- Количество слайдов: 34
Automated Systems System where you provide the input, and the machine or computer carries out the process and provides you with the output. Washing Machine • Washing Machine Cleans Clothing Dirty Clothes • Central Heating • Programming a Video Recorder • Vending machine Clean Clothes
Automated Systems in Industry Industrial processes use automated systems for example: Car Manufacturing factory use an assembly line to put cars together. Assembly Line Uses a conveyor belt to move the parts from one part of the factory to the next
Why use automated systems? • Carry out the process much faster than a human. • Tasks that automated systems are programmed to do are often boring or repetitive. • Used in hazardous environments (hot or cold) • More efficient than people because the can work without breaks • More accurate than people and can do finely detailed work without getting tired • They are adaptable because they can be programmed to carry out different tasks.
Adaptable The ability of an automated system to be able to carry out a variety of different tasks.
Social Issues Disadvantages Advantages • Loss of jobs, less workers • Jobs may be created for the maintenance of the needed automated system. • Employees may need • Nature of job changes (new retrained – fear change skills) • Nature of job changes – • Fewer people working in fear change potentially dangerous factory
Technical Implications - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS • Moving parts of a machine must be covered • Robots programmed to move slowly around factory • Robots should be fitted with flashing lights and have siren • Have hazardous signs around area where robot is in use • Robots are fitted with sensors to prevent them bumping into other objects
Economic Implications • High initial cost - expensive to install Why do it? • Automated systems don’t require pay rises, holidays, don’t require costly facilities like a canteen. (Long term savings) • Productivity (Workload) is increased
Quality Control When using automated systems the quality of the product must be kept consistent. Humans are still needed for this task on the production line.
Systems Analysis A systems analyst is a person who examines a method of working (manual system) and decides the best way of doing it using a computer system. The systems analysis is the process of carrying out the job.
Robot Anatomy Robot A device which can carry out repetitive tasks under the control of a computer program. Robots have parts that resemble human limbs. • Waist • Shoulder • Elbow • Wrist
Robot Anatomy ELBOW WRIST SHOULDER WAIST
Interface Part of a computer system that allows different devices to communicate with the processor by compensating for any differences in their operations. Make sure the correct signals are sent between the computer and the robot.
Sensors and Feedback Sensors A device that detects a physical quantity, for example, light, heat (temperature), movement, bump, strain (weight or sound (microphone). Feedback Signal which a sensor sends back to the computer. The computer makes a decision based on the feedback.
Sensors and Feedback Example
Sensors and Feedback Example Car park barrier – weight sensor on ground Robots – bump sensor Heating – temperature sensor
Types of Robots Stationary Robots which stay in one place all the time, fixed point on an assembly line. Mobile Robot A robot that can move around the factory floor.
Analogue & Digital Analogue Signal A signal which changes continuously rather insteps, such as temperature and speed. Digital Signals Computers only understand digital signals. Consists of a series of ‘on’ and ‘off’. On - 1 Off - 0
Analogue to Digital (A to D) and digital to analogue (D to A) converters Analogue to Digital (A to D) converter Accepts an analogue signal and changes it into a digital signal so the computer can understand it. Scanner converts an image from a photograph into digital form. Digital to Analogue (D to A) converter Accepts a digital signal (binary) and changes into a analogue signal CD player converts the digital data on a CD into analogue data, music, so that we can hear it.
Programmable Robots are controlled by a computer program. Robots need to be programmed to do different tasks. Robots can be reprogrammed to change their tasks. Adaptability.
Lead Through Programming A human operator, connected to a computer system, creates a movement. This movement is programmed and the robot can mimic the movement.
ROM software Programs can be stored in ROM chips. Advantages Disadvantages • Retain their information if the power is switched off. • ROM chips are expensive. • Difficult to delete and change • Professional programmer needed to reprogram the ROM chip • Programs can be loaded faster • Programs less likely to become corrupt.
Autonomous Guided Vehicles A robot that can work on their own by moving around the factory fetching and carrying parts. How do they move around? Controlled by a computer during their journey Magnetic Guidance System Light Guidance System Follow wires buried under the factory floor. Follows a painted line on the factory floor. Not flexible difficult to change (dig wires up) More flexible to draw a line on the floor.
Real time and Interactive Processing Real time - a system which responds immediately to input. For example, airline reservation, robots moving around a factor. The response in a real time system is vital. Interactive processing - operators instructions are processed continuously like a conversation. The speed of response is not vital.
Control Languages - Credit Program language specially designed to control a robot. The language would have command like: GRASP MOVE WAIT TURN SPEED UP Control logo is and example of a control language.
Intelligent Robots which are programmed to behave as though they had a form of intelligence. ASIMO is and example.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) Using a computer system to help design something. For example: • Cars • Boats • Kitchens plans • Houses Plans • Electrics
Computer Aided Design (CAD) IKEA – allows you to design your own kitchen, bathroom and bedroom. KITCHEN WINDOW BACK DOOR ENTRANCE TO LIVINGROOM
Computer Aided Design (CAD) cont. . Plotter Used for CAD Hardware A large printer used to output plans of used in CAD. For Graphics Tablet example, Ship plans, house drawing using a hand held pen or plans etc. Input device which allows free stylus
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Using a computer system to help manufacture something. For example: Cars Kitchens – doors, cupboards, sinks etc Houses – flat pack houses (IKEA)
Question 1. What does CAD stand for? 2. What does CAM stand for? 3. Name two devices used in CAD. 4. What can be produced from CAD/CAM?
Simulation A computer program used to model a real life situation. Used to predict what will happen in a real life situation from a model of that situation on the computer. Training Aircraft Pilots Using simulators saves time and money when training pilots. • No real plane used • No fuel wasted • No one gets hurt if plane crashes
Virtual reality Reproducing the outside world digitally within a computer system and displaying it to the user in such a way that allows them in interact with it. Headset and gloves are required to take part in virtual reality.
Summary of Unit
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