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Appreciative Inquiry by David Chandler Including adapted works of David Cooperrider, Diana Whitney and authors research.
It is a Time for Re-thinking Human Organization & Change “We are at the very point in time when a 400 -year old age is dying and another is struggling to be born, a shifting of culture, science, society, and institutions enormously greater than the world has ever experienced. Ahead, the possibility of the regeneration of relationships, liberty, community, and ethics such as the world has never known. . . “. -Dee Hock
“It is a time for re-thinking human organization and change. Deficit based modalities are increasingly falling short. “And cynicism, about the very idea of planned change, is rampant. ” - David Cooperrider
Historical Evolution of Ai Deficit Perspectives in Key Systems • Business • Education • Politics • Counseling • Religion • Other. . .
4 Common Approaches to Change • Top Down • Bottom up • Representative Cross-Section • Pilot
Typical Results • • “The Few” are Knowledge Rich Univocal: “The Few” convince “the many. ” Partial Responsibility Mindset. Change is a “Disruption of Real Work”. Change is Slow, Sequential, Feedback Adverse Breakdown at Implementation A majority of “culture change efforts” and over one-third of total quality initiatives fail.
3 Perspectives on Human Behavior • The Past • The Present • The Future
2 Problem-Solving Approaches Problem Solving Appreciative Inquiry ! Have Pain ¿ ! Identify Problems ¿ ! Cause Analysis ! Solution Analysis Action Planning “Treatment” ! Metaphor: Organization has PROBLEMS. Valuing “Understand Best of What Exists” Envisioning “What Might Be” ¿ Dialoguing “What Could/Should Be” ¿ Innovating “What Will Be” Metaphor: Organization has SOLUTIONS.
A New Field… And Growing Rapidly • Ph. D. dissertation in 1984 • More than 100 scholarly articles, chapters and books. • At least 3 universities formally teach it. • Leading universities reference it.
Ap-pre’ci-ate, v. , 1. valuing; the act of recognizing the best in people or the world around us; affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; to perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, excellence) to living systems 2. to increase in value, e. g. the economy has appreciated in value. Synonyms: VALUING, PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and HONORING
In-quire’ (kwir), v. , 1. the act of exploration and discovery. 2. to ask question; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities. Synonyms: DISCOVERY, SEARCH, STUDY, and SYSTEMATIC EXPLORATION.
Theoretical Principles of Ai • • Constructionist principle Simultaneity principle Poetic principle Anticipatory principle Growth principle Positive principle Wholeness principle Expansion principle
Power & Appreciative Inquiry • Vocabularies of Human Deficit • Cultural Consequences of Deficit • Effects of Human Deficits
The Ai Organization Summit Guidelines for Success • • “Whole System” in the room. Task is clear Future Focus Self-Management & Dialogue Common Ground 3 -days--100 to 1000 Participants Uncommon Action/Follow Through
4 -Step Cycle Discovery • Strategic Context • Positive Core Destiny Dream • Structure • Purpose • Implement • Vision Design • Relationships & Organization
New Insights • • Holographic Beginning Polyphonic--Multiple Voices Dislodgment of Certainty…Appreciative From Negotiation to Narrative (stories) From Common Ground to Higher Ground Inspired Action on Behalf of the Whole “Chaotic” Organizing
What Matters Most? • Being a student; humble, open, teachable, curious. • The power of unconditional positive question • Our positive images of the future lead our positive actions…words create worlds, nothing so practical. . . • Ai accelerates the non-linear interaction of the positive. • The best in people. . . wholeness heals • Letting go of deficit based change vocabularies. • Ai is not a “thing”, in it’s infancy; still many questions.
Our Inquiry Must Be the Change We Want to See in the World There are two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle. -Albert Einstein
Where to Apply Appreciative Inquiry • • • Religious Groups Community/Municipalities Families Education Government/Political Business
Applying Ai in Religion • United World Religions • Dalai Lama and 20 World Religious Leaders • Inter-Faith Action Teams • Marriage & Parenting Cultures
Applying Ai in Community • City of Chicago • City of Dallas • South Carolina • United Way - Denver
Applying Ai in Business • • Motorola AVON Paine Webber GTE Body Works Hunter Douglas Nutrimental
AVON • Used AI for sexual harassment issues. • Anti-female lawsuits were forthcoming. • Women now make contributions equal to men. • Avon Mexico won the Catalyst Award, an award given to the company in Mexico that has created progress and policies to make their organization a better place for women to work.
PAINE WEBBER • Conflict Among Senior Managers • Merger of two Paine Webber Businesses • Design of Leadership Vision, Characteristics and Critical Competencies.
GTE • Fourth largest U. S. telephone company. • Used Ai to improve relations (culture initiative) • Grassroots & Management = Over 15 million in direct profits in 1996 alone. • IBEW & CWA Union = Unanimous Support • On a moments notice, over 30, 000 employees can do interviews. • GTE Awarded “Best Organizational Change Program in Nation” -ASTD 1998
HUNTER DOUGLAS • International Organization • Use Ai within one plant of 800 employees. • Tremendous response and willing involvement--momentum gaining. • So successful, Ai has spread to other areas: i. e. Appraisals, Strategy, Employee and Supplier Satisfaction Surveys, etc.
NUTRIMENTAL FOODS • Approached Brazilian Economy in a Downturn 18 mos. ago was first Ai. • During a 6 months period, the value of Brazilian stock market had fallen by half. • Companies profits had grown over 400% percent. • Owner attributed it to “Appreciative Inquiry”.
“We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark. “The real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light. ” - Plato
Aspects Ai Can Improve • • • Culture Change Strategy Design “Problem Solving” Improving Quality Product Development Human Conflict (all levels & relationships)
Impacts of Ai in a Case Organization The author (David Chandler) researched AI for the a thesis paper on engaging workers in an organization’s mission and strategies. He collected quantitative and qualitative research from almost 800 employees in a client organization that used AI for whole-system change. A high level results of an AI intervention are shown on the following eight pages. A complete set of data is available from the author at www. tlcsite. com
Good Understanding of Organizations Goals
Commitment to Company Goals
Understand How My Work Fits With Company Goals
High Level of Initiative in My Work
Motivated to be Productive
Innovation and Creativity in my Work
Committed to and Feel Responsible for My Results
“Would you recommend using Ai as a part of significant change efforts? ”