- Количество слайдов: 13
Application of Satellite Data to Fire & Aerosol Monitoring at the NOAA's Satellite and Information Service by Donna Mc. Namara 1, George Stephens 1, Shobha Kondragunta 2, Ana Prados 2, Mark Ruminski 1, and Ken Knapp 3 NOAA/NESDIS/OSDPD/Satellite Services Division 2 NOAA/NESDIS/Office of Research and Applications 3 NOAA/NESDIS/National Climatic Data Center 1
NESDIS Current Applications • Hazard Mapping System (HMS) Fire & Smoke – Automated fire detection algorithms – Analyst quality controlled product • GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP)
Input Layer – WF-ABBA from GOES 1. Dr. Elaine Prins, NOAA/NESDIS Office of Research and Applications/Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the Univ. of Wisconsin. Chris Schmidt chief programmer. • Running Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF -ABBA) developed by Dr. Elaine Prins 1. • Satellite analysts also rely heavily on images from Geostationary satellites. • 15 -minute image repeat cycle allows for rapid detection of hot spots and smoke plumes; animation. • The GOES field of view at nadir is large (4 x 4 km), but the minimum detectable fire size is much smaller.
Input Layer – FIMMA from AVHRR NOAA-16 High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) image from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument, Jan 7, 2004, 1849 GMT, channel 3. Hot spots show up as white. 1. FIMMA originally developed by Dr. Ivan Csiszar, formerly with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at the NOAA/NESDIS Office of Research and Applications; currently with Univ. of Maryland. Conversion to contextual algorithm, based on MODIS algorithm, by Yi Song (RS Info. Systems). • Running Fire Identification Mapping and Monitoring Algorithm, converted to contextual algorithm. • Satellite analysts also view the HRPT (High Resolution Picture Transmission) data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument on polar-orbiting satellites NOAA-15, 16 & 17. • First step in FIMMA is to pass data through navigation correction software. When ground points found, geolocation accuracy approaches 1 km. • Field of view at nadir is 1. 1 km 2.
Input Layer – MODIS • Satellite Services Division receives Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and fire products from NOAA's MODIS Near Real Time Processing System, run by it's sister division – the Information Processing Division 1. • The MODIS instrument flies onboard the NASA TERRA and AQUA satellites, and the fire algorithm was developed by the MODIS Fire and Thermal Anomalies team 2. • Field of view at nadir is 1 km 2 for thermal channels. 1. Gene Legg, NOAA/NESDIS/OSDPD/IPD; Paul Haggerty and K. Spreitzer, STC 2. Dr. Christopher Justice PI, http: //modis-fire. gsfc. nasa. gov/
Data Integration: Hazard Mapping System (HMS) Result – highly accurate picture of hot spots and smoke in all 50 US states. • The HMS is an interactive processing system that allows trained satellite analysts from SSD’s Satellite Analysis Branch to integrate data from various automated fire detection algorithms and imagery. • Suspicious detects from automated layers are deleted. Additional detects seen on imagery are added. • Smoke is manually depicted from visible imagery. • Daily products available in jpg, ASCII, and GIS shape file formats.
HMS Improvements? • Currently just fire and smoke location, and some time information. • Via automated algorithms, would like to add information useful for emissions estimates. • Normally SSD is the organization which would make new remote sensing algorithms and products operational, but organizational changes add level of uncertainty. • Other groups more appropriate to make this product? • If not, will they support NESDIS continuing this role?
GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) Aerosol optical depths over US at high spatial (4 km) and temporal (30 min. ) resolution. • Surface contribution – Obtained by searching for the second darkest pixel in the last 28 days • Atmospheric contribution – Removed by parameterizing Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption • Clouds – Masked using spectral differencing technique developed by Stowe et al. , J. of Atmos. and Ocea. Tech. , 1999 • Aerosol retrieval – Pre-computed look-up tables as a function of surface reflectance, illumination & viewing geometry, and aerosol optical properties For algorithm details see Knapp, JGR, 2002
• Both GOES AOD and PM 2. 5 show pollution to be spatially and temporally variable • GOES AOD intensifies progressively over MD/DE region while PM 2. 5 remain high • GOES AOD low over NY region while PM 2. 5 high
Comparison of GOES and MODIS AOD GOES 1615 Sources of retrieval differences under evaluation. MODIS (Aqua) 1620 Robert Levy, NASA/UMD, Personal Communication
GASP Data Available Online Traditional webpage allows viewing of latest jpg’s and download of geotif’s for current day. ASCII files available by request. Archive coming soon. Geographic Information System (GIS) map server allows interactive mapping of most recent GASP product.
Summary • Use of multiple sensors, algorithms and human intervention yields a unique daily fire and smoke map. • We are operational, 24/7. • Future efforts toward making automated algorithms better and provide information to help emission estimates? Additional acknowledgements: • ORA – Bruce Ramsay • RSIS – Tim Kasheta, Jason Taylor, Tad Franson, Andy Watson, Jerry Guo • IMSG – Tom Callsen • SSD – Davida Streett Jamie Kibler, John Simko, Greg Gallina, Regis Walter, Marlene Patterson