convoying, negative obstacle handling – Sensor suite: MMW radar, foliage-penetrating radar, stereo infrared and visible-spectrum cameras, 15 laser rangefinder

Demo III: Spinoffs to Intelligent Vehicles for Transportation • Demo III represents the largest Demo III: Spinoffs to Intelligent Vehicles for Transportation • Demo III represents the largest federal investment in advanced vehicle technology • Program provides advanced technology which can support goals of USDOT IVI and vehicle industry: – collision warning / avoidance – driver assistance systems – automated vehicle systems • Also applicable to non-highway industrial vehicles 16

Demo III: Spinoffs to Intelligent Vehicles for Transportation • Intelligent Perception: – approaching machine Demo III: Spinoffs to Intelligent Vehicles for Transportation • Intelligent Perception: – approaching machine intelligence which can perceive and classify surroundings at human levels • Obstacle Detection: – typical roadway obstacles as well as potholes • Low Speed Automation (Stop-n-Go): – initial application of automation? • Electronic Towbar (heavy truck convoying): – Military already considering transferring Demo III technology to truck operations 17

Demo III: Spinoffs to Intelligent Vehicles for Transportation • Transit Bus Electronic Guidance: – Demo III: Spinoffs to Intelligent Vehicles for Transportation • Transit Bus Electronic Guidance: – understanding of complex urban street scenarios • Sensor Fusion: – Multiple modality sensor suites essential to IV’s • Sensor Testbed: – Evaluating a wide range of sensor types • Architectures: – direct transfer to in-vehicle architectures 18

Conclusion • Demo III leading technology development for super-smart vehicles • Overall robotic vehicle Conclusion • Demo III leading technology development for super-smart vehicles • Overall robotic vehicle program focus expected to grow dramatically within DOD – Demo III funding increases under discussion – Future Combat Vehicle development beginning – Robotics Alliance being established • Information Sharing – Periodic program updates available at www. ivsource. net – Or send email to Richard. [email protected] com 19