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Ardea: A Reconfigurable Architecture for Fault Tolerant Distributed Embedded Systems Osamah. A. Rawashdeh Ph. Ardea: A Reconfigurable Architecture for Fault Tolerant Distributed Embedded Systems Osamah. A. Rawashdeh Ph. D. Defense Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Kentucky Lexington, KY November 29, 2005 /XX

Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Ardea Framework Overview • Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Ardea Framework Overview • • Ardea Hardware Architecture Software Module Dependency Graphs Ardea Fault Tolerance Runtime Behavior • Related Work • Example Implementation • Future Work • Conclusion 2 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Motivation • Majority of Processors are in Embedded Systems • Systems are becoming more Motivation • Majority of Processors are in Embedded Systems • Systems are becoming more complex and perform more critical operations • Correct operation must be insure for safety of public and environment • Fault will always occur => systems must be designed to be dependable 3 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Dependable Systems • Dependability: trustworthiness of a system allowing reliance to be justifiably placed Dependable Systems • Dependability: trustworthiness of a system allowing reliance to be justifiably placed on it’s services • Failures: Deviation of service provided from compliance with specifications • Faults: the cause of failures • Failure semantics: omission, timing, response, and crash • Hardware versus software faults • Fault Tolerance: ability to continue operation despite failures 4 Figure 1 - Page 6 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Traditional Fault Tolerance • Fault tolerance entails fault detection and subsequent handling • Fault Traditional Fault Tolerance • Fault tolerance entails fault detection and subsequent handling • Fault tolerance requires redundancy: – Static redundancy (spatial redundancy) • Modular redundancy • Design Diversity – Dynamic redundancy (temporal redundancy) • Recovery blocks • Failover programming 5 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

BIG BLUE Fault Tolerance May 2003 • BIG BLUE I – Single processor design BIG BLUE Fault Tolerance May 2003 • BIG BLUE I – Single processor design – Static sensor redundancies – Ad hoc fault tolerance • BIG BLUE II May 2004 – Distributed 3 processor design – I 2 C communication bus – Shared data memory for communication – Static redundancies • BIG BLUE III May 2005 – Single processor design – Real-time multi-tasking OS used – Task interdependencies limited by using a “mailman” 6 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Reconfiguration Based FT • Run-time reconfiguration FT feasible in distribute embedded systems: – Cost, Reconfiguration Based FT • Run-time reconfiguration FT feasible in distribute embedded systems: – Cost, size, power constraints – Availability of non-critical resources • Graceful degradation: a loss of or reduction in the quality of services a system provides in response to faults • Graceful degradation for distributed embedded systems is a new research area 7 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

The Challenge • How to specify a dynamically reconfiguring system that included static and The Challenge • How to specify a dynamically reconfiguring system that included static and dynamic redundancies • How to manage the redundancies • What infrastructure is needed to run these dynamic applications 8 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Objective and Contributions Ardea is a systematic framework for designing an implementing real-time dynamically Objective and Contributions Ardea is a systematic framework for designing an implementing real-time dynamically reconfiguring fault tolerant distributed embedded systems Contributions: – A graphical software specification technique for real-time applications that supports static redundancies as well as reconfiguration fault tolerance – An infrastructure supporting run-time application reconfiguration 9 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

The Ardea Framework • Ardea – Automatically Reconfigurable Distributed Embedded Architectures • Ardea herodias The Ardea Framework • Ardea – Automatically Reconfigurable Distributed Embedded Architectures • Ardea herodias – The Great Blue Heron, a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae, common all over North and Central America. This is the largest North American heron. 10 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Ardea Overview • Software is developed in a modular fashion • Mobile software modules Ardea Overview • Software is developed in a modular fashion • Mobile software modules can have several implementations with different resource requirements and output qualities • Dependencies among modules are graphically captured in software module dependency graphs (DGs) specifying application operating modes and execution parameters • A set of networked processors for running application software 11 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Ardea Overview – cont. • A global system manager tracks status of hardware and Ardea Overview – cont. • A global system manager tracks status of hardware and software resources • System manager computes new system configurations (a mapping of software modules onto processing elements) • Local management tasks are responsible for OS scheduling and data routing • Target applications: real-time distributed embedded control/periodic applications 12 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Framework Overview • • Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Framework Overview • • Ardea Hardware Architecture Software Module Dependency Graphs Ardea Fault Tolerance Runtime Behavior • Related Work • Example Implementation • Future Work • Conclusion 13 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

HW Architecture Overview • Processing Elements (PEs) - Homogeneous set of processors - Real-time HW Architecture Overview • Processing Elements (PEs) - Homogeneous set of processors - Real-time OS. - Local management tasks (scheduler, network interface, loader) • I/O Devices - Sensors and actuators - Hosted by PEs • Communication Network - Broadcast Network - Bandwidth and Latency Figure 14 - Page 34 • System Manager - Fault tolerant by other means - Tracks status of resources - Finds and deploys configurations 14 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Application Software Specification • Dependency graphs show the periodic flow of information from sensors Application Software Specification • Dependency graphs show the periodic flow of information from sensors to actuators (i. e. , data pipelines) • Graph nodes: software modules, data variables, I/O devices, and dependency gates • Software modules: – Executable code schedulable on a processing element – Suspended while input(s) unavailable – Produce and consume data variables – Attributes: worst case execution time and rate factor Figure 3 - Page 18 15 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Data Exchange Data variables: – Application data between software modules – State data variables Data Exchange Data variables: – Application data between software modules – State data variables are local to a software module – Management data variables contain data consumed by system manager. – Attributes: Figure 5 - Page 19 • Size • Quality value or function 16 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Specifying Dependencies • Dependency gates: – “k-out-of-n OR” gates: n > 0, 0 ≤ Specifying Dependencies • Dependency gates: – “k-out-of-n OR” gates: n > 0, 0 ≤ k ≤ n – “AND”: all input required – “XOR”: only one input required – “DEMUX”: for fanning out • OR gates can be specified to distribute inputs Figure 5 - Page 20 17 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

DG with Node Attributes ID = yaw_cntrl 1 ID = out 1, out 2 DG with Node Attributes ID = yaw_cntrl 1 ID = out 1, out 2 Exec_T = 900 cycl. mag_drv 2 ID = rud_Angle 1 Criticality: critical Rate_factor = 1: 5 ID = mag_drv 1 , Size = 2 bytes Priority = 1, Quality = 1 Rate = 10 Hz Exec_T = 300 cycl. ID = yaw_history Rate_factor = n/a Size = 8 bytes State = Enabled Quality = n/a ID = servo 1_drv, ID = yaw 1, yaw 2 ID = yaw_cntrl 2 ID = rud_Angle 2 servo 2_drv Size = 2 bytes Exec_T = 400 cycl. Size = 2 bytes Exec_T = 200 cycles Quality = 1, 2 Rate_factor = 1: 2 Quality = 2 Rate_factor = 1: 1 18 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Ardea Fault Detection & Handling • Failure detection of sensors, actuators and software modules Ardea Fault Detection & Handling • Failure detection of sensors, actuators and software modules is the responsibility of application software • Ardea built-in fault detection: – PE crash failures by heartbeat messages – Network link failures detected and handled as PE failures – Software module crashes detected locally by a module execution monitors – Critical output modules detect missed deadlines • Fault Handling: masking, reconfiguration, or failstop 19 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Sensor Fault Detection Figure 22 - Page 52 Figure 21 - Page 51 20 Sensor Fault Detection Figure 22 - Page 52 Figure 21 - Page 51 20 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Actuator Fault Detection Figure 23 - Page 53 21 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab Actuator Fault Detection Figure 23 - Page 53 21 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Software Fault Detection Figure 25 - Page 55 22 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab Software Fault Detection Figure 25 - Page 55 22 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Triple Modular Redundancy Figure 20 - Page 50 23 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab Triple Modular Redundancy Figure 20 - Page 50 23 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Ardea Runtime Behavior – Supporting mobile software modules (moving object code, scheduling/unscheduling, and data Ardea Runtime Behavior – Supporting mobile software modules (moving object code, scheduling/unscheduling, and data re-routing) – Tracking resource availability – Finding Configurations – Deploying Resources – Manage state data variables 24 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

The System Manager Figure 18 - Page 45 25 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab The System Manager Figure 18 - Page 45 25 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Processing Elements (PEs) • Memory Loader: copies code into program memory • Scheduler: starts Processing Elements (PEs) • Memory Loader: copies code into program memory • Scheduler: starts and stops execution of modules • Network Interface: handles public data variables (data routing) Figure 17 - Page 42 26 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Mobility and Data Routing • Module I/O data passed through mailboxes • Data routing Mobility and Data Routing • Module I/O data passed through mailboxes • Data routing transparent to modules • Starting, stopping of modules Figure 26 - Page 61 27 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Reconfiguration Policies • Two configuration finding algorithms: – High-fidelity is (NP-hard) to find high-utility Reconfiguration Policies • Two configuration finding algorithms: – High-fidelity is (NP-hard) to find high-utility configurations – Low-fidelity (fast) to insure running of critical services • Response based on criticality of detected/reported fault • Deploying configurations starting from sensor side of a DG See Figure 31 - Page 75 28 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Framework Overview • • Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Framework Overview • • Software Module Dependency Graphs Ardea Hardware Architecture Ardea Fault Tolerance Runtime Behavior • Related Work • Example Implementation • Future Work • Conclusion 29 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Related Work: Analysis Tools • Goal Based Success Trees • Failure Mode Analysis (fault Related Work: Analysis Tools • Goal Based Success Trees • Failure Mode Analysis (fault trees) • AADL: Architecture Analysis and Design Language: – By SAE – A textual modeling language for specification of real-time embedded systems – System is defined as a set of components with resource and timing properties – No support for components with degraded modes of operation – Graphical tools currently under development 30 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Related Work: Graceful Degradation • Ro. SES at CMU and Chameleon at the Technical Related Work: Graceful Degradation • Ro. SES at CMU and Chameleon at the Technical University of Keiserslautern • Both are abstract, not considering implementation • Both are considering non-safety critical and nonreal-time applications • Ro. SES focuses on complexity configuration of search algorithms and on product families • Chameleon focuses on modeling and analysis of gracefully degrading systems 31 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Related Work: Distributed Object Computing • Examples: Jini, CORBA, RT-CORBA, and ARMORs • Principle: Related Work: Distributed Object Computing • Examples: Jini, CORBA, RT-CORBA, and ARMORs • Principle: service based computing, where services are brokered at runtime • Designed with large information systems in mind • Depend on TCP/UDP (not reliable) • Not suitable for embedded systems 32 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Framework Overview • • Outline • Motivation and Background • Objective and Contributions • Framework Overview • • Software Module Dependency Graphs Ardea Hardware Architecture Ardea Fault Tolerance Runtime Behavior • Related Work • • • Example Implementation Future Work Conclusion 33 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Example Ardea Implementation • Specified an implementation of a control system and scientific data Example Ardea Implementation • Specified an implementation of a control system and scientific data collection system for a light UAV • Application includes redundant sensors, actuators, yaw controllers with different fidelities • Application includes non-critical functions in form of a scientific data collection system • Limitations: – Object code is preloaded on PEs – Uses pre-computed configurations – Considers only processor time as constraint 34 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Pseudocode of Modules 1 Check connection to magnetometer i 2 IF no connection, write Pseudocode of Modules 1 Check connection to magnetometer i 2 IF no connection, write failure message into “mag i fail” mailbox and suspend 3 ELSE 4 Sample magnetometer n times 5 Average the n samples 6 Place average into “yaw i” mailbox 7 Suspend for “sampling period” amount of time 8 GOTO 1 Figure 33: Magnetometer Drivers Pseudocode, p. 83 1 Check connection to servo 2 IF no connection, write failure message into “servo i fail” mailbox and suspend 3 ELSE 4 Read “rudder angle” from input mailbox 5 IF “rudder-angle” is fail-stop code, move servo to 180 degrees 5 ELSE 6 Set servo to “rudder angle” 7 Delete data in input mailbox 8 Reset deadline timer 9 Suspend until input mailbox full or deadline timer overflow 10 IF deadline timer overflow 11 transmit “fail-stop” to system manager 12 ELSE GOTO 1 Figure 35: Magnetometer Drivers Pseudocode, p. 84 35 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

COTS Components • Network: CAN 2. 0 B Bus – Controller Area Network – COTS Components • Network: CAN 2. 0 B Bus – Controller Area Network – Robust: differential signaling, CRC, fail-silent nodes – CSMA/CD with non-destructive bitwise arbitration • PEs: high-performance Silicon Labs 8051 core microcontrollers • OS: micro. C/OS-II – Preemptive, multitasking, priority based, ROMable – DO-178 B Level-A certified Figure 39 - Page 87 36 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

micro. C/OS-II API • OS Functions called by the scheduler task for managing task micro. C/OS-II API • OS Functions called by the scheduler task for managing task execution and mailboxes: Function Call Description Arguments OSTask. Create(*module, module_id) Schedules (starts) a task on the OS *module: pointer to the object code of the software module to be scheduled. module_id: the software module ID. OSTask. Del (module_id) Unscheduled a task module_id: the software module ID. OSMbox. Create(mbox_id) Creates a mailbox mbox_id: ID for mailbox referencing OSMbox. Del(mbox_id) Deletes a mailbox mbox_id: ID for mailbox referencing Table 8: Operating System API, p. 93 • Other calls: read/write mailboxes, “suspend while mailbox empty”, and “suspend for time t” 37 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

CAN API and Messages Function Description init_CAN Initializes the CAN engine create_rcv_object (arb_id) specifies CAN API and Messages Function Description init_CAN Initializes the CAN engine create_rcv_object (arb_id) specifies that any message on the bus with arb_id as arbitration ID to be processed (received) transmit(arb_id, data) create frame and broadcast a message with the data_id as arbitration ID and data as payload Table 10: The CAN Bus API, p. 95 Message Description Sender PE heartbeats Network Interface Scheduling commands Fame Content Receiver arb. ID Payload System manager arb_ID PE_ID System manager Scheduler PE arb_ID Scheduler code schedule/un-schedule cmd. Scheduling Ack. Scheduler task System manager arb_ID Ack. code n/a Failure reports of resources Software module System manager arb_ID Resource failure code Failed device ID: sensor_ID, actuator_ID, or module_ID Fail-stop request Software module System Manager System manager arb_ID Fail-stop code State Data variables Software module System manager Broadcast arb_ID State variable data Data variables Software module Broadcast arb_ID Data variable data none n/a Table 11: Overview of Messages, p. 96 38 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Resource Tracking and Finding New Configurations Module (IDM) Required Resource mag drv 1 Resource Resource Tracking and Finding New Configurations Module (IDM) Required Resource mag drv 1 Resource ID Status mag 1 failed mag drv 2 n/a mag 2 available yaw cntrl 1 PE 1 TMP 100 available yaw cntrl 2 n/a UV sensor available servo drv 1 servo 1 failed servo drv 2 n/a servo 2 available TMP drv TMP 100 LCD available UV drv UV sensor PE 1 failed telem_gather PE 3 PE 2 failed LCD drv LCD PE 3 available PE 4 available Table 12: Highest Utility Configuration Array, p. 99 Table 13: Example Resource Status Array, p. 101 39 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Future Work: Ardea System Monitor Figure 46 - Page 104 40 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Future Work: Ardea System Monitor Figure 46 - Page 104 40 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Future Work: A Wireless Bus Extension Figure 47 - Page 105 41 Intelligent Dependable Future Work: A Wireless Bus Extension Figure 47 - Page 105 41 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Future Work: The Ardea CAD Tool Figures 12, 13 - Pages 31, 32 42 Future Work: The Ardea CAD Tool Figures 12, 13 - Pages 31, 32 42 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Future Work: Honeywell’s EAFTC • Honeywell’s Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing System (EAFTC) • Future Work: Honeywell’s EAFTC • Honeywell’s Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing System (EAFTC) • One of four technology validation payloads on the New Millennium Programs Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Mission scheduled for 2008. • Purpose: fault tolerant high-rate onboard parallel processing for science data • We are currently investigating the use/modification of Ardea for EAFTC • Supported by the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium 43 Testing Tomorrow’s Technology Today! Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Ardea Benefits • More flexible fault tolerance at reduced cost • Ability to analyze Ardea Benefits • More flexible fault tolerance at reduced cost • Ability to analyze reconfigurable architectures using DGs • Simplified debugging and maintenance • Runtime system testing • Graceful upgrade and repair • Reduction of design errors • Software reusability 44 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Conclusion • Graceful degradation in distributed embedded system is a new research area currently Conclusion • Graceful degradation in distributed embedded system is a new research area currently focusing on either abstract modeling or on non-realtime/non-critical systems • Ardea provides a structured framework for the design and implementation of real-time systems • Dependency graphs were presented to capture fault tolerant, dynamically reconfiguring, software architectures • An infrastructure supporting reconfigurable distributed reconfigurable applications was presented 45 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Misc. Publications & Patents: 1. 2. 3. Vallance, R. R. , S. Chikkamaranahalli, O. Misc. Publications & Patents: 1. 2. 3. Vallance, R. R. , S. Chikkamaranahalli, O. A. Rawashdeh, J. E. Lumpp, B. Walcott, and E. Wolsing. “System and Device for Characterizing Shape Memory Alloy Wires, ” U. S. Patent 6, 916, 115, July 12, 2005. Wermeling, D. , R. Vallance, B. Walcott, J. Main, J. Lumpp, O. A. Rawashdeh, “Programmable Multi-Dose Intranasal Drug Delivery Device, ” U. S. patent pending, application for utility patent filed December 2002. Balasubramanian, A. , R. R. Vallance, B. L. Walcott, J. E. Lumpp, O. A. Rawashdeh, “Linear Actuator Using Shape Memory Wire with Controller, ” U. S. patent pending, provisional application filed September, 2002. Publications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. D. Jackson, A. Groves, O. Rawashdeh, G. Chandler, W. Smith, and J. Lumpp, “Evolution of an Avionics System for a High-Attitude UAV, ” proc. AIAA [email protected] Conference, paper # AIAA-2005 -7152, September 2005. S. Chikkamaranahalli, R. R. Vallance, and A. Khan, E. R. Marsh, O. A. Rawashdeh, J. E. Lumpp, and B. L. Walcott, “Precision Instrument for Characterizing Shape Memory Alloy Wires in Bias Spring Actuation, ” Review of Scientific Instruments Journal, v. 76, June 2005. G. Chandler, D. Jackson, A. Groves, O. A. Rawashdeh, N. A. Rawashdeh, W. Smith, J. Jacob, and J. E. Lumpp, Jr. , “A Low-Cost Control System for a High-Altitude UAV, ” IEEE Aerospace Conference, IEEEAC paper # 1438, March 2005. A. Simpson, O. A. Rawashdeh, S. Smith, J. Jacob, W. Smith, and J. E. Lumpp, JR. , “BIG BLUE: A High-Altitude UAV Demonstrator of Mars Airplane Technology, ” IEEE Aerospace Conference, IEEEAC paper # 1436, March 2005. A. Simpson, J. Jacob, S. Smith, O. A. Rawashdeh, J. E. Lumpp, and W. Smith, “BIG BLUE II: Mars Aircraft Prototype with Inflatable-Rigidizable Wings, ” 43 rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2005. K. N. Roberts, K. M. Miller, J. E. Lumpp, M. Wells, C. P. Harr, O. A. Rawashdeh, and S. W. Scheff, “Computer Controlled Cortical Contusion Device for the Mouse, ” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 21, no. 1296, November 2004. O. A. Rawashdeh, Design of a Computer Controller for a Nasal Drug Delivery Device using SMA Actuators, Thesis, Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engr. , University of Kentucky, May 2003. S. Chikkamaranahalli, R. R. Vallance, O. A. Rawashdeh, J. E. Lumpp, and B. Walcott, “Setup to Characterize Nitinol Wires, ” Int. Conf. on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies (SMST-2003), Pacific Grove, CA, May 4 -8, 2003. S. Chikkamaranahalli, R. R. Vallance, O. A. Rawashdeh, J. E. Lumpp, and B. Walcott, “Characterization of SMA Wire in Bias Spring Actuation, ” Proceedings of the 2003 Proceedings of the International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies (SMST-2003). Pacific Grove, CA, May 4 -8, 2003. J. E. Lumpp, K. N. Roberts, M. Wells, J. A. Main, C. P. Harr, O. A. Rawashdeh, and S. W. Scheff, “Characterization of a Computer Controlled Non-penetrating Cortical Contusion Device, ” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 20, no. 1087, May 2003. S. Chikkamaranahalli, R. R. Vallance, O. A. Rawashdeh, J. E. Lumpp, and B. Walcott, “Precision Instrument for Characterizing Contraction and Extension of Nitinol Wire, ” Proceedings of the 17 th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), October 20 -25, 2002. Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab 46 University of Kentucky

Ardea Related Publications 12. O. A. Rawashdeh and J. E. Lumpp, Jr. “Run-Time Behavior Ardea Related Publications 12. O. A. Rawashdeh and J. E. Lumpp, Jr. “Run-Time Behavior of Ardea: A Dynamically Reconfiguring Distributed Embedded Control Architecture, ” to appear, IEEE Aerospace Conference, IEEEAC paper # 1516, March 2006. 13. O. A. Rawashdeh and J. E. Lumpp, Jr. “Ardea: A Dynamic Reconfiguration Framework for Fault-Tolerant Distributed Embedded Systems, ” under review, Journal of Systems and Software, Special Issue – Architecting Dependable Systems, submitted October 2005. 14. G. Chandler, C. Harr, O. Rawashdeh, D. Feinauer, D. Jackson, A. Groves, and J. Lumpp, “Wireless Extension of an Avionics Bus for Prototyping and Testing Reconfigurable UAVs, ” proc. AIAA [email protected] Conference, paper # AIAA-2005 -7151, September 2005. 15. O. Rawashdeh, D. Feinauer, C. Harr, G. Chandler, D. Jackson, A. Groves, and J. Lumpp, “A Dynamically Reconfiguring Avionics Architecture for UAVs, ” proc. AIAA [email protected] Conference, paper # AIAA-2005 -7050, September 2005. 16. O. A. Rawashdeh, G. D. Chandler, and J. E. Lumpp, Jr. , “A UAV Test and Development Environment Based on Dynamic System Reconfiguration, ” International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) – proc. of the 2005 Workshop on Architecting Dependable Systems (WADS 05), pp. 1 – 7, May 2005. 17. O. A. Rawashdeh and J. E. Lumpp, Jr. , “A Technique for Specifying Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems, ” IEEE Aerospace Conference, IEEEAC paper # 1435, March 2005. 47 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

48 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky 48 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Reconfiguration Policies Figure 31 - Page 75 49 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University Reconfiguration Policies Figure 31 - Page 75 49 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Related Work: Ro. SES Robust Self-Configuring Embedded Systems • Long term abstract graceful degradation Related Work: Ro. SES Robust Self-Configuring Embedded Systems • Long term abstract graceful degradation research at CMU • Composes system into feature subsets, each having a utility value depending on the operation of its software components • Offline exponential reconfiguration search algorithms find optimal configurations • Not deterministic and not testable • Focus: – Reducing complexity of search algorithms – Software fault tolerance for non-critical functionality – Use as product family specification 50 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Related Work: Chameleon • Focus is on modeling and analysis of gracefully degrading distributed Related Work: Chameleon • Focus is on modeling and analysis of gracefully degrading distributed embedded systems • System modeled as a set of services, each with input requirements • Each service has a configuration tree (or success trees) • Abstract modeling work, no implementation or runtime considerations 51 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

I/O Devices • I/O devices: – Interfaces to the environment – Output device attributes: I/O Devices • I/O devices: – Interfaces to the environment – Output device attributes: • • Criticality Priority Real-time deadline Status – Attributes are modifiable • I/O software modules – Input modules are time triggered – Output modules monitor deadlines 52 Figure 8 - Page 24 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Ardea Fault Handling • Static redundancies do not cause reconfiguration • Report of failures Ardea Fault Handling • Static redundancies do not cause reconfiguration • Report of failures to system manager trigger reconfiguration to employ redundancies dynamically • Fail-stop mode initiated when critical deadlines are missed (due to undetected failures or due to reconfiguration delays) 53 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky

Example Dependency Graph 1/3 54 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab Figure 9 - Page Example Dependency Graph 1/3 54 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab Figure 9 - Page 24 University of Kentucky

Scheduling and Unscheduling • Starting, stopping, and restarting modules • Restarting requires: – State Scheduling and Unscheduling • Starting, stopping, and restarting modules • Restarting requires: – State Preservation – Unprocessed data preservation Figures 27, 30 - Pages 65, 69 55 Intelligent Dependable Embedded Architectures Lab University of Kentucky