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Author’s Pu rpose Author’s Pu rpose

Author’s Purpose 0 argue 0 condemn 0 describe 0 enlighten 0 entertain 0 explain Author’s Purpose 0 argue 0 condemn 0 describe 0 enlighten 0 entertain 0 explain 0 express 0 illustrate 0 inform 0 instruct 0 investigate 0 narrate 0 persuade 0 report 0 teach 0 warn

Author’s Tone 0 arrogant 0 compassionate 0 critical 0 cynical 0 defensive 0 humorous Author’s Tone 0 arrogant 0 compassionate 0 critical 0 cynical 0 defensive 0 humorous 0 impartial 0 inspirational 0 ironic 0 moralizing 0 nostalgic 0 patriotic 0 perplexed 0 pessimistic 0 reflective 0 reverent 0 satirical 0 sentimental 0 serious 0 witty

Ask yourself these questions to help determine the author’s attitude. 0 What is the Ask yourself these questions to help determine the author’s attitude. 0 What is the author's purpose in writing? 0 Has the author presented all sides of an argument? 0 If so, is the article balanced toward all positions or biased toward one? 0 Is there enough evidence to support each side? 0 Is the evidence reliable and convincing? ' 0 Does the author use words that convey emotion? 0 Does the article seem to present propaganda?

Practice Conserving water is important for our environment, future generations, and your wallet. Most Practice Conserving water is important for our environment, future generations, and your wallet. Most people don't realize this, but water is a finite resource. All the water we will ever have is on the planet right now. It is important to consider this when thinking about the importance of water conservation. If we are not good stewards of water, our future generations will suffer for it. Fresh drinking water resources are limited for people, but also remember that animals and water species also depend on it for life. It is important for us to think about and facilitate their survival in addition to our own. Cutting back on the water used during showers or for watering plants outdoors can also help save you money.

Study Island’s Answer The author's purpose for writing this passage is to convince readers Study Island’s Answer The author's purpose for writing this passage is to convince readers that water conservation is important. He or she presents the argument by discussing reasons why saving water is important. The author's attitude in this passage is serious.

Writing Purpose 0 Describe: Some writing describes something or how to do something. For Writing Purpose 0 Describe: Some writing describes something or how to do something. For example, the directions that come with a cell phone have the purpose of describing how set up voice mail, check text messages, and so forth. 0 Inform: Some writing has the purpose of informing. Most news articles in the newspaper are written to inform. A biography usually has the purpose of informing the reader about the person's life. 0 Persuade: Some writing is written for the purpose of persuasion. A good example of persuasive writing is the writing found in advertisements. Advertisements are designed to persuade you to buy a certain product. Speeches by politicians are also examples of persuasive writing.

Writing Purpose 0 Narrate: Narration has the purpose of telling a story. The narrator Writing Purpose 0 Narrate: Narration has the purpose of telling a story. The narrator relates a series of events. 0 Entertain: Some writing has the purpose of entertaining. The comic strips in the newspaper are there to entertain the readers with humor. A mystery novel and a fairy tale are also good examples of writing that have the purpose of entertaining.

Author’s Technique Author’s Technique

Word Choice 0 Author’s choice of words to show something feels, looks, or acts. Word Choice 0 Author’s choice of words to show something feels, looks, or acts. These words give the reader a better idea of what is happening in the story. They can show you how exciting something is or how happy/unhappy a person feels.

Example 0 The ivory tower’s pointed cap rose in the distance as we walked Example 0 The ivory tower’s pointed cap rose in the distance as we walked through the olive green grass. I looked to my right and a palm tree loomed. Its emerald green leaves strained toward the sky and the ground all at once. The tree’s tan trunk was a pineapple-like scaffold. 0 What do the descriptive words add to the passage?

Language Sets Mood 0 The long, dark road unwound before Chris like a serpent Language Sets Mood 0 The long, dark road unwound before Chris like a serpent striking its prey. The car’s windshield was continuously covered in a fine spray of water as the wipers swung back and forth like a pendulum. Through the blurry grass, Chris could just make out a figure in the darkness. 0 Chris was driving in the rain. It was dark outside. She could barely see in front of her.

Author’s Style 0 Style is the manner of presenting material, including usage, punctuation, organization, Author’s Style 0 Style is the manner of presenting material, including usage, punctuation, organization, and tone. By manipulating these stylistic factors, different meanings are achieved.

How to Achieve Style 0 Authors use quotations, questions, or visual formatting of a How to Achieve Style 0 Authors use quotations, questions, or visual formatting of a text to add meaning. The hours shorter than a second when you are near. The minutes longer than centuries when you are gone.

How is the effectiveness of the poem changed? The hours shorter than a second How is the effectiveness of the poem changed? The hours shorter than a second when you are near. The minutes longer than centuries when you are gone.

Main Idea And Suppor ting Details Main Idea And Suppor ting Details

Main Idea 0 The idea that most of the passage covers. 0 Supporting details: Main Idea 0 The idea that most of the passage covers. 0 Supporting details: The sentences that explain, describe, or support the main idea

What Should I Look For? 0 Why did the author write this passage? 0 What Should I Look For? 0 Why did the author write this passage? 0 What is the point he/she is trying to make? 0 What is the passage mostly about? 0 What idea is conveyed in the passage?

Example Once winter is gone and spring officially arrives, it is time to enjoy Example Once winter is gone and spring officially arrives, it is time to enjoy longer days, warm weather, and new seasonal produce. During the spring, many vegetables and fruits are at their peaks. This includes green beans, corn, sweet onions, peas, greens, and squash. On the fruit front, apples, citrus fruits, and pears have made way for juicy stone fruit, like peaches, nectarines, and plums. Melons and berries are also available in the spring. What is the main idea of this passage?

Answer 0 Many seasonal fruits and vegetables hit their peak during the spring. Answer 0 Many seasonal fruits and vegetables hit their peak during the spring.

Summariza tion Summariza tion

Summary 0 A shorter way to tell about the events or details of a Summary 0 A shorter way to tell about the events or details of a passage. 0 It includes only the most important details or events.

Practice A new zoo in Louisiana has many of the usual zoo attractions. Its Practice A new zoo in Louisiana has many of the usual zoo attractions. Its goal is even similar to most zoos—to preserve wild animals and educate the public. However, the Louisiana Audubon Nature Center is more than just a wildlife center. It has a planetarium, a forest, and special frozen zoo. The primary goal of the Nature Center is to save species from extinction. The real work in this zoo is behind the scenes. While tourists visit the different animals in the zoo, scientists are working to prevent extinction. They hope the frozen zoo will protect all the animals and birds on Earth.

The frozen zoo does not have live animals in cages. Instead, it has live The frozen zoo does not have live animals in cages. Instead, it has live cells of different animals in liquid nitrogen tanks. Liquid nitrogen preserves these tiny building blocks safely. The cells should be safe for hundreds of years. The zoo has the cells of over 1, 000 species saved. If one species becomes endangered or extinct, scientists can defrost the cells and bring the species back. The future is promising for the different animals struggling to survive. More zoos are getting involved in the frozen zoo project. Environmentalists are working to save habitats. Hopefully, animals will be saved from extinction and given a safe place to live.

Practice Questions 1. Which sentence shows an idea that would be important to include Practice Questions 1. Which sentence shows an idea that would be important to include in a summary of this passage? A. "The zoo has the cells of over 1, 000 species saved. " B. "While tourists visit the different animals in the zoo. . . " C. "Hopefully, animals will be saved from extinction. . . " D. "More zoos are getting involved in the frozen zoo project. "

2. Which of the following is the best summary of the story above? A. 2. Which of the following is the best summary of the story above? A. A zoo is freezing animal cells to preserve the species. They have saved cells from over 1, 000 different animals. These cells are frozen in liquid nitrogen by scientists who are working to prevent extinction. These cells can be defrosted. B. The Louisiana Audubon Nature Center preserves wild animals from extinction by freezing the cells of its animals in liquid nitrogen. The hope is that should the animals become extinct, the zoo will have their cells on hand to bring them back. C. In Louisiana, a zoo has animal cells frozen in liquid nitrogen. Scientists are preserving these cells to prevent animal extinction. There are no cages to see in the frozen zoo. A zoo's goal is to preserve animals while also educating the public. D. The Louisiana Audubon Nature Center consists of a planetarium, forest, and frozen zoo. Many tourists visit the zoo, while scientists are hard at work. The frozen zoo, unlike other parts of the zoo, is not a display of cages or habitats for animals.

Conclusions , Inferences, and Generalizat ions Conclusions , Inferences, and Generalizat ions

Inferences and Conclusions 0 Making guesses about things not directly stated in the passage. Inferences and Conclusions 0 Making guesses about things not directly stated in the passage. 0 Use details as clues to help you figure things out.

Tips for Making Inferences 0 Read a passage carefully. 0 Look for details about Tips for Making Inferences 0 Read a passage carefully. 0 Look for details about what a person does. What do the person’s actions tell you? What can you conclude about the person’s traits? 0 Look for details that describe a place or event. Based on real life, what do those details tell you? 0 Look for facts given in a nonfiction passage. What do those facts mean overall? 0 Analyze why the author discusses and describes the topic. What can you tell about the author from his or her writing? How does he/she feel about the topic? 0 Make an inference or conclusion about something in the passage. Find the details that led you to that conclusion.

Practice Story A Coffee Complication 0 Based on her behavior, what can be inferred Practice Story A Coffee Complication 0 Based on her behavior, what can be inferred about Lane’s character? A. B. C. D. Lane is disorganized. Lane is constantly alert. Lane likes structure. Lane is very laid back.

Answer The correct answer is C. Lane likes structure. Notice how Lane dismisses several Answer The correct answer is C. Lane likes structure. Notice how Lane dismisses several different answers to her problem when she realizes that it will mess up her schedule. She also has a routine for getting up and moving each morning that she follows without thinking. The speaker even says, “if nothing else, she could follow a routine. ”

Practice Question 0 What can the reader infer will most likely happen next? A. Practice Question 0 What can the reader infer will most likely happen next? A. Lane will go through the day without coffee. B. Lane will go to a coffee shop to buy a cup of coffee. C. Lane will run to the store to buy what she needs to make coffee. D. Lane will ask to go into the teacher’s lounge to grab a coffee.

Answer The correct answer is A. Lane runs through several different options for what Answer The correct answer is A. Lane runs through several different options for what she could do about her coffee situation but dismisses them all for one reason or another. She is even described as feeling “hopeless” about the situation as she desperately tires to think of a possible solution. This suggests that Lane will begrudgingly forgo caffeine for the day.

Generalizations 0 A general rule drawn from looking at facts and figuring out what Generalizations 0 A general rule drawn from looking at facts and figuring out what they have in common. 0 A reasoning is formulated about something specific where some observations are made and then conclusions are drawn concerning the larger category of that specific instance. 0 If a generalization is valid, it is well supported by facts, experience, and logic. 0 If a generalization is invalid, it is not supported.

Examples of Generalizations 0 All the ducks we’ve seen have feathers. Therefore, it is Examples of Generalizations 0 All the ducks we’ve seen have feathers. Therefore, it is likely that all ducks have feathers. 0 George prefers to use back roads to drive around the Monroeville Mall area. He often makes it to the mall quicker by taking Monroeville Road to James Street than by driving on William Penn Highway, even though the routes are about the same distance from his house. He rarely gets caught in heavy traffic on his alternate route. Based on this text, one could generalize that William Penn Highway is often too crowded. The generalization is demonstrated by the fact that George does not get caught in traffic on the back roads and is able to make his trip more quickly.

TEconnecti ons. XT Con nections be tween Texts TEconnecti ons. XT Con nections be tween Texts

Compare and Contrast 0 A concept that is used to examine information in order Compare and Contrast 0 A concept that is used to examine information in order to show the similarities and differences between two or more thoughts or ideas.

Words to Make Connections Compare 0 Similar 0 In the same way 0 Likewise Words to Make Connections Compare 0 Similar 0 In the same way 0 Likewise 0 Just like 0 As well 0 In addition Contrast 0 Different 0 In contrast 0 On the other hand 0 However 0 On the contrary 0 Instead 0 Although 0 But

Places That Make Connections 0 Main idea 0 Point of view 0 Purpose 0 Places That Make Connections 0 Main idea 0 Point of view 0 Purpose 0 Characters 0 Setting 0 Problems/conflict 0 themes

Life on the Bayou 0 Passage 1 purpose: 0 Passage 2 purpose: 0 Similarities? Life on the Bayou 0 Passage 1 purpose: 0 Passage 2 purpose: 0 Similarities?

Genres Genres

Genres 0 Different types of writing: 0 Fiction 0 Nonfiction 0 Poetry Genres 0 Different types of writing: 0 Fiction 0 Nonfiction 0 Poetry

Types of Fiction 0 Prose: Does not use meter or rhyme which is characteristic Types of Fiction 0 Prose: Does not use meter or rhyme which is characteristic of poetry or verse 0 Common types: 0 Novel: fictional piece usually of considerable length, typically having a plot that is unfolded by the actions, speech, and thoughts of the characters. 0 Short story: fictional prose narrative that is shorter and less complex than other pieces, usually under 10, 000 words.

Nonfiction 0 Literary work in which the content is based on fact. 0 Types: Nonfiction 0 Literary work in which the content is based on fact. 0 Types: 0 Biography: account of a person’s life written, composed, or produced by another person. 0 Autobiography: piece of writing that a person writes about his or her own life (Using first person pronouns) 0 Diary: written account of events or circumstances in a person’s life where each entry is dated. 0 Journal: includes a dated record of daily events. 0 Essay: relatively short literary composition in prose on a single subject, usually presenting the personal view of the author. Usually tries to persuade the reader about a view. 0 Newspaper Article: gives information about current events that happen locally or around the world.

Poetry 0 Type of writing designed to convey experiences, ideas, or emotions in a Poetry 0 Type of writing designed to convey experiences, ideas, or emotions in a vivid and imaginative way. 0 Characterized by literary techniques such as rhyme and rhythm. 0 Usually (but not always) written in short lines, and the lines often rhyme. 0 A poem may tell a story, create images, or just share a feeling or thought.

Technical Documents 0 Provide directions to do something. (Manuals or applications) 0 Used for Technical Documents 0 Provide directions to do something. (Manuals or applications) 0 Used for practical purposes 0 Ex. A college application instructs a student how to provide information needed on the form.

Cross-Genre 0 Has characteristics of more than one genre 0 Ex. Some poems may Cross-Genre 0 Has characteristics of more than one genre 0 Ex. Some poems may read like a cross between a story and a biography

Characters Characters

Character Analysis 0 Trait: a special quality or something special about someone’s personality (hair Character Analysis 0 Trait: a special quality or something special about someone’s personality (hair color, eye color, height, weight, age, beliefs, likes, dislikes, opinions, behavior). 0 Motivation: what causes someone to act in a certain way. It can be an emotion, desire, need, etc. It is the reason we do something. 0 Tripping over his untied shoes, Mario dragged himself to the coffee machine because he was desperate to wake up.

Character Analysis 0 Conflict: When characters have different interests or goals. 0 Ben told Character Analysis 0 Conflict: When characters have different interests or goals. 0 Ben told the cashier that he didn’t agree with how much money the store charged for CDs. The cashier told Ben that he needed to pay the money, anyway.

Character Analysis 0 Point of View 0 The side from which a story is Character Analysis 0 Point of View 0 The side from which a story is told. It can affect how facts are shown and how we look at characters.

Character Analysis 0 A character’s traits or relationships might affect his or her point Character Analysis 0 A character’s traits or relationships might affect his or her point of view. 0 Motivation affects action and changes.

Character 0 Action: Charlie stuck his foot out to trip Bridget as she walked Character 0 Action: Charlie stuck his foot out to trip Bridget as she walked by. He laughed when she dropped her books and fell on the floor. 0 Dialogue: “I can give you some money, ” Linda said from behind her line. “How much do you need? ”

Setting Setting

Setting’s Main Components 0 Time, place, and circumstances in which a story takes place. Setting’s Main Components 0 Time, place, and circumstances in which a story takes place. 0 Place (geographical location) 0 Time 0 Weather 0 Social conditions 0 Mood (atmosphere)

Where am I? 0 The setting is not always directly stated. 0 “I closed Where am I? 0 The setting is not always directly stated. 0 “I closed my eyes and listened to the waves brushing back and forth across the wet sand. ” 0 “Amy felt dizzy as she looked over the railing of the Eiffel Tower. ” 0 “No matter what, I am determined to stay awake to see the first man walk on the moon. ”

Setting Affects Mood or Theme, Characters, and Conflict 0 Winter=stories about loss or death Setting Affects Mood or Theme, Characters, and Conflict 0 Winter=stories about loss or death 0 Dark, secluded places= suspenseful or scary stories 0 Outer space or another planet=futuristic stories 0 The setting is part of the conflict when a character becomes shipwrecked on a desert island. 0 The setting affects characters when a historic event such as a war changes their lives. 0 The setting influences characters when they travel to a place that is foreign to them and must learn new customs.

Plot Plot

Plot 0 The storyline or sequence of events that take place in a story. Plot 0 The storyline or sequence of events that take place in a story. All plots have conflict and a resolution.

Exposition 0 The beginning of the plot. It starts off the story and lets Exposition 0 The beginning of the plot. It starts off the story and lets the reader know any important information before the action starts. It introduces the characters, setting, and basic conflict of a story.

Rising Action 0 Occurs after the main conflict is introduced. Includes details about what Rising Action 0 Occurs after the main conflict is introduced. Includes details about what the character does to solve his or her problem. Smaller problems, obstacles, or crises may occur before the climax is reached.

Climax 0 Occurs right after the rising action. It is the most intense or Climax 0 Occurs right after the rising action. It is the most intense or exciting event in the story because the character deals with the main conflict. It can also be the turning point in the story.

Falling Action 0 Occurs after the climax and before the resolution. It is everything Falling Action 0 Occurs after the climax and before the resolution. It is everything that happens because of the climax. The characters respond to what happens in the climax. This leads the reader to the conclusion of the story.

Resolution 0 The conclusion of the story where the conflict is resolved. Resolution 0 The conclusion of the story where the conflict is resolved.

Theme Theme

Theme 0 A central or recurring idea that is explained in a piece of Theme 0 A central or recurring idea that is explained in a piece of writing, sometimes in the form of a life lesson or moral. 0 A message that makes the reader think about life, human nature, or the world. 0 Theme is determined by extracting it from the events that occur in a story.

Some Common Themes 0 Man is man’s worst enemy. 0 Good is stronger than Some Common Themes 0 Man is man’s worst enemy. 0 Good is stronger than evil. 0 A person grows by facing obstacles. 0 Enjoy life now because we all die too soon. 0 Love conquers all. 0 Treat others the way you want to be treated.

The Wolf and The Goat A wolf saw a goat grazing at the edge The Wolf and The Goat A wolf saw a goat grazing at the edge of a high cliff. The wolf smacked his lips at the thought of a fine goat dinner. "My dear friend, " said the wolf in his sweetest voice, "aren't you afraid you will fall down from that cliff? Come down here and graze on this fine grass beside me on safe, level ground. " "No, thank you, " said the goat. "Well, then, " said the wolf, "aren't you cold up there in the wind? You would be warmer grazing down here beside me in this sheltered area. " "No, thank you, " said the goat. "But the grass tastes better down here!" said the exasperated wolf. "Why dine alone? " "My dear wolf, " the goat finally said, "are you quite sure that it is MY dinner you are worrying about and not your own? "

Question Which of the following best describes a theme of the passage? A. You Question Which of the following best describes a theme of the passage? A. You can’t change who you are. B. Honesty is not always the best policy. C. Be cautious if an enemy is being kind. D. A good friend is hard to find.

Answer 0 The wolf is trying to trick the goat into coming down from Answer 0 The wolf is trying to trick the goat into coming down from the cliff. The wolf wants to eat the goat for dinner, but the goat knows to be cautious around its enemies. He or she does not fall for the wolf’s tricks. Therefore, “Be cautious if an enemy is being kind” is the correct answer.

Tips for Identifying Theme 0 Look closely at the title. 0 Look for ideas Tips for Identifying Theme 0 Look closely at the title. 0 Look for ideas that are repeated more than once. 0 Look for lessons that the character learns. 0 Think about what happens in the story and how it can apply to life. (For example: if the main character must survive an approaching tornado, theme may be “nature is at war with mankind. ”)

Tone, Mood , and Style Tone, Mood , and Style

Tone 0 The reflection of an author’s attitude toward his or her subject. 0 Tone 0 The reflection of an author’s attitude toward his or her subject. 0 Word choice and attitude are hints that help you figure out what the tone is.

What is the tone of this passage? The school’s decision to add four more What is the tone of this passage? The school’s decision to add four more vending machines shows that it thinks the health of its students is unimportant. Instead of working to make needed changes, like adding better computers to the school, it decided that students need sugar, caffeine, fat, and empty calories instead. It is ridiculous! What kind of message does it send to the students? We are taught in our health classes to avoid sugary, fatty foods, but now, students have four more chances to swell up on junk food. The so-called food sold in these vending machines will make the student body grow, but it will be measured in pounds.

ANGRY!! (GRRR) 0 Uses “junk food” instead of snacks 0 “ridiculous” instead of “wrong” ANGRY!! (GRRR) 0 Uses “junk food” instead of snacks 0 “ridiculous” instead of “wrong” 0 Sugar, fat, caffeine, empty calories 0 “student body” to comment on weight gain instead of a way to talk about the population of a school.

Mood 0 The atmosphere that a writer creates for a reader that plays on Mood 0 The atmosphere that a writer creates for a reader that plays on the reader’s imagination and emotion through the use of descriptive adverbs or adjectives.

What is the mood here? I rose from bed with a noise ringing in What is the mood here? I rose from bed with a noise ringing in my ears so loudly that I almost lost my balance. The noise sounded like the screeching moan of claws being drug against glass. The sharp, squeaking sound cut through the darkness of the night and woke me from my dream. My first thought was that a bear was trying to get inside of the cabin, but a bear’s claws would have shattered the glass. As I happened on the window, the full moon shined against whatever was making the noise from behind, like a giant spotlight. I saw behind the curtain the shape of something tall and lanky with long arms reaching out to the window. I immediately yanked the curtain aside as a long squeal bleated out against the window pane. Filling the pan outside was a dying willow—its branches pushing against the glass with a gust from the winds outside.

S C A R Y ! ! 0 “Screeching moan of claws” 0 “I S C A R Y ! ! 0 “Screeching moan of claws” 0 “I saw behind the curtain the shape of something tall and lanky with long arms reaching out to the window. ” 0 “I immediately yanked the curtain aside as a long squeal bleated out against the window pane”

Point of Vie w Point of Vie w

Point of View 0 Refers to the way a story is told, the perspective Point of View 0 Refers to the way a story is told, the perspective or angle of vision or position from which the events are narrated for the reader.

First Person 0 Uses “I” or “we” or “my” or “me” or “us” 0 First Person 0 Uses “I” or “we” or “my” or “me” or “us” 0 Often used when someone is stating an opinion or sharing a feeling. 0 I went to the store today. When I was in the cereal aisle, I bumped into an old friend and had a nice conversation.

Second Person 0 Uses the word “you” 0 Used when giving directions or anytime Second Person 0 Uses the word “you” 0 Used when giving directions or anytime you’re speaking directly to someone 0 Almost never used to tell a story 0 You should work on getting your room cleaned. First, pick up the clothes on the floor. Then, you need to run a vacuum and dust the tables.

Third Person 0 Uses “he, ” “she, ” or “they” and sometimes “it” 0 Third Person 0 Uses “he, ” “she, ” or “they” and sometimes “it” 0 When studying the history of the Earth, it becomes evident that dinosaurs existed far longer than human beings have so far. One would be impressed to learn how many millions of years these great creatures survived and thrived on Earth.

Third Person Limited 0 The narrator is a non-participant, but only knows the thoughts Third Person Limited 0 The narrator is a non-participant, but only knows the thoughts and feelings of a single character (LIMITED to only one character) 0 Zoe had seen the building of the Great Wall, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and everything in between. She wondered if humans would ever really learn how to live in peace. Zoe wasn’t on Earth to be a teacher. She was there to observe and document what she learned about humans. But it was so hard for Zoe not to get involved.

Third Person Objective 0 Writer is a non-participant, and tells the story from an Third Person Objective 0 Writer is a non-participant, and tells the story from an objective point of view. 0 The narrator cannot enter the mind of any character. 0 The high school students were waiting for their buses to arrive as the snow started to fall intensely. They had been there for 30 minutes, throwing snowballs and shivering in the cold. Finally, they cheered when someone received the phone call that school was cancelled for the day. They all went home and went back to bed.

Omniscient 0 Writer is a non-participant but is able to see into and have Omniscient 0 Writer is a non-participant but is able to see into and have unlimited knowledge about any or all of the characters. 0 The author can roam anywhere, see anything, and comment on or interpret events at will. 0 Nick was acting like his happy self. Nothing seemed to bother him. Nick was always ready to entertain an audience. But on the inside, he struggled severely with self-doubt.

Narrator 0 The narrator as a character—is experiencing the action of the story. 0 Narrator 0 The narrator as a character—is experiencing the action of the story. 0 When the narrator is a character, it gives the reader a close connection to the events. 0 The Unnamed narrator—Sometimes because the story is told from the point of view of someone all knowing. 0 Can be a part of the story, or just be telling the story. 0 Look for the narrator to act or speak. If this doesn’t happen, he/she is unnamed.

Cultural and Historical Significance See Handou t!!!! Cultural and Historical Significance See Handou t!!!!

Literary De vices Literary De vices

Allegory 0 A form of extended metaphor in which all of the elements of Allegory 0 A form of extended metaphor in which all of the elements of the story have meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The story is symbolic of another story. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. 0 The Wizard of Oz?

Allusion 0 A reference to a real or fictitious person, event, place, work of Allusion 0 A reference to a real or fictitious person, event, place, work of art, or another work of literature within writing. In order for an allusion to be effective, the reader must be familiar with the original work. 0 My uncle proved that he was a scrooge because he would not lend me money to buy the new i. Pod I wanted.

Common Allusions 0 Roman/Greek mythology 0 the Bible 0 Shakespearean plays 0 Fairy tales Common Allusions 0 Roman/Greek mythology 0 the Bible 0 Shakespearean plays 0 Fairy tales 0 Ex. David and Goliath, Romeo and Juliet, Armageddon, Cinderella, Odyssey, Sleeping Beauty, Cupid’s arrow, Mars, etc.

Dialect 0 The language of a particular region or group of people. 0 Includes Dialect 0 The language of a particular region or group of people. 0 Includes the sound, spelling, and diction used by that group. 0 Use dialect to show differences in characters, to refer to a specific location or time period, or to help the reader know how a character sounds. 0 Considered informal and inappropriate formal writing.

Hyperbole 0 Figure of speech in which the author uses exaggeration for emphasis or Hyperbole 0 Figure of speech in which the author uses exaggeration for emphasis or effect. Not meant to be taken literally! 0 Sometimes called overstatement. 0 It took an eternity for her to return my call. 0 She nearly drowned in her tears.

Irony and Its Many Forms 0 Irony is the difference between what appears to Irony and Its Many Forms 0 Irony is the difference between what appears to be and what actually is.

Situational Irony 0 Occurs when a reader or character expects one thing to happen, Situational Irony 0 Occurs when a reader or character expects one thing to happen, but something entirely different happens. 0 Used to make stories interesting or humorous and sometimes to force their readers to think about their own thoughts and values. 0 Situational irony would occur if a cunning and lawful police officer fails to catch a reckless and lawless thief.

Dramatic Irony 0 The contrast between what a character thinks to be true and Dramatic Irony 0 The contrast between what a character thinks to be true and what we, the readers, know to be true. It occurs when the meaning intended by a character’s words or actions is opposite of the true situation. 0 “Honest” Iago in Othello

Verbal Irony 0 When someone says one thing but means something different. Very similar Verbal Irony 0 When someone says one thing but means something different. Very similar to sarcasm. 0 Cheesy Study Island example: “Are you doing anything fun tomorrow, Carol? ” Janet asked. “Nothing except getting my wisdom teeth pulled out!” Carol replied with a fake smile.

Historical Irony 0 Irony throughout history. Most easily identified when we compare the way Historical Irony 0 Irony throughout history. Most easily identified when we compare the way historical figures saw the world and the way we see it today. 0 During most of the 1920 s, The New York Times criticized crossword puzzles as “utterly futile” and said they were a craze that was fading fast. Today, The New York Times’ crossword puzzle is one of its most popular features.

Simile and Metaphor 0 Simile: compares things that share a common feature. Uses either Simile and Metaphor 0 Simile: compares things that share a common feature. Uses either “like” or “as” to make the connection. 0 Metaphor: compares two things without using “like” or “as. ”

Satire 0 A literary work in which the writer tries to point out human Satire 0 A literary work in which the writer tries to point out human vices in order to scorn or ridicule them. The writer can do so by using irony, wit, or sarcasm. 0 Satirical authors are intent on making fun of the absurdity, pretension, and corruption of the respective worlds they are portraying. 0 Have a strong element of irony or sarcasm. 0 Saturday Night Live: use skits to point out people’s flaws.

Symbolism 0 A literary device that uses certain objects or images to represent other Symbolism 0 A literary device that uses certain objects or images to represent other ideas. 0 Symbol is usually tangible or visible, but the idea it symbolizes may be something abstract or universal. 0 A caged bird could be used as a symbol to mean imprisonment.

Flashback and Foreshadowing 0 Flashback: interrupts the plot of a story and goes back Flashback and Foreshadowing 0 Flashback: interrupts the plot of a story and goes back to a past event. 0 Foreshadowing: When future events in a story, or sometimes the outcome, are suggested or hinted at by the author before they happen. 0 Method used to build suspense.

Elements of Poetry Elements of Poetry

Poems 0 Characterized by literary techniques such as meter and rhyme and often use Poems 0 Characterized by literary techniques such as meter and rhyme and often use language, meaning, sound, and rhythm to evoke a specific response.

Different Types of Poetry 0 Ballad poem that tells a story. Often of folk Different Types of Poetry 0 Ballad poem that tells a story. Often of folk origin and intended to be sung. Often consist of simple stanzas and usually have a refrain (a repeated phrase or stanza). 0 Stanza division in poetry shown by a line break. Equivalent of a paragraph.

Types of Poetry 0 Blank verse poem written in iambic pentameter. (Each line has Types of Poetry 0 Blank verse poem written in iambic pentameter. (Each line has 10 syllables, which have a pattern of unstressed, etch). Lines do not have a rhyme scheme. But do not let us quarrel anymore, No, my Lucrezia; bear with me for once: Sit down and all shall happen as you wish. You turn your face, but does it bring your heart?

Types of Poetry 0 Couplet pair of lines that usually rhyme. Can appear in Types of Poetry 0 Couplet pair of lines that usually rhyme. Can appear in sonnets. 0 Elegy traditionally written in response to the death of a person or group. Focuses on the loss or grief itself. 0 Epic poem long poem narrating the heroic exploits of an individual in a way central to the beliefs and cultures of the society. Typical elements: fabulous adventures, superhuman deeds, majestic language, and a mythical setting.

Types of Poetry 0 Lyric poems do not tell stories. Addresses the reader directly, Types of Poetry 0 Lyric poems do not tell stories. Addresses the reader directly, portraying the speaker’s feelings, states of mind, and perceptions. Often written with a specific rhyme scheme and meter. 0 Haiku Consists of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables.

Types of Poetry 0 Narrative poems that tell a story. Have characters and plot, Types of Poetry 0 Narrative poems that tell a story. Have characters and plot, and sometimes dialogue, themes, and conflicts. “The Raven” is an example. 0 Ode poem that focuses on one subject and finds an original way to express what is good and unique about it. Traditional odes follow a ABABCDECDE rhyme scheme.

Types of Poetry 0 Free verse poetry written without regard to form, rhyme, rhythm, Types of Poetry 0 Free verse poetry written without regard to form, rhyme, rhythm, meter, or line breaks. Has no traditional form. 0 Sonnet written in 14 lines and ending in a couplet. Written in iambic pentameter.

Rhyme Scheme 0 The pattern of rhyme in a poem. 0 AABB or every Rhyme Scheme 0 The pattern of rhyme in a poem. 0 AABB or every two lines rhyme. 0 ABCB or the second and fourth line of each stanza rhyme. 0 ABAB or every other line rhymes.

Meter 0 The regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that make up a Meter 0 The regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables that make up a line of poetry. Gives rhythm and regularity to poetry. 0 Poetic meter is measured in feet. Each foot is a specific sequence of syllable type, such as unstressed/stressed. 0 Iambic pentameter da-DUM da DUM 5 iambic feet in a row

Sound 0 Slant rhyme also called half rhyme, imperfect rhyme, near rhyme, oblique rhyme, Sound 0 Slant rhyme also called half rhyme, imperfect rhyme, near rhyme, oblique rhyme, off rhyme, or almost rhyme. IT is a rhyme in which either the vowels or the consonants of stressed syllables are identical. 0 Eyes, light 0 Years, yours

Sound 0 Internal rhyme that occurs within a line of verse. In the grey Sound 0 Internal rhyme that occurs within a line of verse. In the grey grains of sand The dark veins of dropping rain Consonance the repetition of consonants or of a consonant pattern, especially at the ends of words. Blank, blink Strong, string

Sound 0 Assonance also called vowel rhyme. The same vowel sounds are used with Sound 0 Assonance also called vowel rhyme. The same vowel sounds are used with different consonants in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words. Penitent, reticence End rhyme that occurs in the last syllables of verses. On the train She left again And I remain In the rain!

Sound 0 Alliteration the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds Sound 0 Alliteration the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables. Kara cried her karaoke tears. She could not mask her fake fears. Onomatopoeia use of words such as “buzz” or “moo” that imitate the sounds associated with the objects to which they refer.

Sounds 0 Personification figure of speech in which things are endowed with human qualities Sounds 0 Personification figure of speech in which things are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form.

Elements of Drama Elements of Drama

Terms You Should Know 0 Comedy play which consistently features humor and light-hearted events. Terms You Should Know 0 Comedy play which consistently features humor and light-hearted events. 0 Tragedy deals with humans as victims of destiny, character flaws, moral weakness, or social pressure. 0 Cast the characters needed for the play. 0 Dialogue the words spoken by characters in a play. 0 Soliloquy narrative spoken by a single actor in which his or her thoughts are revealed to the audience.

Terms You Should Know 0 Dramatic Monologue a long speech by a single character. Terms You Should Know 0 Dramatic Monologue a long speech by a single character. The actor can either be lone on stage or interacting with other performers. 0 Character foil a character whose traits are in direct contrast to those of the main character. The foil highlights the traits of the opposing character. 0 Scene Design the creative process of developing and executing aesthetic or functional designs in a production, such as costumes, lighting, set, and makeup.

Terms You Should Know 0 Aside a speech or comment made by an actor Terms You Should Know 0 Aside a speech or comment made by an actor directly to the audience about the action of the play or another character. The audience is to understand that this comment is not heard or noticed by the other characters in the play. 0 Stage Directions tell actors how to move and speak. Most are in parentheses or italics. Can also tell you where the play is taking place or give information about how to make the stage look to set up the scene.

Terms You Should Know 0 Prop article or object that appears on the stage Terms You Should Know 0 Prop article or object that appears on the stage during the play. 0 The different types of irony are also stressed in drama.