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Arab-Israeli Conflict Arab-Israeli Conflict

Greater Israel---Late 1960 s and Early 1970 s • Following the 1967 war the Greater Israel---Late 1960 s and Early 1970 s • Following the 1967 war the UNSC passed resolution 242 which reaffirmed “the inadmissibility of the acquistion of territory by war. ” • Israel ignored the resolution and began settling the occupied territories, and went on to annex the Syrian Golan Heights and East Jerusalem. • Israel’s refusal to return captured territory led to the 1969 -70 War of Attrition and the 1973 Yom Kippur War. • Moshe Dayan, confident in Israel’s military prowess announced, “There is no more Palestine. Finished!”

The Palestinian Refugee Problem By 1968 the number of refugees had risen to 1. The Palestinian Refugee Problem By 1968 the number of refugees had risen to 1. 5 million.

The miserable conditions of the camps serve as good recruiting grounds for violent opposition The miserable conditions of the camps serve as good recruiting grounds for violent opposition groups.

PLO PLO

Palestinian Unrest • Egypt, Israel made peace; Palestinian Arabs continued struggle for nationhood • Palestinian Unrest • Egypt, Israel made peace; Palestinian Arabs continued struggle for nationhood • 1947 UN partition plan had called for two states in Palestine—a Jewish state, an Arab state • After 1948 Arab-Israeli war, land set aside for Arab state occupied by Israel, Egypt, Jordan Palestinian Nationalism Palestinian Resentment • 1964, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formed • In effort to stop attacks, Israel invaded Lebanon, 1978 and 1982 • Pledged to destroy Israel, replace with Palestinian state • Tensions building also in West Bank, Gaza where Israel had begun building settlements • 1969, Yasser Arafat became leader, PLO launched guerilla attacks against Israel • 1987, Palestinian resentment began rebellion called intifada

The Palestinian Liberation Organisation ‘PLO’ Crest of the PLO. Notice the map of Palestine The Palestinian Liberation Organisation ‘PLO’ Crest of the PLO. Notice the map of Palestine all one colour. In Jordan, and particularly the West bank, Palestinian Arabs had been preparing for war. They were organised into many different groups but they were all largely prepared to operate under the umbrella name ‘PLO’. When King Hussein of Jordan signed the Rogers plan, the Palestinians felt betrayed. When Hussein’s army began receiving arms and equipment from the USA they felt even more threatened. Different PLO groups began new campaigns of violence. They worked out of fortified refugee camps and cities. They raided Israeli targets , but also Jordanian police and army targets.

PLO • Palestinians want to assume responsibility for liberating their homeland • Arafat named PLO • Palestinians want to assume responsibility for liberating their homeland • Arafat named chairman in 1969 -served until his death in 2005 • Secular nationalists • Endorsed the two-state solution • Military campaign against Israel in 70’s and 80’s

The Conflict Continues In 1969, Yasser Arafat became the leader of the PLO. Five The Conflict Continues In 1969, Yasser Arafat became the leader of the PLO. Five years earlier, Fatah, a secret armed group that Arafat had founded, made its first attacks on Israel. Arafat served as the leader of the PLO until his death in 2004. During the 35 years of Arafat’s leadership, Israel elected several different leaders, known as prime ministers.

Arafat and the PLO • Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National Liberation Front) in 1959. Arafat and the PLO • Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National Liberation Front) in 1959. – Goal was to liberate Palestine from Israel through guerilla warfare. • Variety of Palestinian factions form the Palestinian Liberation Organization in 1964. – Arafat becomes chairman in 1969. – Charter calls for elimination of state of Israel. • Hussein feels threatened and expels PLO from Jordan in 1970. – Arafat moves HQ to Lebanon. – PLO driven out of Lebanon by Israel in 1982.

The Middle East • Many terrorist groups have roots in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Groups The Middle East • Many terrorist groups have roots in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Groups include: – Islamic Jihad – Hamas – Hezbullah • They demand a Palestinian homeland on their own terms. Some want Israel to cease to exist. • Cycle of violence: Israelis usually retaliate after each terrorist attack. • Emblems of – Islamic Jihad – Hamas – Hezbullah

International Terrorism in the late 1960 s and into the 1970 s • Following International Terrorism in the late 1960 s and into the 1970 s • Following the 1967 war Palestinian militant groups used international terrorism to bring attention to their cause. • George Habash, leader of the PFLP justified such acts as “For decades world attention has neither been for or against the Palestinians. It simply ignored us. At least the world is talking about us now. ” • Many Palestinian actions however, like the 1978 Coast Road Massacre or the murder of 22 children in the 1974 Ma’alot School Massacre, were unjustified and unjustifiable.

BLACK SEPTEMBER • Palestinian resistance groups begin setting up base of operations in Jordan. BLACK SEPTEMBER • Palestinian resistance groups begin setting up base of operations in Jordan. • Highjack a plane and blow it up on Jordanian territory • King of Jordan responds by eliminating Palestinian presence in Jordan • Between September 15 -25, 1970 - 3, 000 Palestinians are killed • Arabs Killing Arabs

Response • PLO moves its headquarters to Lebanon • Palestinian groups commit terrorist attacks Response • PLO moves its headquarters to Lebanon • Palestinian groups commit terrorist attacks • Kill members of the 1972 Jewish Olympic team at Munich.

Hijackiing. August 30. 1970 • The Palestinians (PFLP) in return demanded a say in Hijackiing. August 30. 1970 • The Palestinians (PFLP) in return demanded a say in the government of Jordan and hijacked passenger jets, belonging to Swissair, BOAC and TWA to give weight to their demands. • The King refused to be threatened so the Palestinians blew up the jets- (but released the people first though) • Several assassination attempts were also made against the King. They all failed.

Hijackiing. August 30. 1970 • The Palestinians (PFLP) in return demanded a say in Hijackiing. August 30. 1970 • The Palestinians (PFLP) in return demanded a say in the government of Jordan and hijacked passenger jets, belonging to Swissair, BOAC and TWA to give weight to their demands. • The King refused to be threatened so the Palestinians blew up the jets- (but released the people first though) • Several assassination attempts were also made against the King. They all failed.

Planes burn, and the world is shocked. Planes burn, and the world is shocked.

The Munich Massacre 1972 • • The Black September Movement targeted the Israeli sportsmen The Munich Massacre 1972 • • The Black September Movement targeted the Israeli sportsmen who attended the Olympic Games in Munich, Germany, 1972. They managed to kill 12 of the Israeli Olympic team and successfully put Western attention back onto the Arab-Israeli conflict. Importance…… • The image of the International Terrorist became widely recognised for the first time. Three terrorists survived and were later released when other terrorists hijacked a German plane and threatened to kill the passengers. A Black September terrorist negotiating with police. King Hussein was the only Arab leader to condemn the massacre.

Munich Olympic Games 1972 Terrorist attacks were intended to avenge the victory, including the Munich Olympic Games 1972 Terrorist attacks were intended to avenge the victory, including the 1972 murders of 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games.

1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany • Members of Black September, a Palestinian terrorist 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany • Members of Black September, a Palestinian terrorist group, initially kill two Israeli athletes and took nine more hostage. • By the end of the ordeal 11 Israeli athletes and coaches were killed along with one West German police officer. • 5 of the 8 terrorists were killed by the West Germans in a failed rescue attempt. The three captured terrorists were released by West Germany when Black September hijacked a Lufthansa airliner. • Israel responded with Operation Wrath of God which included assassinations of Palestinian terrorists who planned the Munich Massacre. This operation is depicted in Steven Spielberg’s 2005 film Munich.

Yom Kippur War Yom Kippur War

Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat October 6, 1973 was “Yom Kippur”- the holiest day in Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat October 6, 1973 was “Yom Kippur”- the holiest day in the Jewish calendar – Egypt and Syria opened a coordinated surprise attack against Israel. The equivalent of the total forces of NATO in Europe was mobilizing on Israel's borders. The whole world watched anxiously to see what steps would be taken by Israel’s Prime Minister, Golda Meir. Joint Arab attack on holiest Jewish holiday. 5. The 1973 Yom Kippur War begins. Israel counter-attacked. Signed an uneasy truce. T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Egypt Strikes Back Yom Kippur War • Egypt, Syria determined to win territory back, Egypt Strikes Back Yom Kippur War • Egypt, Syria determined to win territory back, launched Yom Kippur War, surprise attack against Israel in 1973 • Took name from Jewish holy day when attack began U. S. Support • At first Arab troops made gains in war; Israeli’s government, led by Golda Meir, not fully prepared for attack; needed military support from U. S. • With support, Israeli forces regrouped, pushed back Egyptian, Syrian armies Oil Embargo • Both sides agreed to cease-fire after weeks of fighting • During war, Arab members of OPEC declared oil embargo against countries supporting Israel • Price of oil around world rose dramatically as result of refusal to sell oil

Yom Kippur War, or the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to Yom Kippur War, or the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to October 26, 1973 by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The war was a surprise attack on Yom Kippur, the Jewish day of atonement. The war had far-reaching implications for many nations. The Arab World, which had been humiliated by the lopsided defeat of the Egyptian-Syrian-Jordanian alliance during the Six-Day War, felt psychologically vindicated This vindication paved the way for the peace process that followed.

Yom Kippur War - 1973 In 1973, Egypt and Syria carried out an attack Yom Kippur War - 1973 In 1973, Egypt and Syria carried out an attack on Israel during Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. This time, the Arabs were better prepared with weapons from the Soviet Union. The Israelis were able to hold off the Arabs, but the Yom Kippur War Arabs was an important step to the peace process.

Yom Kippur War 1973 • The Yom Kippur War, or October War also known Yom Kippur War 1973 • The Yom Kippur War, or October War also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to October 26, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria.

Israeli trenches on the Bar Lev line. • Israel had heavily fortified its borders, Israeli trenches on the Bar Lev line. • Israel had heavily fortified its borders, especially the Suez area and the Golan Heights. In the Suez area the defences were called the ‘Bar Lev’ line after an Israeli general. • She knew however, that her greatest assets were her air force and the motivation of her soldiers. These she carefully nurtured.

October War of 1973 • Oct. 1973 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat plans a October War of 1973 • Oct. 1973 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat plans a joint Arab attack on Israel during Yom Kippur- a Jewish holy day • Successful- recapture some territory lost in 1967 • Golda Meir, Israeli Prime Minister, orders counter attack • Ariel Sharon led Israeli attack (Oct. 16) • After a few weeks a truce is created • USA and USSR got involved

October 24 1973. Ceasefire. • Neither superpower wanted war therefore they cooperated in the October 24 1973. Ceasefire. • Neither superpower wanted war therefore they cooperated in the United Nations. • The United Nations organised a ceasefire. Resolution 338. • No Russian soldiers ever arrived in Egypt. • This was to the Arabs’ advantage because Israeli forces were close to both Egypt’s and Syria’s capital cities, they had one entire Egyptian army cut off in the Sinai desert, and had, by now, occupied large pieces of Arab territory. • The UN sent in peace keepers to the Suez region, and the Golan heights. All forces began to withdraw.

Lebanon Golan Heights Syria The End of the War. -green marks Israeli gains Israel Lebanon Golan Heights Syria The End of the War. -green marks Israeli gains Israel Jordan Suez Canal Egypt

Casualties • Israel 2, 688 dead. • Egypt 7, 700 dead. • Syria 3, Casualties • Israel 2, 688 dead. • Egypt 7, 700 dead. • Syria 3, 500 dead.

Results • The Arab armies did much better than in the Six-Day War and Results • The Arab armies did much better than in the Six-Day War and managed to inflict some surprises on the Israelis. This filled some with confidence. • The Israelis learned from the experience not to be complacent about Arab threats, or lax in defence. • Both sides, consequently, continued updating their weapons, and planned for the next war. • The war had solved nothing, and had proved little.

Camp David Peace Accords Camp David Peace Accords

Egyptian President Sadat offers peace to Israel. President Carter sets meeting in U. S. Egyptian President Sadat offers peace to Israel. President Carter sets meeting in U. S. 6. Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Sadat sign the Camp David Accords in 1978. • Egypt becomes first Arab nation to officially recognize Israel’s statehood. • Israel agrees to return Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. Israel Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat shocked the world when he became the first leader of the Arab-world to offer peace to Israel. “We used to reject you, ” he told the Israeli Parliament, “yet, today, we agree to live with Two years later, you in permanent Sadat is assassinated by angry Muslim extremists. peace and justice. ” Egypt’s new President Hosni Mubarak kept Sadat’s policy and maintained peace with Israel. Palestinians could no longer rely on Egypt in their conflict with Israel.

A Peace Agreement Until the late 1970 s, no Arab nation had recognized Israel’s A Peace Agreement Until the late 1970 s, no Arab nation had recognized Israel’s right to exist. Camp David • 1977, Egyptian president Anwar Sadat made momentous declaration: Egypt wanted peace with Israel • U. S. president Jimmy Carter invited Sadat, Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin to Camp David, presidential retreat in Maryland Peace Treaty • 1978, Sadat, Begin reached agreement known as Camp David Accords • Egypt recognized Israel; Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt • Treaty ended 30 years hostility between Egypt, Israel

Dr. Kissinger and the Sadat Initiative. • The United states sent Dr. Kissinger to Dr. Kissinger and the Sadat Initiative. • The United states sent Dr. Kissinger to organise a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. An ‘interim’ agreement was signed September 1975 • November 1977 President Sadat proposed the ‘Sadat initiative’. He would visit Jerusalem and speak to the Israeli Parliament (Knesset) to resolve all difficulties. • It at last broke the mould of hatred and distrust between Egypt and Israel.

Dr. Kissinger (USA). The peace broker. Dr. Kissinger (USA). The peace broker.

Camp David, USA. • Under the guidance of US President Jimmy Carter, President Sadat Camp David, USA. • Under the guidance of US President Jimmy Carter, President Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Menachim Begin of Israel met at Camp David to discuss the future of the Middle East. • They both won the Nobel Peace Prize when a Camp David peace agreement was signed 1978. It promised peace at last!

Attempts at Peace Menachem Begin became prime minister of Israel in 1977, during the Attempts at Peace Menachem Begin became prime minister of Israel in 1977, during the US presidency of Jimmy Carter. President Carter helped Prime Minster Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat work out an agreement. This agreement was called the Camp David Accord. The three leaders met at Camp David in the US Begin agreed to remove all Israeli troops from the Sinai Peninsula and return the land to Egypt. Other Arab countries were not happy about this agreement. In 1981, Sadat was assassinated by troops in the Egyptian army.

Presidents Sadat (UAE), Carter (USA), and Begin (Israel) sign the Camp David Accords. 1978. Presidents Sadat (UAE), Carter (USA), and Begin (Israel) sign the Camp David Accords. 1978.

Perspectives on Camp David Accords Israeli • Shows that the country is willing to Perspectives on Camp David Accords Israeli • Shows that the country is willing to trade land it has conquered for peace Palestinian and Arab Nations • Egypt recognizes that Israel is a country and exists. • Sadat assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists • Jordan signs peace agreement with Israel in 1994.

Peace in 1979 • Following Israel’s near defeat in the 1973 Yom Kippur War Peace in 1979 • Following Israel’s near defeat in the 1973 Yom Kippur War Israel became much more amenable to peace. • In 1979 Egypt and Israel made peace. Israel agreed to withdraw from Egyptian territory and allow Palestinians in the occupied West Bank and Gaza self-rule leading to a free vote on the future status of these territories. • Israel implemented the first part of this agreement and completely ignored the second part. Instead it chose to build illegal colonies – settlements – today 500, 000 Israelis live illegally in Palestinian territory.

Reflection • Write for three minutes about BOTH of the following questions. – If Reflection • Write for three minutes about BOTH of the following questions. – If you were Israeli, how might you feel about the Camp David Accords? – If you were Palestinian or a resident of an Arab country, how might you feel about the Camp David Accords?

Rise of Hezebollah and Hamas Rise of Hezebollah and Hamas

Hamas Hamas

Hamas - Islamic Resistance Movement „hamas” means „enthusiasm” - Palestinian movement - established in Hamas - Islamic Resistance Movement „hamas” means „enthusiasm” - Palestinian movement - established in 1987 by Sheikh Ahmed Yasin - against any agreement with Israel - goal: to establish an Islamic theocracy in the area that is currently Israel, the West Bank and Gaza.

Hamas Background n n Arabic acronym for “The Islamic Resistance Movement” Grew out of Hamas Background n n Arabic acronym for “The Islamic Resistance Movement” Grew out of the Muslim Brotherhood Created in 1987 by Shaikh Ahmed Yassin Headquarters in Gaza City, Palestine

Hamas (1987) • A. Attacks: • 1. Many bombings, suicide bombings, rocket and artillery Hamas (1987) • A. Attacks: • 1. Many bombings, suicide bombings, rocket and artillery attacks, kidnappings, beatings, and other acts of violence against Israeli civilians during 80’s and 90’s- hundreds of casualties • 2. provides relief, education, to Palestinians • 3. provides political participation • • • B. Goals: 1. destruction of Israel 2. destruction of Judaism 3. political violence 4. creation of a Palestinian State

Hamas (cont. ) • • C. Individuals: 1. Saikh Ahmed Yassir – founder 2. Hamas (cont. ) • • C. Individuals: 1. Saikh Ahmed Yassir – founder 2. Mohammad Taha – political Leader 3. Many top officials have been assassinated by Israel • • • D. Financing: 1. Israel at 1 st, to balance the power of Al Fatah 2. Saudi Arabia 3. various other Middle East countries 4. illegal drug sales

The Slogan of Hamas “God is it’s target, the Prophet is it’s model, the The Slogan of Hamas “God is it’s target, the Prophet is it’s model, the Qur’an it’s constitution: Jihad is it’s path and death for the sake of God is the loftiest of it’s wishes. ”

Goals • Hamas combines Palestinian nationalism with Islamic fundamentalism • Destruction of Israel • Goals • Hamas combines Palestinian nationalism with Islamic fundamentalism • Destruction of Israel • Replacement of Palestinian Authority with an Islamic state • Strive to raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine

Primary Targets • • Israelis in Palestine Jews Fatah Anyone opposed to the Islamic Primary Targets • • Israelis in Palestine Jews Fatah Anyone opposed to the Islamic Movement

Attacks • Hamas is believed to have killed more than 500 people in more Attacks • Hamas is believed to have killed more than 500 people in more than 350 separate terrorist attacks since 1993 • Most of the killings were done by suicide bombers • Also use mortars, shortrange rockets, and small arms fire

Suicide Attacks • Recruits do not fit the usual psychological profile of suicidal people Suicide Attacks • Recruits do not fit the usual psychological profile of suicidal people • Usually paid $3, 000$5, 000 • Recruits undergo intense religious indoctrination • The average bombing costs about $150

Recent Activity • 350 separate terrorist attacks since 1993 • January 15, 2004 – Recent Activity • 350 separate terrorist attacks since 1993 • January 15, 2004 – female suicide bomber • May 14, 2004 – double suicide bombers • Boycotted 2005 elections • Participated in 2006 elections

Potential Threat to U. S. • November 8, 2006 • Hamas called on Muslims Potential Threat to U. S. • November 8, 2006 • Hamas called on Muslims around the world to attack American targets • No attacks on U. S. have been linked to Hamas

Hamas Finances • Palestinian expatriates and private donors in Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich Hamas Finances • Palestinian expatriates and private donors in Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich Persian Gulf states. • Muslim Charities around the world • Iran also provides significant support

Leaders • • • Sheikh Ahmed Yassin Abdel Aziz Rantisi Khaled Mashal Mahmoud Zahar Leaders • • • Sheikh Ahmed Yassin Abdel Aziz Rantisi Khaled Mashal Mahmoud Zahar Ismail Haniyah

Sheikh Ahmed Yassin • Born on January 1, 1929 in Jura, Palestine • Founder Sheikh Ahmed Yassin • Born on January 1, 1929 in Jura, Palestine • Founder of Hamas • Sentenced to life in prison, released after 1 year • Assassinated on March 22, 2004 by Israeli gunship helicopter “We chose this road, and will end with martyrdom or victory”

Abdel Aziz Rantisi • One of the founders of Hamas • Doctor and lecturer Abdel Aziz Rantisi • One of the founders of Hamas • Doctor and lecturer at Islamic University • Took leadership after Yassin’s death • Assassinated on April 17, 2004 “Violent resistance is the only option for the restoration of our stolen rights”

Mahmoud Zahar • Born in 1945 to a Palestinian father and an Egyptian Mother Mahmoud Zahar • Born in 1945 to a Palestinian father and an Egyptian Mother • Yassin’s personal physician • Senior official and spokesperson • Secretly assigned to leadership after Rantisi’s assassination

Khaled Mashal • Born in Silwad, Ramallah • Physics teacher • Unofficial leader of Khaled Mashal • Born in Silwad, Ramallah • Physics teacher • Unofficial leader of Hamas • Represents Hamas Internationally “Our nation is moving forward, and it is in your interest to respect a victorious nation”

Ismail Haniyah • Born January 1963 • Degree in Arabic Literature • Won the Ismail Haniyah • Born January 1963 • Degree in Arabic Literature • Won the Palestinian legislative election of January 2006 • Sworn in as Prime Minister • More Moderate than previous Hamas leaders

Hezbollah Hezbollah

Hezbollah – Party of God - founded in 1982 by Libanese Shia groups - Hezbollah – Party of God - founded in 1982 by Libanese Shia groups - Leader: Hassan Nasrallah - goal: to establish a united Islamic republic - cooperates with Hamas against Israel

Hezbollah – The Party of God – Islamic Jihad (1982) • A. Attacks: • Hezbollah – The Party of God – Islamic Jihad (1982) • A. Attacks: • 1. many attacks in Israel (80’s – 90’s) • 2. US Embassy (1984) • 3. Marine Barracks, Lebanon, 1984 • 4. kidnapping of Americans in Lebanon 1980’s • 5. TWA hijacking – 1985 • 6. Israeli Embassy attack – 1992 • B. Goals: • 1. elimination of Israel, liberation of Jerusalem, and Islamic rule in Lebanon • 2. guidance and assistance to other extremist groups • 3. Independent State of Palestine

 Hezbollah (cont. ) • C. Individuals: • 1. Ideas of the former Ayatollah Hezbollah (cont. ) • C. Individuals: • 1. Ideas of the former Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran) • 2. Sec. Gen. - Hasan Nasrallah of the Consultative Council (ruling body) • • • D. Financing: 1. Iran 2. false charities and humanitarian groups 3. wealthy individuals 4. diplomatic, political, and logistical support from Syria • 5. businesses

The Hezbollah Flag The Hezbollah Flag

The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • Shi’ite beliefs – One of Mohammed’s decedents must return The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • Shi’ite beliefs – One of Mohammed’s decedents must return before God judges humanity – Mohammed’s power flowed through his heirs • Mohammed had twelve direct heirs, or imams, and that the last imam was taken directly to heaven

The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah The birth of Hezbollah – Secular Syrian Ba’athists wanted to The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah The birth of Hezbollah – Secular Syrian Ba’athists wanted to establish control in Lebanon – Lebanon was locked in a multifaceted civil war – Secular Palestinians in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) moved into the Shi’ite areas of southern Lebanon – The Syrians backed the southern Shi’ites in the civil war, pitting the Shi’ites and the Syrians against the PLO – The Israelis invaded Lebanon in 1982 to drive the PLO from the south. – This led to an alliance among Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, secular Syrian Ba’athists, and southern Lebanese Shi’ites – As Shi’ite militias resisted the Israeli invasion, one group began to form in the shadows of the civil war. – It centered around a “nonorganization”- a governing council to share ideas, plans, and money, but designed to disappear and leave – autonomous groups to carry out attacks under a variety of names. They called themselves Hezbollah, or the Party of God

The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • The Umbrella organization of Hezbollah – Overhead, Syrian and The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • The Umbrella organization of Hezbollah – Overhead, Syrian and Iranian money and supplies poured into the movement – Below the umbrella, several Shi’ite cells operated autonomously and received money, weapons, and ideas through hidden channels linked with the spiritual leaders – The leadership formed alliances with two Lebanese Shi’ite groups, Al Dawa and Islamic Amal

The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • Leadership of Hezbollah – Sheik Mohammed Hassan Fadallah » The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • Leadership of Hezbollah – Sheik Mohammed Hassan Fadallah » Charismatic spiritual leader – Abus Musawi » Provided loose connections to Iran – Hassan Nasrallah » Practical miltarist

The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • The developmental phases of Hezbollah – Phase one (1982 The Metamorphosis of Hezbollah • The developmental phases of Hezbollah – Phase one (1982 -1985), the umbrella covered many terrorist groups – After 1985, Hezbollah’s leaders wanted to develop a revolutionary movement similar to that which gripped Iran in 1978 and 1979 – Narsrallah began changing the structure of Hezbollah in 1985 » He established regional centers, transforming them to operational bases between 1987 and 1989 – Hezbollah on the warpath » The marine barracks bombing » Kidnapping campaign in Beirut

The Current State of Hezbollah • • Hezbollah’s tactics – The primary tactic is The Current State of Hezbollah • • Hezbollah’s tactics – The primary tactic is bombing » Suicide bombing » Radio-controlled bombs Hezbollah international – The Supreme Council denies its existence – The international section has cells in several different countries, including the United States, and maintains an extensive international finance ring partially based on smuggling, drugs, and other crimes

Continued Actions of PLO Continued Actions of PLO

The Flag of the Palestinian Liberation Organization The Flag of the Palestinian Liberation Organization

The PLO The PLO

 • The Palestinians, the PLO and most Arab states were furious! It looked • The Palestinians, the PLO and most Arab states were furious! It looked like an Arab nation had broken with the Khartoum Resolution and recognised Israel as an independent state (and therefore dismissed Palestinian Arab claims to their own lands). • 1981 President Sadat was assassinated. Not one of his bodyguards returned fire on the attackers. • There were three US presidents at Sadat’s funeral, and only one Arab leader.

Impact into the 1980 s • Egypt and Israel, by a lot of fighting, Impact into the 1980 s • Egypt and Israel, by a lot of fighting, had found a way to work together. • The Palestinians, PLO, were not prepared to tolerate this and would step up their campaign of attacks from their bases in Lebanon. • Other Arab states looked to take over Egypt’s role as leader of the Arab league; Syria notably, but also Iraq. Attacking Israel was seen as a good way to get Arab unity.

Escalating Violence Escalating Violence

Operation Peace For Galilee from 1982 to 2000 • In June 1982 after a Operation Peace For Galilee from 1982 to 2000 • In June 1982 after a year long ceasefire Israel, without provocation, invaded Lebanon in an attempt to destroy the PLO. It feared the diplomatic progress the PLO was making through maintaining the peace. • During the war 20, 000 Palestinians, Lebanese and Syrians died - around 17, 000 civilians. • Israel remained in occupation of part of Lebanon until 2000. To fight this occupation a new resistance group, the Hezbollah, came into existence.

Sabra and Shatilla in 1982 • • The worst massacre of the Lebanon War Sabra and Shatilla in 1982 • • The worst massacre of the Lebanon War came in September 1982. Approximately 1, 700 Palestinian civilians were murdered in the Sabra and Shatilla Refugee Camps after Ariel Sharon, despite warnings, introduced the Lebanese Christian militia, the Phalangists, into the camps. Israeli soldiers watched the three day massacre; lit up the camp at night; bussed in Phalangist reinforcements; prevented civilians from fleeing and even provided bulldozers to cover up the dead. The UN condemned the massacre as “an act of genocide. ” Israeli PM Menachem Begin denied any responsibility: “Goyim are killing goyim and the whole world is trying to hang Jews for the crime. ”

First Intifada First Intifada

Palestinians continued to resent Israel’s rule over their lands and they began turning increasingly Palestinians continued to resent Israel’s rule over their lands and they began turning increasingly to the P. L. O. (Palestinian Liberation Organization) a militant group fighting an armed struggle for the liberation of Palestine from Israel. T. Loessin; Akins H. S. Yasir Arafat was the leader of the P. L. O. from 1969 – 2004. In 1987 Palestinians began the intifada - a widespread “uprising” with acts of civil disobedience – such as attacking Israeli soldiers, rock throwing, boycotts, demonstrations. By 1991 world pressure led to peace talks again.

Tenuous Peace Intifada • Palestinian youths battled Israeli troops in widespread street violence • Tenuous Peace Intifada • Palestinian youths battled Israeli troops in widespread street violence • Israel responded with military, police resistance; fighting continued to 1990 s • 1993, Arafat, Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin negotiated Oslo Accords • Oslo Accords called for Palestinians to gradually gain control over governing West Bank, Gaza • Israel, PLO supposed to sign permanent peace agreement by 1998 Undermining Peace • Extremists on both sides worked to undermine peace process • Militant group Hamas launched suicide bombings in Israel • 1995, Rabin assassinated; relations between Israeli, Palestinian leadership soured

Intifada. • Intifada: ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ Arabic word stands for shaking off or shivering because of Intifada. • Intifada: ﺍﻧﺘﻔﺎﺿﺔ Arabic word stands for shaking off or shivering because of fear or illness. • It also means abrupt and sudden waking up from sleep or unconcerned status. • Politically; The word came to symbolise the Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation. • The word also stands for the weakness of the Palestinian people and their suffering under the Israeli occupation.

Intifada – “Uprising” In the 1980’s Palestinians began the Intifada, or war of sticks Intifada – “Uprising” In the 1980’s Palestinians began the Intifada, or war of sticks and stones. Israeli soldiers did not know how to react to the Palestinian civilians without looking like bullies.

INTIFADA “ SHAKING OFF” INTIFADA “ SHAKING OFF”

Intifada---1987 to 1993 • First Intifada – 1987 -1993 : Violence moves from organized Intifada---1987 to 1993 • First Intifada – 1987 -1993 : Violence moves from organized to massive civil warfare – Triggered by Palestinian students : boycotting Israeli goods, strikes, graffiti, barricades, planned terrorism, resistance of authorities

INTIFADA • Dec. 1987 -1992 • Civil Disobedience…. Becomes more violent over time • INTIFADA • Dec. 1987 -1992 • Civil Disobedience…. Becomes more violent over time • Hamas: religious faction that competes with PLO (Created in 1988). Hamas wants to preserve the Islamic way of life. • By 1990: 1025 Palestinians dead, 56 Israelis dead.

The Intifada • Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation, living conditions, and to demand independence The Intifada • Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation, living conditions, and to demand independence that begins in 1987. – Includes Palestinian demonstrations, strikes, boycotts, rock throwing and gasoline bombs. • Israeli military response • Over approx. 400 Israelis Killed • Over approx. 1500 Palestinians Killed

The Intifada • In December 1987 the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza The Intifada • In December 1987 the Palestinians of the West Bank and Gaza rose in revolt. • The uprising was unarmed and took the form of civil disobedience, tax strikes, boycotts and non co-operation with collaborators. • Israel responded with a policy of “might, force and beatings. ” • Up to mid 1991 Israel had exiled 69 Palestinian leaders, shot and killed over 600 demonstrators and by 1990 imprisoned 40, 000 Palestinians including many children.

Death…A Part of Life? The 1990’s showed little improvement to the situation. Israeli extremists Death…A Part of Life? The 1990’s showed little improvement to the situation. Israeli extremists were responsible for the Hebron Massacre where 29 Palestinians were killed at a mosque. Another Jewish extremist, angered by peace efforts, assassinated Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin. Palestinian terrorism is also common. Suicide bombings by Palestinian groups attack both civilian and military targets.

Oslo Peace Accords Oslo Peace Accords

Peace Efforts Continued During the 1990’s several advances towards peace were made with several Peace Efforts Continued During the 1990’s several advances towards peace were made with several meetings taking place in places such as Egypt, Spain, the United States, and Norway. 1993 Oslo Accords: Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat and Israel’s Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin met to begin to work out a peace deal that included each side recognizing the right of the other to exist. Rabin assassinated by Jewish extremist in November of 1995

Peace in 1993 • In 1993 Israel and the PLO agreed to embark on Peace in 1993 • In 1993 Israel and the PLO agreed to embark on a peace process. • The PLO renounced terrorism and agreed to recognise Israeli sovereignty over 78% of historic Palestine. • In return the PLO believed that Israel would end its occupation and that the remaining 22% of historic Palestine would become the state of Palestine. • However, Israel gave no guarantees and with the murder of Rabin the peace process effectively died.

CH 34: Section 4 – “The Declaration of Principles” Text p. 905; Packet p. CH 34: Section 4 – “The Declaration of Principles” Text p. 905; Packet p. Ongoing violence associated with the intifada as well as Palestinian civil disobedience led to pressure on Israel. 7. Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Rabin and P. L. O. leader Arafat issue a Declaration of Principles. Rabin promised self-rule for the Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and West Bank. Rabin and Arafat were both awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994.

In the same manner that Sadat had been assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists In the same manner that Sadat had been assassinated in 1981 by Muslim extremists on his side who were angry about his willingness to make peace with Israel… Following the assassination of Egypt’s President Sadat in 1981, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin paid a respectful visit to his memorial. …Israel’s Prime Minister Rabin was also assassinated in 1995 by a right-wing Jewish extremist angry at Rabin’s concessions to the P. L. O. Memorial to Yitzhak Rabin in Tel Aviv, Israel

1993 • Oslo Accords (Declaration of Principles on Interim Self. Government Arrangements) – GOI 1993 • Oslo Accords (Declaration of Principles on Interim Self. Government Arrangements) – GOI and PLO meet, sign accords on September 13, 1993) – Sets up the Palestinian National Authority • Mutual recognition between PNA/State of Israel • Government over the ‘Occupied Territories’ gradually phased over in a period of 5 years to PNA – IDF (Israeli Defense Force) to withdraw from the areas, eventual sovereignty given to PNA – Failed • • Only addressed borders – no status of Jerusalem, refugees No provisions for a permanent Palestinian state OCT still under Israeli military control Cultural violence continues (Israeli anger at Palestinians/vice versa)

Yasser Arafat Yitzhak Rabin Yasser Arafat Yitzhak Rabin

Reflection • Write for three minutes about BOTH of the following questions. – If Reflection • Write for three minutes about BOTH of the following questions. – If you were Israeli, how might you feel about the Intifadas and peace efforts during the 1990’s? – If you were Palestinian, how might you feel about the Intifadas and peace efforts during the 1990’s?