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AP Psychology Learning (Behaviorism) Essential Task: Predict how practice, shaping through successive approximations, schedules of reinforcement (continuous, fixed ratio, variable ration, fixed interval, variable interval), motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic), contingency, and time influence the quality of learning.
Learning The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior Classical Conditioning The type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulus Pavlov and Watson UCS, UCR, CS, CR Operant Conditioning The type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments We are here B. F. Skinner Reinforcement and Punishment Social Cognitive Learning Theory The type of learning in which behaviors are learned by observing a model Albert Bandura Modeling and Vicarious Learning
Essential Task: Outline • Improve quality of operant conditioning – – shaping through successive approximations Contingency Practice and time Schedules of reinforcement • Continuous • Intermittent – – – fixed ratio variable ratio fixed interval variable interval motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) Problems with punishment
Shaping through Successive Approximations • You reinforce the organism as they get closer and closer to the target behavior instead of waiting until they do exactly what you want to reinforce them. • You do not reward the organism if they do not progress toward the target behavior.
Schedules of reinforcement 1. Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs. 2. Intermittent Reinforcement: Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on.
An Example of Continuous Reinforcement • Each instance of a smile is reinforced
Ratio vs. Interval • Ratio Version – having • Interval Version – to do with numbers of having to do with the behavior. passage of time. • Ex. – Reinforce or • Ex. – Reinforce the reward the behavior participant after a set number or x period of x many times that an time that the behavior action or behavior is is displayed. demonstrated.
Fixed-Interval Schedule • Fixed-interval schedule – A schedule in which a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement will occur. • No response during the interval is reinforced. • The first response following the interval is reinforced. • Produces an overall low rate of responding • “Every so often…” • Ex. I get one pellet of food every 5 minutes when I press the lever; day-of-week discounts are another example of this
Fixed Interval Reinforcement
Variable-Interval Schedule • Variable-interval Schedule – A schedule in which a variable amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available. • Produces an overall low consistent rate of responding • “Unpredictably often” • Ex. – I get a pellet of food on average every 5 minutes when I press the bar; checking for email is another example
Variable Interval Reinforcement
Examples • Texting/Social Media • You might check your phone at 9: 00 a. m. and have 5 new messages, at 11: 00 a. m. and have none, and then at 3: 00 p. m. and have 7. As long as you periodically continue to receive messages, your checking behavior will continue; however, this behavior can be influenced by the number of messages received. If you don't receive any messages for 5 days, you may check less often.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule • Fixed-ratio Schedule – A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses. • These schedules usually produce rapid rates of responding with short post-reinforcement pauses • The length of the pause is directly proportional to the number of responses required • “Every so many” • Ex. – For every 5 bar presses, I get one pellet of food; rewards cards are another example
An Example of Fixed Ratio Reinforcement • Every fourth instance of a smile is reinforced
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement
Examples • Reward cards
Variable-Ratio Schedule • Variable-ratio Schedule – A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses. • Produces an overall high consistent rate of responding • “After an unpredictable number” • Ex. – On average, I press the bar 5 times for one pellet of food; slot machines are another example of this
An Example of Variable Ratio Reinforcement • Random instances of the behavior are reinforced
Variable Ratio Reinforcement
TYPE MEANING OUTCOME Fixed Ratio Reinforcement depends on a definite number of responses Activity slows after reinforcement and then picks up Variabl e Ratio Number of responses needed for reinforcement varies Greatest activity of all schedules Fixed Interval Reinforcement depends on a fixed time Activity increases as deadline nears Variabl e Interval Time between reinforcement varies Steady activity results
Comparisons of Schedules of Reinforcement FORM OF REWARD INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE Fixed interval Reward on fixed time basis Leads to average and irregular performance Fast extinction of behavior Fixed ratio Reward tied to specific number of responses Leads quickly to very high and stable performance Moderately fast extinction of behavior Variable interval Reward given after varying periods of time Leads to moderately high and stable performance Slow extinction of behavior Variable ratio Reward given for some behaviors Very slow Leads to very high performance extinction of behavior SCHEDULE EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR
FI, VI, FR, or VR? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. When I bake cookies, I can only put one set in at a time, so after 10 minutes my first set of cookies is done. After another ten minutes, my second set of cookies is done. I get to eat a cookie after each set is done baking. After every 10 math problems that I complete, I allow myself a 5 minute break. I look over my notes every night because I never know how much time will go by before my next pop quiz. When hunting season comes around, sometimes I’ll spend all day sitting in the woods waiting to get a shot at a big buck. It’s worth it though when I get a nice 10 point. Today in Psychology class we were talking about Schedules of Reinforcement and everyone was eagerly raising their hands and participating. Miranda raised her hand a couple of times and was eventually called on. 1. FI 2. FR 3. VI 4. Vi 5. VR
FI, VI, FR, or VR? 6. Madison spanks her son if she has to ask him three times to clean up his room. 7. Emily has a spelling test every Friday. She usually does well and gets a star sticker. 8. Steve’s a big gambling man. He plays the slot machines all day hoping for a big win. 9. Snakes get hungry at certain times of the day. They might watch any number of prey go by before they decide to strike. 10. Mr. Bertani receives a salary paycheck every 2 weeks. (Miss Suter doesn’t ). 11. Christina works at a tanning salon. For every 2 bottles of lotion she sells, she gets 1 dollar in commission. 12. Mike is trying to study for his upcoming Psychology quiz. He reads five pages, then takes a break. He resumes reading and takes another break after he has completed 5 more pages. 6. FR 7. FI 8. VR 9. VI 10. FI 11. FR 12. FR
FI, VI, FR, or VR? 13. Megan is fundraising to try to raise money so she can go on the annual band trip. She goes door to door in her neighborhood trying to sell popcorn tins. She eventually sells some. 14. Kylie is a business girl who works in the big city. Her boss is busy, so he only checks her work periodically. 15. Mark is a lawyer who owns his own practice. His customers makes payments at irregular times. 16. Jessica is a dental assistant and gets a raise every year at the same time and never in between. 17. Andrew works at a GM factory and is in charge of attaching 3 parts. After he gets his parts attached, he gets some free time before the next car moves down the line. 18. Brittany is a telemarketer trying to sell life insurance. After so many calls, someone will eventually buy. 13. VR 14. VI 15. VI 16. FI 17. FR 18. VR
Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
Intrinsic Rewards Outline • "Intrinsic motivation occurs when we act without any obvious external rewards. We simply enjoy an activity or see it as an opportunity to explore, learn, and actualize our potentials. " (Coon & Mitterer, 2010) • "Intrinsic motivation refers to the reason why we perform certain activities for inherent satisfaction or pleasure; you might say performing one of these activities in reinforcing in-and-of itself. " (Brown, 2007)
Punishment • Goal of punishment is to decrease the occurrence of a behavior • Effective punishment – Should occur as soon as possible after the behavior – Should be sufficient, i. e. , strong enough – Should be certain, occurring every time the behavior does – Should be consistent
Punishment Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment (Larzelaere & Baumrind, 2002), it usually leads to negative effects. 1. Results in unwanted fears. 2. Conveys no information to the organism. 3. Justifies pain to others. 4. Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence. 5. Causes aggression towards the agent. 6. Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in place of another.