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Attraction Strategies: Recruiting the Right Things Jerry Hembd Associate Professor & Director Northern Center Attraction Strategies: Recruiting the Right Things Jerry Hembd Associate Professor & Director Northern Center for Community and Economic Development University of Wisconsin-Superior/Extension 2007 -2008 Building Community Series February 8, 2008

Trends in Economic Development Attraction Retention Expansion Business and industry Human talent and creativity Trends in Economic Development Attraction Retention Expansion Business and industry Human talent and creativity

Competition in a Global Economy Mobility of tasks The World Is Flat Mobility of Competition in a Global Economy Mobility of tasks The World Is Flat Mobility of talent The World Is Spiky

Gross Cell Product (GCP) Map of U. S. Source: Yale G-Econ Project. Gross Cell Product (GCP) Map of U. S. Source: Yale G-Econ Project.

Gross Cell Product (GCP) of India Source: Yale G-Econ Project. Gross Cell Product (GCP) of India Source: Yale G-Econ Project.

A Thriving Community Starts with a Diverse High-performing Economy: Service Creative Manufacturing Source: Richard A Thriving Community Starts with a Diverse High-performing Economy: Service Creative Manufacturing Source: Richard Florida Creativity Group, 2007.

Who Works in the Creative Sector? Workers in: n Technology and R&D n Arts Who Works in the Creative Sector? Workers in: n Technology and R&D n Arts and culture n Professional and managerial n Education and training

How Do You Build the Creative Sector? You need People are the MAIN driver How Do You Build the Creative Sector? You need People are the MAIN driver of economic development

To Attract People a Community Needs: • Tolerance: A supportive environment for diverse self-expression To Attract People a Community Needs: • Tolerance: A supportive environment for diverse self-expression • Technology: Accessible mechanisms for people to turn their talent into market or public goods • Territorial assets: Quality of place Source: Richard Florida Creativity Group, 2007.

The 4 T Approach to Economic Development Technology Tolerance Talent Territorial Assets Source: Richard The 4 T Approach to Economic Development Technology Tolerance Talent Territorial Assets Source: Richard Florida Creativity Group, 2007. Regional Growth and Prosperity

The Economic Impact of the Creative Sector Percentage of Income Generated (wage & salary) The Economic Impact of the Creative Sector Percentage of Income Generated (wage & salary) Percentage of Workforce 47% $2 trillion Creative Sector 30% 39 million employees 44% 56 million employees Service Sector 30% $1. 3 trillion 26% 33 million employees 23% $1. 0 trillion SOURCE: Florida, Richard. The Flight of the Creative Class. Harper. Collins, 2005 Manufacturing Sector

Overall Rankings of Regions on the Creativity Index 1. Austin, TX 39. Chicago, IL Overall Rankings of Regions on the Creativity Index 1. Austin, TX 39. Chicago, IL 2. San Francisco, CA 87. La Crosse, WI 3. Seattle, WA 121. Eau Claire, WI 4. Burlington, VT 124. Milwaukee, WI 5. Boston, MA 135. Duluth-Superior, MN-WI 6. Raleigh-Durham, NC 165. Green Bay, WI 7. Portland, OR 217. Appleton, WI 8. Madison, WI 262. Janesville, WI 9. Boise, ID 266. Wausau, WI 10. Minneapolis, MN 269. Sheboygan, WI SOURCE: Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books, 2004 (Paperback edition).

Global Creativity Index 1. 2. Japan 3. Finland 4. United States 5. Switzerland 6. Global Creativity Index 1. 2. Japan 3. Finland 4. United States 5. Switzerland 6. Denmark 7. Iceland 8. Netherlands 9. Norway Sweden 10. Germany 11. Canada 12. Australia 13. Belgium 14. Israel 15. United Kingdom 16. South Korea 17. France 18. New Zealand 19. Austria 20. Ireland SOURCE: Florida, Richard. The Flight of the Creative Class. Harper. Collins, 2005.

Why Does the Creative Economy Matter? • Represents a change in thinking • Part Why Does the Creative Economy Matter? • Represents a change in thinking • Part of a broader community and economic development strategy • Complements manufacturing and industry – infusing products with knowledge and the commodification of ideas • Complements natural resource-based development – research, knowledge, and sustainability

Why Does the Creative Economy Matter? • Complements tourism development – arts, crafts, and Why Does the Creative Economy Matter? • Complements tourism development – arts, crafts, and cultural and natural amenities • Complements workforce development • Complements entrepreneurship and innovation • Complements cluster development strategies • Helps you think about ways to make your community/state attractive to creative people • Points to synergies between artistic-cultural groups and technical-scientific-professional groups

Additional Creative Economy Observations • Sometimes seen as elitist or exclusionary. . . everyone Additional Creative Economy Observations • Sometimes seen as elitist or exclusionary. . . everyone is creative • Tendency to take a limited view of creative industries and occupations • Building on lessons from previous assessments – Iowa, New England, Maine, and Montana (among others) • Needs to be seen as part of a broader strategy

What is the Creative Economy? Creative Industries Creative Workforce Creative Communities or Regions Creative What is the Creative Economy? Creative Industries Creative Workforce Creative Communities or Regions Creative Economy

The Creative Class – A Way to Examine the Creative Workforce The Creative Class The Creative Class – A Way to Examine the Creative Workforce The Creative Class consists of a series of occupations that add economic value through their own creativity and knowledge. Super Creative Core Creative Professionals Includes occupations in: • Computer and mathematical • Management • Architecture and engineering • • Life, physical, and social science Business and financial operations • Legal • Education, training, and library • Healthcare practitioners and technical • Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media • High-end sales and sales management

What Are Common Characteristics of Creative Places? • Thick labor markets • Access to What Are Common Characteristics of Creative Places? • Thick labor markets • Access to a particular lifestyle (natural and cultural amenities) • Places for social interaction (third-spaces) • Diversity (openness or inclusion) • Authenticity and uniqueness • Identity and identification with place Source: Richard Florida – The Rise of the Creative Class – pp 223 - 231

The Quality of Place Factor • What’s there: the combination of built environment and The Quality of Place Factor • What’s there: the combination of built environment and the natural environment; a proper setting for pursuit of creative lives. • Who’s there: the diverse kinds of people, interacting and providing cues that anyone can plug into and make a life in that community. • What’s going on: the vibrancy of street life, café culture, arts, music and people engaging in outdoor activities altogether a lot of active, exciting, creative endeavors. Source: Richard Florida – The Rise of the Creative Class – pp 231 – 32.

What Are Differences to Consider in Terms of Creative Places? • Urban versus rural What Are Differences to Consider in Terms of Creative Places? • Urban versus rural • Young versus old • Educational attainment • High-tech versus craft and art • Mobility versus sense of place • Interplay of natural and cultural amenities • Role of tourism • Importance of retirement migration • Importance of second and seasonal homes

What are Some Strategies for Building a Creative Economy? • Find your creative economy What are Some Strategies for Building a Creative Economy? • Find your creative economy niche and integrate it into your economic development strategies - Communities (and regions) should not expect to specialize in all areas of the creative economy • Think regionally – Leverage the assets of regional partners and neighbors • Work with centers of education – Schools, technical colleges, and universities help to develop the workforce, fulfill research and development needs, and serve as the centers where creative people convene • Recognize the importance of cultural and natural amenities – Especially in rural areas, it may be the remote and pristine setting itself which draws people to that place • Develop infrastructure – Can include transportation networks, incubators, communication systems, broadband access, affordable housing, hotel/motel accommodations, health care facilities, etc Partially based on Barringer et al. The Creative Economy in Maine. 2004

What Are Some Strategies for Building a Creative Economy? • Promote networking – Can What Are Some Strategies for Building a Creative Economy? • Promote networking – Can be facilitated by chambers, trade associations, art councils, government agencies, and stakeholder groups • Encourage entrepreneurship – Entrepreneurs are a key in the development of the creative economy • Develop leadership – The seeds for developing creative assets often come from the vision of either a single person or group of people. Continued leadership is necessary to ensure that initiatives maintain momentum • Resources – Leverage grants, angel investment networks, and federal funds • Time - Just like any economic development initiative, building creative economies takes time. Even with strong financial investment, persistence is a necessary component. Partially based on Barringer et al. The Creative Economy in Maine. 2004

Additional Strategies for Building the Creative Economy • Educational considerations – “America needs a Additional Strategies for Building the Creative Economy • Educational considerations – “America needs a workforce that is flexible, adaptable and highly creative; and it needs an education system that can develop these qualities in everyone. . . I believe children should be taught dance every day of the week just as they are taught math every day. ” Ken Robinson • Creative enterprise support – Designate a lead organization or a statewide one-stop shop resource center for specialized business skills and marketing assistance • Firm-level connections – Find ways to bring companies making products that depend on appearance and content together with creative individuals and enterprises • Artist relocation program – The Paducah example of attracting artists through a variety of incentives • Public, private, and philanthropic support for the arts

Ten Strategies to Build Strong Economics and Social Connections through Arts and Culture 1. Ten Strategies to Build Strong Economics and Social Connections through Arts and Culture 1. Create jobs 2. Stimulate trade through cultural tourism 3. Attract investment by creating live/work zones for artists 4. Diversify the local economy 5. Improve property and enhance value Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

Ten Strategies to Build Strong Economics and Social Connections through Arts and Culture 6. Ten Strategies to Build Strong Economics and Social Connections through Arts and Culture 6. Promote interaction in public space 7. Increase civic engagement through cultural celebration 8. Engage youth 9. Promote stewardship of place 10. Broaden participation in the civic agenda Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

1. Create Jobs: Nurture artists and small cultural organizations as businesses and microenterprises to 1. Create Jobs: Nurture artists and small cultural organizations as businesses and microenterprises to increase employment n n n Form partnerships between community development corporations and artists and arts groups Develop financial products and incentives to encourage investments in artist live/work spaces and community arts groups Establish an arts incubator to provide space, management assistance, technology, and access to funding opportunities Develop cultural activities to show off artwork and attract visitors Develop a community of arts organizations representative of the area’s cultural diversity Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

2. Stimulate trade through cultural tourism: Create the right conditions for, and engage in, 2. Stimulate trade through cultural tourism: Create the right conditions for, and engage in, cultural tourism to bring new resources to the community n n n n Reinforce and validate community identity – museum, visitor center, sense of ethnic focus and connectedness Advertise community assets to increase tourism Cultivate growing artistic community Restore and re-occupy downtown storefronts Establish or expand facilities such as theaters and art centers Facilitate business and community collaboration Provide small business support services Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

3. Attract investment by creating live/work zones for artists : Support artists and artist 3. Attract investment by creating live/work zones for artists : Support artists and artist live/work spaces as anchors around which to build local economies n n n Create a downtown artist and historic district with live/work space Provide incentives for property improvement and business and educational programs relocation Convert factory space to artist studio, gallery, and museum space Take advantage of vacant mixed-use properties and scenic riverfront, waterfront, and/or historic architecture Jointly promote historic district and artists Establish partnerships between government agencies and community groups Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

4. Diversify the local economy: Cluster arts organizations as retail anchors and activity generators 4. Diversify the local economy: Cluster arts organizations as retail anchors and activity generators to attract and support other enterprises n n n Develop a more diverse and interactive economy by attracting creative-sector businesses and generating local employment Create an attractive environment for creative-economy entrepreneurs Tap area resources such colleges/universities, high networth individuals, regional investors, cultural attractions, and existing tourism industries Reposition area as a creative and distinct community Coordinate retail businesses and arts activities to increase impact Expand role of artists through business development support Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

5. Improve property and enhance value: Leverage the proximity of cultural amenities and the 5. Improve property and enhance value: Leverage the proximity of cultural amenities and the artists’ touch to improve property n n n Promote collaboration between arts, business, and city government Offer relocation and financial incentives to attract artists Invest in infrastructure (such as streetscaping) and cultural institutions Combine and coordinate development of galleries, coffee shops, restaurants, visitor accommodations, and other services for visitors and tourists Incorporate artist-made elements into housing construction and rehabbing Develop public spaces that have strong aesthetic qualities and that bring people together Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

Best Practices in Building Strong Economies through Arts and Culture n n n Build Best Practices in Building Strong Economies through Arts and Culture n n n Build on existing assets and capacities. . . begin on a scale appropriate to community’s means and needs Renew hope, engage the imagination, and create a sense of positive momentum that is both real and symbolic Project and build upon a distinct identity that focuses the community’s cultural and natural amenities and taps artists and entrepreneurs that reflect and contribute to it Build and rely upon mutually beneficial relations and exchanges across sectors of the community and among artists Engage diverse populations, especially youth, in design and realization of projects, activities, and programs; include learning experiences for everyone Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

Best Practices in Building Strong Economies through Arts and Culture n n Utilize familiar Best Practices in Building Strong Economies through Arts and Culture n n Utilize familiar public and private spaces that foster social interaction among neighbors, artists, visitors, and community partners Include intermediaries in leadership roles who understand can “translate” ideas and skills from one sector or culture to others Help artists and entrepreneurs establish ownership, especially in under-utilized spaces that have capacity for living, work and mixed-used development Incorporate multiple activities and policies that promote artists, cultural products, and community events based upon long-term impacts and benefits Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

6. Promote interaction in public space: Engage people in public spaces through public art 6. Promote interaction in public space: Engage people in public spaces through public art and collective cultural experience n n n Celebrate creativity and cultural identity through public events (such as a recurring event with evocative underlying symbolism) Support public art projects utilizing existing natural and/or built amenities Use public art and storytelling to celebrate history and natural assets Partner with social service, education, and civic groups to promote community volunteerism Restore and cultivate natural elements with community help Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

7. Increase civic participation through cultural celebrations: Strengthen connections between neighbors through cultural celebrations 7. Increase civic participation through cultural celebrations: Strengthen connections between neighbors through cultural celebrations and festivals n n n Involve the community in creating events, parades, etc. , that celebrate diverse people, arts, history, and foods Create original work that incorporates the issues, people, and cultures of the community Encourage diversity of participants and artistic styles Develop partnerships between cultural and communitybased groups Provide free public access to historical sites and contemporary art Promote the community’s cultural resources Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

8. Engage youth: Include young people in civic affairs and enterprises through meaningful work 8. Engage youth: Include young people in civic affairs and enterprises through meaningful work and activity n n n Create an artistic apprentice program for youth, including at-risk youth Provide and environment supportive of diverse forms and styles Develop marketable skills and youth-adult relationships Provide opportunities to have voice through exhibitions, commercial services, and public presentations Provide responsible paid employment that promotes economic development and provides a springboard to postsecondary opportunities Create stronger role of youth in community and civic affairs Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

9. Promote stewardship of place: Develop civic pride and responsibility through good “place making” 9. Promote stewardship of place: Develop civic pride and responsibility through good “place making” and design practices n n n Facilitate community involvement and citizen experience in planning and employ good place-making design principles Develop public space that reflects community interests Nurture community identity Use listening and observation as key organizing, design, and management strategies Nurture and acknowledge indigenous leadership Create an environment where culture is respected and where people can relate to each other across cultures through what they have in common Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

10. Broaden participation in the civic agenda: Expand involvement in civic issues and governance 10. Broaden participation in the civic agenda: Expand involvement in civic issues and governance through community-centered arts and cultural practices n n n Involve artists in the community design process Incorporate public art into the community Develop facilities to fit the physical setting and preserve aesthetic, historic, and environmental resources Build community consensus and ownership through the establishment of a local review committee Use art to begin conversations about a divisive topic Create understanding through a structured dialog process Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

Best Practices in Using Arts and Culture to Build Social Connections n n Build Best Practices in Using Arts and Culture to Build Social Connections n n Build on the history and unique qualities of place, drawing on the community’s creative assets and cultural traditions Begin small, employing visible aesthetic and symbolic actions that reframe the value of diversity, youth, and creativity to build momentum Acknowledge everyone as “expert” with regard to their culture and community; exercise respect and include divergent viewpoints Incorporate learning as an ongoing process to enable people to respectfully cross boundaries into unfamiliar cultures; embrace difference and controversy as opportunities Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

Best Practices in Using Arts and Culture to Build Social Connections n n n Best Practices in Using Arts and Culture to Build Social Connections n n n Engage diverse stakeholders, especially youth, in visioning, planning, and sharing ongoing responsibilities; use participatory processes Conduct events and activities in familiar public spaces understanding that people have different culturally based relationships to these spaces Build organizational and cross-sector partnerships, working with existing groups of neighborhood residents and stakeholders Value and elevate design and the planning process both as art forms and as the subject of public policy Coordinate activities to complement other economic and civic projects that build upon economic and human assets Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

The Creative Economy in Small Cities and Rural Places § Creative assets vary greatly The Creative Economy in Small Cities and Rural Places § Creative assets vary greatly from place to place § Strategies for resource leveraging also vary § Asset identification appears to be the essential first step § Sustaining the creative economy is a challenge Source: Barringer, Richard, et al. “The Creative Economy in Maine: Measurement and Analysis. ” Prepared for the New England Foundation for the Arts and Maine Arts Commission. Portland, ME: Maine Center for Business and Economic Research, New England Environmental Finance Center, University of Southern Maine, 2004.

Urban Recommendations: Competing for Talent 1. Make people the focus of economic development 2. Urban Recommendations: Competing for Talent 1. Make people the focus of economic development 2. Become a city where women and ethnically diverse young people can achieve their goals 3. Openness and engagement are key to rooting talent in place 4. Investing in higher education is important, but it won’t solve the problem 5. Vibrant urban neighborhoods are an economic asset 6. The economic importance of being different Source: Cortright, Joseph. “The young and restless in a knowledge economy. ” N. P. : Ceos for cities, December 2005.

Vermont Recommendations to Support Growth of Creative Enterprises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Vermont Recommendations to Support Growth of Creative Enterprises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Expand markets for Vermont’s innovative and creative goods and services Unify and expand the promotion of Vermont’s cultural resources Ensure the Vermont brand reflects and promotes the state’s creativity Highlight Vermont’s creative and cultural life through special events Develop a “Vermont Artists and Artisans” identity and marketing campaign Provide technical support to emerging as well as established culturally-based businesses Provide access to capital for emerging as well as established enterprises Source: “Advancing Vermont’s Creative Economy. ” Produced by Vermont Council on Rural Development, 2004.

Maine Recommendations to Enhance the Role of Arts and Culture in the State Economy Maine Recommendations to Enhance the Role of Arts and Culture in the State Economy 1. Enhance the role of the arts and culture in tourism 2. Strengthen the creative cluster 3. Prepare the workforce 4. Encourage asset mapping 5. Develop regional approaches 6. Identify and cultivate leadership Source: Barringer, Richard, et al. “The Creative Economy in Maine: Measurement and Analysis. ” Prepared for the New England Foundation for the Arts and Maine Arts Commission. Portland, ME: Maine Center for Business and Economic Research, New England Environmental Finance Center, University of Southern Maine, 2004. 7. Build and extend networks across sectors

State-level Initiatives to Strengthen Rural Economies through the Arts • Integrate the arts in State-level Initiatives to Strengthen Rural Economies through the Arts • Integrate the arts in state economic development planning, strategies, and programs • Use traditional entrepreneurship and economic development tools including incubators, start-up capital and training • Attract the arts by offering incentives, supporting business collaboration, and improving physical infrastructure • Use higher education systems in training and business development efforts • Integrate arts into planning and marketing to build sustainable tourism • Invest in cultural resources for rural areas • Identify, obtain, and creatively use the wide variety of federal resources Source: National Governors Association. Strengthening Rural Economics through the Arts. Issue Brief. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, August 2005.

The Creative Enterprise Cluster § People and companies whose product is art or design The Creative Enterprise Cluster § People and companies whose product is art or design (e. g. , potters, writers, jewelers, and web page designers) § Companies in which art or design provides the distinguishing feature or competitive advantage of a product or service (e. g. , designer home furnishings, high fashion clothing or CDs) § Companies with services that are defined by art or design (e. g. , advertising agencies, landscapers and architects) § Companies that sell, supply, or contribute to art or design-dependent products or services (e. g. , galleries, craft and supply distributors, and arts councils, arts or craft schools and art foundries) Source: Rosenfeld, Stuart. “Crafting a New Rural Development Strategy. ” Economic Development America (Summer 2004): 11 -13.

Public Policies and Private Practices for Creative Enterprise Clusters • Add art and design Public Policies and Private Practices for Creative Enterprise Clusters • Add art and design services to the Manufacturing Extension Partnership and Cooperative Extension • Designate a lead Small Business Development Center for creative enterprises • Support networks and networking • Bundle arts and design with entertainment and cultural tourism • Embed art and design in education • Make greater use of community colleges Source: Rosenfeld, Stuart. “Crafting a New Rural Development Strategy. ” Economic Development America (Summer 2004): 11 -13.

Steps for Creative Community Builders 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Assess your situation Steps for Creative Community Builders 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Assess your situation and goals Identify and recruit effective partners Map values, strengths, assets, and history Focus on your key asset, vision, identity, and core strategies Craft a plan that brings the identity to life Secure funding, policy support, and media coverage Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.

Questions? Questions?

For More Information Jerry Hembd Northern Center for Community and Economic Development University of For More Information Jerry Hembd Northern Center for Community and Economic Development University of Wisconsin-Superior/Extension Belknap & Catlin, PO Box 2000 Superior, Wisconsin 54880 Web: www. uwsuper. edu/ncced Phone 715 -394 -8208 E-mail: [email protected] edu