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Automatic Composition of Transition-based Semantic Web Services with Messaging Daniela Berardi, Diego Calvanese, Guiseppe Automatic Composition of Transition-based Semantic Web Services with Messaging Daniela Berardi, Diego Calvanese, Guiseppe De Giacomo, Richard Hull, and Massimo Mecella September 2, 2005 Affiliations: Berardi, De Giacomo, Mecella: Università di Roma “La Sapienza” Calvanese: Libera Università di Bolzano/Bozen Hull: Bell Labs Research, Lucent Technologies September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005

The Web: Yesterday, tomorrow 10 years ago • HTML, Web browsers established • Amazon. The Web: Yesterday, tomorrow 10 years ago • HTML, Web browsers established • Amazon. com launched • Web access only by landline Today • Trillions of content-based web pages • Thousands of human-machine e-commerce/e-service sites, some offering programmatic interfaces • Keyword-based search for web sites • Broadband wireless access to laptops; web on cell phones 10 years from now • Proliferation of “converged” services; always-on connectivity • 100 Ks or Ms of machine-machine e-commerce/e-service sites • The “semantic web”: search based on web contents/services September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 2

Working with web services 10 years from now Automation of: • Web service discovery Working with web services 10 years from now Automation of: • Web service discovery Find me a shipping service that will transport fresh seafood from Trondheim to Paris. • Web service invocation Obtain 100 kilos of Norwegian herring for Paris Fish Market • Web service selection, composition and interoperation Establish on-going shipments of Norwegian herring. • Web service execution monitoring Has the herring shipment been delayed this week? Web service simulation, verification, exception handling Broad application in retail e-commerce, supply chain, e -government, communications, entertainment/gaming September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 3

Key Building Blocks for this Vision • Reasoning about message passing – Cf. Conversation Key Building Blocks for this Vision • Reasoning about message passing – Cf. Conversation model [Bultan et al, WWW ’ 03], etc. – FSM internal model for receive/send messages – Relating local/global messaging behavior • Reasoning about semantics, i. e. , “impact on the world” – Cf. OWL-S [OWL-S Coalition, ’ 03], etc. – Composition results typically focus on single-use • Reasoning about the internal processes of web services – – Cf. “Roman” model [Berardi et al, ICSOC ’ 03], etc. Alphabet of abstract “actions” FSM internal model Results construct re-usable compositions • Early foundations work focuses on building blocks individually • It is now time to. Compositiona Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 model use of single, unified Automatic September 1, 2005 4

Web Services Standards Stack: Key Elements Focus of talk: a Discovery Choreography Composition (Individual) Web Services Standards Stack: Key Elements Focus of talk: a Discovery Choreography Composition (Individual) Service Description web service model inspired by aspects of these standards UDDI WSChoreography OWL-S BPEL 4 WS Service. Model WSCL 3 GPP IMS OWL-S WSDL Service. Profile Payload Messaging SOAP Network HTTP, SMTP, FTP, etc. September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 SIP 5

Outline • Background • Colombo: A formal model that combines the key building blocks Outline • Background • Colombo: A formal model that combines the key building blocks for semantic web services • Automated synthesis of “mediators” and “choreographies” in Colombo • Related work and conclusions September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 6

Colombo: Combining the key building blocks, while respecting existing standards, approaches Client (human or Colombo: Combining the key building blocks, while respecting existing standards, approaches Client (human or machine) Bank Store Ware. House “Real World” • Messages between services • Impact on “real world” – modeled as relations or FOL • “View” of internal process model – automata based September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 7

Colombo: A general model, with specialization to achieve first results • The general model Colombo: A general model, with specialization to achieve first results • The general model incorporates – Impact on “real world”: cf. OWL-S atomic process • Incorporate explicit database manipulations – Message passing: cf. WSDL and other standards – Process model inside web service: FSM-based • As in Roman, Conversation, Guarded Automata models – “System”: Collection of interoperating services • For our first results (this paper) – Willing to impose many restrictions • Key-based relations, limitations on recursion, … – Hopefully, can generalize the results in subsequent research September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 8

World, Access Functions, Accessible Terms Shipment Inventory code available warehouse price order# address status World, Access Functions, Accessible Terms Shipment Inventory code available warehouse price order# address status HP 15 T NGW 5 22 Rome “not committed” HS 72 F SW 10 . . . . delivery date 16 July . . . Restriction • World relations have keys (can be k-ary) Access functions, e. g. , f 2 Inventory(HP 15) = “NGW” Accessible terms over constants C, variables V: Elements of C or V; fj. R( 1, …, m) for accessible terms j Restriction • All database access is via key-based look-up, using accessible terms September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 9

Atomic Process (Typed) input arguments check. Item: I: item: Dom=; O: avail: Bool; wh: Atomic Process (Typed) input arguments check. Item: I: item: Dom=; O: avail: Bool; wh: Dom=; price: Dom ; (Typed) output arguments Effects: if f 1 Inventory(item) = T then avail: = T and wh : = f 2 Inventory(item) and p : = f 3 Inventory(item) and either no-op on Inventory or modify Inventory(item; F, -, -) if f 1 Inventory(c) = F then avail: = F • Atomic process is “stateless” Conditional effects Effect expressed in terms of • Impact on output arguments • Insert, delete, modify on world relations • (These express full set of effects) Effects can be non-deterministic on world relations • Reflects possibility that the abstract model of the world is incomplete – World relations provide some state • Execution is atomic in transactional sense September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 10

Advertised behavior of web service as guarded automaton (pay. By == CC) (price > Advertised behavior of web service as guarded automaton (pay. By == CC) (price > 10) / ! request. CCCheck(cart. Num) ? request. Order( pay. By, cart. Num, addr, price) (pay. By == PREPAID) (price 10) / charge(cart. Num; payment. OK) ? reply. CCCheck( approved) approved == F / ! reply. Order(“fail”) approved == T / request. Ship( wh, addr; oid, date, status) September 1, 2005 payment. OK == F / ! reply. Order(“fail”) payment. OK == T / request. Ship(wh, addr; oid, date, status) ! ship. Status( oid, date, status) ? request. Ship. Status(oid) • Local store • Edge conditions based on local store (and incoming message) • Edge actions – Atomic Process – Create/send message – Read message Restriction • Queue length: 1 • “Blocking” reads check. Ship. Status( ! ship. Status( oid; date, status) Automatic oid, date, status) Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 11

Web Services “System” S = ( C , F = {S 1, …, Sn} Web Services “System” S = ( C , F = {S 1, …, Sn} , L ) “Client” – sends/receives messages; Largely non-deterministic Services Linkage: specifies channels between services (and client) S 1 C S 2 S 3 The Si’s impact “real world” via embedded atomic processes More Restrictions • No External Access: for now, no other systems impact world • “Blocking” behavior: Services block when waiting for a read September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 12

Execution Trees and Equivalence S = ( C , F = {S 1, …, Execution Trees and Equivalence S = ( C , F = {S 1, …, Sn} , L ). . . . . Each node labeled (id, I) Each edge satisfies , and labeled by “trace”, which records ground message sent/received or atomic process invoked • Essence of an execution tree: Project onto – Atomic process invocations – Messages from/to client • Intuitively: the observables to client, external world • Equivalence of two systems: – If essences of execution trees are isomorphic September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 13

Outline • Background • Colombo: A formal model that combines the key building blocks Outline • Background • Colombo: A formal model that combines the key building blocks for semantic web services • Automated synthesis of “mediators” and “choreographies” in Colombo • Related work and conclusions September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 14

Mediator-centric Composition C C M ? ? ? G S 2 S 14 S Mediator-centric Composition C C M ? ? ? G S 2 S 14 S 8 “UDDI” S 1 S 2 S 3 . . . • Select from UDDI, construct mediator and linkage • Interaction with C, and with “real world”, should copy G September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 15

Composition Synthesis Result • Goal system: S = ( C , G = {G} Composition Synthesis Result • Goal system: S = ( C , G = {G} , L ) – “Goal” G has atomic processes and messages to C • Problem: Given Goal system and UDDI directory, – Select {S 1, …, Sn} from UDDI – Build mediator M – Build linkage L’ so that ( C , S = {M, S 1, …, Sn} , L’ ) is equivalent to the goal system • Thm: Can determine existence of (and build) a (p, q)-bounded mediator in doubly exptime – Restrict to “fully mediated” systems: Client communicates only with mediator; mediator has no atomic processes – (p, q)-bounded: M has at most p states, q variables September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 16

Choreography Synthesis C C ? ? ? G S 2 S 14 S 8 Choreography Synthesis C C ? ? ? G S 2 S 14 S 8 “UDDI” S 1 S 2 S 3 . . . • Select from UDDI, and construct a linkage • Again, interaction with C and real world should copy G September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 17

Choreography Synthesis Result • Goal system: S = ( C , G = {G} Choreography Synthesis Result • Goal system: S = ( C , G = {G} , L ) – “Goal” G has atomic processes and messages to C • Problem: Given Goal system and UDDI directory, – Select {S 1, …, Sn} from UDDI – Build linkage L’ so that ( C , S = {S 1, …, Sn} , L’ ) is equivalent to the goal system (no mediator) • Thm: Can determine existence of (and build) a choreography in doubly exptime – Variant of previous proof, in which mediator is severely restricted (so (p, q)-bounded is implicit) September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 18

Proof highlights (1): Infinite to Finite • Working with data – Data domains are Proof highlights (1): Infinite to Finite • Working with data – Data domains are unbounded size – Execution trees have unbounded branching • How do we turn this into a finitely branching system? – Use “symbolic values” instead of “concrete values” – Rely on key-based look-ups – Symbolic values may be related in different ways • • Focus on “Symbolic Value Characterization” (svc) Work with “complete” boolean formula about relationships of all symbolic variables to each other, and to constants – Accessible terms • Act kind of like Skolem terms, but distinct terms may evaluate to same concrete value • Lemma: There is natural homomorphism from “concrete” exec trees to “symbolic” exec trees September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 19

Proof highlights (2): Embedding symbolic world into PDL • Generalization of approach taken by Proof highlights (2): Embedding symbolic world into PDL • Generalization of approach taken by Roman composition synthesis results [Berardi et al, ICSOC ’ 03] – Propositions for each state of each UDDI service, Goal service, relationships between symbolic values – Sentences for new symbolic values coming from DB reads – Sentences that address FSM properties – Sentences for Mediator/Linkage vis-à-vis Goal service • Generalizations needed – Working with (symbolic) model of world instance – Non-determinism from possible values in world instance – Non-determinism from non-deterministic conditional effects – In Roman results, things are more synchronized • (We need to analyze our embedding more carefully – may obtain tighter complexity bounds) September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 20

Outline • Background • Colombo: A formal model that combines the key building blocks Outline • Background • Colombo: A formal model that combines the key building blocks for semantic web services • Automated synthesis of “mediators” and “choreographies” in Colombo • Related work and conclusions September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 21

Selected related work • ASTRO: Composition with planning via symbolic modeling [Pistore et al, Selected related work • ASTRO: Composition with planning via symbolic modeling [Pistore et al, ISWC ’ 04, ICWS ’ 05] – Service models are inspired by OWL-S, BPEL – Uses MBP planner to build mediator satisfying the CTL-based goal • First-order Logic Ontology for Web Services (FLOWS) • [http: //www. daml. org/services/swsf/1. 0/overview/] – An extension of PSL – a first-order situation calculus – Impact on world, messages as first-class citizens – Agnostic on process model – can model flowcharts, Golog, FSMs, … Web Services Modeling Ontology (WSMO) [www. wsmo. org] – An ontology for web services – Follows OWL-S notion of service profile (input, output, condition, effect) – Uses Abstract State Machines as basic model for service descriptions • [Deutsch et al, PODS ’ 04] • – Verification for single web service – Based on Abstract State Machines, with impact on relational database Meteor-S framework (also WSDL-S) [Sheth et al ’ 03, ’ 04, ’ 05] – Position WSDL input/output types in domain ontologies – Composition by selecting atomic processes and placing into stylized workflow template • See also recent Hull-Su survey in SIGMOD Record, June, 2005 September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 22

Conclusions • Semantic Web Services should combine: – “Semantic” atomic processes that “change the Conclusions • Semantic Web Services should combine: – “Semantic” atomic processes that “change the world” – Messages for communication between web services – Ability to describe process model inside web services • Colombo – Targeted model for Semantic Web Services, with guarded automata as internal process model – Mediator and Choreography synthesis, against a “UDDI” populated with richly described services • Many restrictions in order to achieve first family of results – Emphasis on re-usable composition, rather than use-once • Some next steps – Optimize our reduction, e. g. , remove some restrictions, get to EXPTIME – Relax notion of “goal”, e. g. , along lines of ASTRO – Develop a theory of queries over Colombo (or FLOWS) services, to support web services discovery September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 23

Backup Slides September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 24 Backup Slides September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 24

Colombo Model: Overview • Real world modeled by keyed relations • Atomic Processes modeled Colombo Model: Overview • Real world modeled by keyed relations • Atomic Processes modeled after OWL-S – Atomic Process can read/write selected world relations • Web Service: Guarded automaton – Local store (with scalars) – Transitions have conditions based on local store – Transitions have actions: • • • Atomic Process Send message Receive message – Ports (reminiscent of WSDL) • System: family of web services, with linkage – Instantaneous description, (id, I ) (id’, I‘) – Execution tree • Focus on – Systems with a “client” – Web services drawn from pre-existing set (UDDI directory) September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 25

Mapping symbolic world into Propositional Dynamic Logic • Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) – Well-known Mapping symbolic world into Propositional Dynamic Logic • Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) – Well-known modal logic for reasoning about programs – [e. g. , short intro in The Description Logic Handbook] Formulas: built from “propositional letters” (or “fluents”) == f | | ’ | [r] | r “f is true in current state” “starting from current state, every execution of r leads to state in which is true” “starting from current state, some execution of r leads to state in which is true” Programs: built from atomic Programs r == P | r r’ | r; r’ | r* ( | ? | r – ) September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 26

Semantics for PDL • Models have the form (a Kripke structure) M = ( Semantics for PDL • Models have the form (a Kripke structure) M = ( S , {R P}, ) For each atomic program P, a binary relation over S – “transition relation” Set of “states” M, s | =. . . f ’ if if f (s) M, s | and = : S 2{fluents} (for each state s, which fluents are true in s) M, s | ’ = R P S x S for each atomic program P R r; r ’ = R r’. . . September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 27

Key results for PDL M, s |= is valid in M if for each Key results for PDL M, s |= is valid in M if for each state s, M, s | = | if is valid in every M that satisfies = • M satisfies if for some state s, • Thm: – Satisfiability is Exp. Time complete – is satisfiable iff there is a model with size at most exponential in | | (and this can be constructed in exponential time) • Tree model property: each model can be “unwound” to form a model that has a tree structure September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 28

Composition with Planning via Symbolic Modeling [Pistore, Traverso et. al. ] Approach taken • Composition with Planning via Symbolic Modeling [Pistore, Traverso et. al. ] Approach taken • Start with a targeted model of available services – [ISWC ’ 04] Start with OWL-S services • Models conditions about “state of world” but not “impact on the world” – [ICWS ’ 05] Start with BPEL services • Specify desired goal in terms of Ea. Gle – Variant of CTL, incorporates preferences, handling of failure of subgoals • Attempts to build a mediator to satisfy goal • Applies a “Planning as Model Checking” tool – Various restrictions, e. g. , synchronous messages, bounded ranges, • End-to-end implementation, using MBP planner Comparison to Colombo synthesis results • Focus on theoretical result, with absolute answers • Combines OWL-S + automata-based process model • “Impact on world” modeled explicitly – “Key-based access” restriction September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 29

Selected References • • R. Hull and J. Su, “Tools for Composite Web Services: Selected References • • R. Hull and J. Su, “Tools for Composite Web Services: A Short Overview”, ACM SIGMOD Record, Volume 34, Number 2, June 2005. http: //www. sigmod. org/sigmod/record/issues/0506/p 86 -column-libkin. pdf (Many references are available here. ) R. Hull, “Web Services Composition: A Story of Models, Automata and Logics”, keynote at Intl. Conf. on Web Services (ICWS), June 2005, Orlando, Fl, available at http: //db. bell-labs. com/project/e-services-composition/2005 -07 -13 -hull-on-webservices-at-ICWS. ppt D. Berardi, D. Calvanese, G. De Giacomo, R. Hull, M. Marcella, “Automatic Composition of Transition-based Semantic Web Services with Messaging”, VLDB 2005 (focus of this talk), available at http: //www. vldb 2005. org/program/paper/thu/p 613 berardi. pdf. Appendix available as Tech. Report 06 -2005, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza”, http: //www. dis. uniroma 1. it/~mecella/publications/e. Service/Appendix. VLDB 2005. pdf Semantic Web Services Framework: http: //www. daml. org/services/swsf/. In particular, in version 1. 0 the document “The Semantic Web Services Ontology (SWSO)”. (This is a draft document and will evolve. ) OWL-S: http: //www. daml. org/services/owl-s/, and in particular version 1. 1 (dated 11/2004) and the OWL-S white paper http: //www. daml. org/services/owls/1. 1/overview The ASTRO project at the University of Trente, Italy, including P. Traverso, M. Pistore and others: http: //sra. itc. it/projects/astro/ The Meteor-S project at University of Georgia, including A. Sheth and others, including pointers to WSDL-S activities: http: //lsdis. cs. uga. edu/projects/meteor-s/ A. Deutsch, L. Sui, and V. Vianu. Specification and verification of data-driven web services. In Proc. ACM Symp. on Principles of Database Systems, 2004. September 1, 2005 Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, VLDB 2005 30